Marie of Anjou

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Marie of Anjou
Marie d'Anjou.jpg
Queen consort of France
Tenure18 December 1422- 14 July 1461
Born14 October 1404
Angers
Died29 November 1463(1463-11-29) (aged 59)
Abbaye de Chateliers-en-Poitou
Burial
Spouse Charles VII of France
Issue Louis XI of France
Radegonde of Valois
Yolande, Duchess of Savoy
Magdalena, Princess of Viana
Charles, Duke of Berry
Joan, Duchess of Bourbon
Catherine of Valois
House Valois-Anjou
Father Louis II of Anjou
Mother Yolande of Aragon
Religion Roman Catholic

Marie of Anjou (14 October 1404 – 29 November 1463) was Queen of France as the spouse of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461. She served as regent and presided over the council of state several times during the absence of the king. [1]

Charles VII of France 15th-century king of France

Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was King of France from 1422 to his death in 1461, the fifth from the House of Valois.

Contents

Life

Marie was the eldest daughter of Louis II of Anjou, claimant to the throne of Naples, and Yolande of Aragon, claimant to the throne of Aragon. [2]

Louis II of Anjou King of Naples

Louis II was King of Naples from 1389 until 1399, and Duke of Anjou from 1384 until 1417. He was a member of the House of Valois-Anjou.

Yolande of Aragon Infanta of Aragon, titular queen consort of Naples, French noble

Yolande of Aragon was a throne claimant and titular queen regnant of Aragon, titular queen consort of Naples, Duchess of Anjou, Countess of Provence, and regent of Provence during the minority of her son. She was a daughter of John I of Aragon and his wife Yolande of Bar . Yolande played a crucial role in the struggles between France and England, influencing events such as the financing of Joan of Arc's army in 1429 that helped tip the balance in favour of the French. She was also known as Yolanda de Aragón and Violant d'Aragó. Tradition holds that she commissioned the famous Rohan Hours.

Marie was betrothed to her second cousin Charles, son and heir apparent of Charles VI of France, in 1413. [2] The wedding took place on 18 December 1422 at Bourges. [3] The marriage made her Queen of France, but as far as it is known, she was never crowned. [1] Her spouse's victory in the Hundred Years War owed a great deal to the support he received from Marie's family, notably from her mother Yolande of Aragon.

An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.

Charles VI of France 14th/15th-century French king

Charles VI, called the Beloved and the Mad, was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422, the fourth from the House of Valois.

Bourges Prefecture and commune in Centre-Val de Loire, France

Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river. It is the capital of the department of Cher, and also was the capital of the former province of Berry.

Queen

Queen Marie presided over the council of state several times in the absence of the king, during which she had power of attorney as regent and signed acts in the position of "lieutenant of the king" (April 1434). [1] She made several pilgrimages, such as Puy with the king in 1424, and Mount St Michel by herself in 1447.

Marie and Charles had fourteen children, but her spouse's affection was primarily directed towards his mistress, Agnès Sorel, originally Marie's lady in waiting, who became official mistress to the king in 1444 and played a dominant role at court until her death in 1450, somewhat eclipsing the queen. [1]

Agnès Sorel French Royal mistress

Agnès Sorel, known by the sobriquet Dame de beauté, was a favourite, and chief mistress, of King Charles VII of France, by whom she bore four daughters. She is considered the first officially recognized royal mistress. She was the subject of several contemporary paintings and works of art, including Jean Fouquet's Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels.

Robert Blondel composed the allegorical Treatise of the "Twelve Perils of Hell" for queen Marie in 1455.

Queen dowager

In 1461, Charles VII died and was succeeded by their son Louis XI, making Marie queen dowager. She was granted the Chateau of Amboise and the income from Brabant by her son.

During the winter of 1462-63, Marie of Anjou made a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. It has been speculated that she had a mission in Spain as secret ambassador for her son, due to the political situation at the time and the fact that she made the pilgrimage during winter time, when the roads were so bad that such trips were normally avoided if possible.

She died at the age of 59 on 29 November 1463 at the Cistercian Abbaye de Chateliers-en-Poitou (now in Nouvelle-Aquitaine region) on her return. She is buried in the basilica of Saint-Denis alongside her spouse.

Issue

Marie was the mother of fourteen children:

NameBirthDeathNotes
Louis 3 July 142330 August 1483 King of France. Married firstly, Margaret of Scotland, no issue. Married secondly, Charlotte of Savoy, had issue.
John19 September 1426Lived for a few hours.
Radegonde after 29 August 142819 March 1444Betrothed to Sigismund, Archduke of Austria on 22 July 1430.
Catherine after 29 August 142813 July 1446Married Charles the Bold, no issue.
James14322 March 1437Died aged five.
Yolande 23 September 143423/29 August 1478Married Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy, had issue.
Joan 4 May 14354 May 1482Married John II, Duke of Bourbon, no issue.
Philip4 February 143611 June 1436Died in infancy.
MargaretMay 143724 July 1438Died aged one.
Joanna7 September 143826 December 1446Twin of Marie, died aged eight.
Marie7 September 143814 February 1439Twin of Joanna, died in infancy.
Isabella1441Died young.
Magdalena 1 December 144321 January 1495Married Gaston of Foix, Prince of Viana, had issue.
Charles 12 December 144624 May 1472Died without legitimate issue.

Ancestry

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References

Sources

French royalty
Preceded by
Isabeau of Bavaria
Queen consort of France
1422 – 22 July 1461
Succeeded by
Charlotte of Savoy