Mariehamn

Last updated
Mariehamn
Town
Mariehamns stad
Mariehamn.jpg
View of Mariehamn
Maarianhamina.vaakuna.svg
Coat of arms
Maarianhamina.sijainti.suomi.2008.svg
Location of Mariehamn in Finland
Aland location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Mariehamn
Location in Åland
Finland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Mariehamn
Mariehamn (Finland)
Coordinates: 60°06′N019°56′E / 60.100°N 19.933°E / 60.100; 19.933 Coordinates: 60°06′N019°56′E / 60.100°N 19.933°E / 60.100; 19.933
CountryFlag of Finland.svg  Finland
Region Åland
Sub-region Mariehamn
Charter 1861
Government
  MayorBarbara Heinonen
Area
 (2018-01-01) [1]
  Total20.75 km2 (8.01 sq mi)
  Land11.79 km2 (4.55 sq mi)
  Water8.96 km2 (3.46 sq mi)
Area rank 311th largest in Finland
Population
(2019-01-31) [2]
  Total11,775
  Rank 89th largest in Finland
  Density998.73/km2 (2,586.7/sq mi)
Population by native language
[3]
   Swedish 87.7% (official)
   Finnish 5.8%
  Others6.5%
Population by age
[4]
  0 to 1414.8%
  15 to 6467.8%
  65 or older17.4%
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Municipal tax rate [5] 16.5%
Website www.mariehamn.ax

Mariehamn (Finnish : Maarianhamina) is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty. Mariehamn is the seat of the Government and Parliament of Åland, and 40% of the population of Åland live in the city. Like all of Åland, Mariehamn is unilingually Swedish-speaking and around 88% of the inhabitants speak it as their native language. [3]

Finnish language language arising and mostly spoken in Finland, of the Finnic family

Finnish is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. Finnish is one of the two official languages of Finland ; Finnish is also an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both Standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language, a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway by a minority group of Finnish descent.

Finland Republic in Northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Sovereignty concept that a state or governing body has the right and power to govern itself without outside interference

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.

Contents

History

Sodragatan, one of the oldest streets of Mariehamn. MariehamnSodragatan.JPG
Södragatan, one of the oldest streets of Mariehamn.

The town was named after the Russian empress Maria Alexandrovna. Mariehamn was founded in 1861, around the village of Övernäs, in what was at the time part of the municipality of Jomala. The city has since expanded and incorporated more of Jomala territory. Mariehamn was built according to a very regular scheme which is well-preserved. One of the oldest streets is Södragatan where many wooden houses dating from the 19th century can be seen.

Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse) wife of Alexander II of Russia

Maria Alexandrovna, born Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine was Empress of Russia as the first wife of Emperor Alexander II. She was the mother of Emperor Alexander III.

Jomala Municipality in Åland, Finland

Jomala is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland.

Transportation

Harbours

The museum ship Pommern is anchored in the western of Mariehamn's two harbours, Vasterhamn. Pommern2009.JPG
The museum ship Pommern is anchored in the western of Mariehamn's two harbours, Västerhamn.

The city is located on a peninsula. It has two important harbours, one located on the western shore and one on the eastern shore, which are ice-free for nearly the whole year, and have no tides. [6] The Western Harbour is an important international harbour with daily traffic to Sweden, Estonia and mainland Finland. A powerful incentive for Baltic ferries to stop at Mariehamn is that, with respect to indirect taxation, Åland is not part of the EU customs zone and so duty-free goods can be sold aboard. Åland and Mariehamn have a reputable heritage in shipping. The Flying P-Liner Pommern museum ship is anchored in the Western Harbour. The Eastern Harbour features one of the largest marinas in Scandinavia. The famous Dutch steamer Jan Nieveen (now called F.P. von Knorring , after Åland teacher and vicar Frans Peter von Knorring) can also be found here.

Peninsula A piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland

A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such; one can also be a headland, cape, island promontory, bill, point, or spit. A point is generally considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water that is less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a very tight meander is also sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural versions of peninsula are peninsulas and, less commonly, peninsulae.

Sweden constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million of which 2.4 million has a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the southern half of the country.

Estonia Republic in Northern Europe

Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

Airport

Mariehamn airport serves the city; it has scheduled flights on two airlines including Finnair.

Mariehamn Airport airport in Jomala, Åland, Finland

Mariehamn Airport is located in Jomala, Åland. The airport is located some 3 kilometres (2 mi) north-west of Mariehamn town centre. It served 61,568 passengers in 2017 and is operated by the state-owned Finavia.

Finnair is the flag carrier and largest airline of Finland, with its headquarters in Vantaa on the grounds of Helsinki Airport, its hub. Finnair and its subsidiaries dominate both domestic and international air travel in Finland. Its major shareholder is the government of Finland, which owns 55.8% of the shares. Finnair is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance. In 2017, it transported about 12 million passengers to over 100 European, 20 Asian and 7 North American destinations. At the end of 2017, the airline employed 5,918 people.

Culture

Municipal library MariehamnStadsbibliotek.JPG
Municipal library

The city is an important centre for Åland media; both of the local newspapers (Ålandstidningen and Nya Åland), several radio stations and the local TV channels (TV Åland and Åland24) operate out of the city. The islanders are traditionally fond of reading, and had public libraries before 1920. A printing works was established in the town in 1891. [6] The municipal library, which was built in 1989, is one of the most interesting modern buildings.

<i>Ålandstidningen</i> Swedish language newspaper published in Mariehamn, Finland since 1891

Ålandstidningen or Tidningen Åland is a Swedish language newspaper on the Åland Islands, an autonomous region in Finland. It's published six times a week, and is the largest local newspaper on Åland, of the two published .
Tidningen Åland was founded in 1891 by Julius Sundblom, who would later play an instrumental part in the Åland Crisis.

<i>Nya Åland</i> newspaper published in Mariehamn, Åland, Finland

Nya Åland is a Swedish language newspaper on the Åland Islands, an autonomous region in Finland. It is the second largest local newspaper on Åland, following Ålandstidningen.

TV Åland is a privately owned local television channel broadcasting mainly in the urban areas of Åland, an autonomous province of Finland.

Architecture

Saint George's church Mariehamn Church.jpg
Saint George's church

Mariehamn features several buildings drawn by Finnish architect Lars Sonck, who moved to Åland as a child. Buildings drawn by him include the church of Mariehamn (1927), the main building of the Åland Maritime College (1927) and the town hall (1939). Hilda Hongell also designed several buildings, although only a few are still standing.

Lars Sonck Finnish architect

Lars Eliel Sonck was a Finnish architect. He graduated from Helsinki Polytechnic Institute in 1894 and immediately won a major design competition for a church in Turku, St Michael's Church, ahead of many established architects. The church was designed in the prevailing neo-Gothic style. However, Sonck's style would soon go through a dramatic change, in the direction of Art Nouveau and National Romanticism that was moving through Europe at the end of the 19th century. During the 1920s, Sonck would also design a number of buildings in the emerging Nordic Classicism style.

Hilda Hongell architect

Hilda Hongell was the first female "master builder" in Finland, and is sometimes described as the first female architect in Finland although Signe Hornborg appears to deserve this title.

Demographics

A chart on population increase.

Year
Population
1987
9,966
1990
10,263
1997
10,408
2000
10,488
2002
10,632
2004
10,712
2006
10,824
2008
11,005
2009
11,123
2010
11,190
2011
11,262
2012
11,345
2013 (May)
11,446
People with a foreign background [7] [8]
County of originPopulation (2017)
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1,093 (9.55%)
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 173 (1.51%)
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 163 (1.42%)
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 95 (0.83%)
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 92 (0.80%)
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 88 (0.77%)
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 86 (0.75%)
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 73 (0.64%)
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 55 (0.48%)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 45 (0.39%)

Geography

Climate

Mariehamn has a transitional climate between humid continental climate with certain maritime influence as a result of the strong maritime moderation from being an island in the Baltic Sea. This renders summers to be cooler than both the Swedish and Finnish mainlands, with winters being similar in cold to the adjacent coastal part of Sweden but milder than Finland's mainland.

Climate data for Mariehamn normals 1981-2010
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)10.9
(51.6)
10.5
(50.9)
15.4
(59.7)
21.1
(70.0)
26.7
(80.1)
29.4
(84.9)
29.9
(85.8)
30.7
(87.3)
24.8
(76.6)
19.0
(66.2)
14.1
(57.4)
10.1
(50.2)
30.7
(87.3)
Average high °C (°F)0.3
(32.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.3
(36.1)
7.4
(45.3)
13.3
(55.9)
17.2
(63.0)
20.4
(68.7)
19.4
(66.9)
14.7
(58.5)
9.5
(49.1)
4.6
(40.3)
1.7
(35.1)
9.3
(48.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.5
(27.5)
−3.5
(25.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.5
(38.3)
8.5
(47.3)
12.8
(55.0)
16.2
(61.2)
15.3
(59.5)
10.9
(51.6)
6.5
(43.7)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.7
(42.3)
Average low °C (°F)−5.3
(22.5)
−6.6
(20.1)
−4.1
(24.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.7
(38.7)
8.2
(46.8)
11.8
(53.2)
11.1
(52.0)
7.1
(44.8)
3.5
(38.3)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.1
(35.8)
Record low °C (°F)−32.3
(−26.1)
−32.9
(−27.2)
−25.0
(−13.0)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−6.5
(20.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.2
(34.2)
0.5
(32.9)
−6.7
(19.9)
−11.8
(10.8)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−32.9
(−27.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)49.7
(1.96)
31.4
(1.24)
33.4
(1.31)
28.6
(1.13)
33.4
(1.31)
52.3
(2.06)
55.6
(2.19)
75.1
(2.96)
60.0
(2.36)
68.1
(2.68)
66.5
(2.62)
56.5
(2.22)
610.5
(24.04)
Source #1: Météo Climat [9]
Source #2: Météo Climat [10]

Twin towns and sister cities

Mariehamn is twinned with: [11]

Notable person

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References

  1. "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  2. "Suomen virallinen tilasto (SVT): Väestön ennakkotilasto [verkkojulkaisu]" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  3. 1 2 "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  4. "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
  5. "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  6. 1 2 Prothero, G.W. (1920). The Åland Islands. Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section. p. 5.
  7. http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/fi/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__vaerak/statfin_vaerak_pxt_032.px/table/tableViewLayout2/?rxid=726cd24d-d0f1-416a-8eec-7ce9b82fd5a4
  8. http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/fi/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__vaerak/statfin_vaerak_pxt_029.px/?rxid=726cd24d-d0f1-416a-8eec-7ce9b82fd5a4
  9. "Finland climate averages 1981-2010". Météo Climat.
  10. "Extreme values for Jomala Maarianahaminan Lentoansema". Météo Climat. March 19, 2017.
  11. Mariehamns stads vänorter. Accessed July 14, 2015