Marihueñu or Marigueno is a large hill in the Nahuelbuta Range near the coast in the Lota commune of the Bío Bío Region of southern Chile. Its name is from the Mapudungun mari, "ten" and huenu, "heights". This height was within the Moluche aillarehue of Marigueno that lay between the Pacific Ocean and the lower reaches of the Biobío River north of the aillarehues of Arauco and Catirai. It was an important location during the Arauco War because it overlooked the coastal route to Araucanía from Concepción. The place is located on the coast to the south of Lota between Lota and Laraquete. It is bounded to the north by the valley of Colcura and to the south by the valley of Chivilingo.
These heights were the site of the 1554 Battle of Marihueñu, the victory of Lautaro over Governor Francisco de Villagra. For this reason it became known to the Spanish as the "Cuesta de Víllagra" (Hill of Víllagra) or "Cerro Villagrán" (Villagrán Hill). It was the site of several other similar battles before Alonso de Sotomayor built a fort on the heights in 1589. Later the Moluche captured the fort and in another battle in 1591 Governor Sotomayor captured the fort at its summit and killed the Toqui Quintuguenu.
|This Bío Bío Region location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Cañete is a city and commune in Chile, located in the Arauco Province of the Biobío Region. It is located 135 km to the south of Concepción. Cañete is known as a "Historic City" as it is one of the oldest cities in country. The Battle of Tucapel and Pedro de Valdivia's death happened near the city's current location. Cañete was also an important location in the Arauco War.
The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía. The conflict begun at first as a reaction to the Spanish conquest attempt establishing cities and forcing Mapuches into servitude. It subsequently evolved over time into phases of low intensity warfare, drawn-out sieges, slave-hunting expeditions, pillaging raids, punitive expeditions and renewed Spanish attempts to secure lost territories. Abduction of women and war rape was common on both sides.
Pedro de Villagra y Martínez was a Spanish soldier who participated in the conquest of Chile, being appointed its Royal Governor between 1563 and 1565.
Alonso de Sotomayor y Valmediano was a Spanish conquistador from Extremadura, and a Royal Governor of Chile.
La Frontera is the name given to a geographical region in Chile. La Frontera can denote either the area just around Bío Bío River or the whole area between the Bío Bío and Toltén River being in this later definition largely coterminous with the historical usage of Araucanía.
Tucapel is a town and commune in the Arauco Province, Bío Bío Region, Chile. It was once a region of Araucanía named for the Tucapel River. The name of the region derived from the rehue and aillarehue of the Moluche people of the area between the Lebu and the Lleulleu Rivers, who were famed for their long resistance to the Spanish in the Arauco War. Tucapel is also the name of a famous leader from that region in the first resistance against the Spanish mentioned in Alonso de Ercilla's epic poem La Araucana. Formerly belonging to the Nuble Province, in the Department of Yungay. Near the town of Tucapel is the Plaza de San Diego de Tucapel. The capital of the commune is the town of Huépil, moving the municipality from Tucapel in 1967. In mapudungún its name means "To seize or to take by force".
Arauco is a city and commune in Chile, located in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region. The meaning of Arauco means Chalky Water in Mapudungun. The region was a Moluche aillarehue. The Spanish settlements founded here during the Conquest of Chile were destroyed on numerous occasions by the Mapuche during the Arauco War.
Battle of Marihueñu was one of the early decisive battles of the Arauco War between the Mapuche leader Lautaro and the Spanish general Francisco de Villagra on 23 February 1554.
Andalicán during the era of conquest and colonial times in Chile was the name of the high hill in the middle of two ravines and site of a fortress built by the Mapuche in 1557 to prevent García Hurtado de Mendoza from invading La Araucanía north of Marihueñu and the valley of Colcura. This height overlooks the location of the modern city of Lota in Concepción Province of the Bío Bío Region of Chile.
Melirupu is a place in Arauco Province that is 12 kilometers to the Southwest of Arauco in the direction of Quiapo. It was a small village of about 300 inhabitants in the late 19th century the surrounding land had the same name. The Mapudungun name, formed of meli and the alteration of rypy, means "four ways", it later became known as Millarupu "gold way", and was corrupted into Millarapu or Millarapue or Melirupo.
The Battle of Lagunillas was a battle in the Arauco War on November 8, 1557, between the army of García Hurtado de Mendoza and the Mapuche army near some shallow lakes a league south of the Bio-Bio River.
Aillarehue or Ayllarehue ; a confederation of rehues or family-based units (lof) that dominated a region or province. It was the old administrative and territorial division of the Mapuche, Huilliche and the extinct Picunche people. Aillarehue acted as a unit only on special festive, religious, political and especial military occasions. Several aillarehues formed the Butalmapu, the largest military and political organization of the Mapuche.
'Loble, also known as Lig-lemu or Lillemu,(d. ca. 1565) was the Mapuche vice-toqui of the Moluche north of the Bio-Bio River who led the second Mapuche revolt during the Arauco War.
Pilmaiquén or Pilmayquen is a riachuelo in the commune of Cañete in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region of Chile that flows southwest towards the coast of the Pacific Ocean, to the northwest of the city of Cañete. Its course is short but of great volume and traverses a small valley between wooded mountainous areas where it joins the Licauquén River. This valley was a Moluche rehue of the Tucapel aillarehue and the homeland of the Toqui Caupolicán who commanded the Mapuche in the first revolt against domination by the Spanish Empire.
Alonso de Reinoso (1518–1567) was a Spanish Conquistador in Honduras, Mexico, Peru and Chile. He was born in Torrijos Toledo, Spain in 1518. He was married to Catalina Flores de Riofrío before he came to the Americas in 1535.
Cayucupil is a valley, a hamlet and a riachuelo or small river in the vicinity of Cañete, Chile of the Arauco Province of the Bío Bío Region that has its origin in the western foothills of the Nahuelbuta Mountains, to the east of that city. It runs to the southwest from among broken and mountainous land, and then to the west through more level ground to join with the Tucapel River about five kilometers to southwest of the site that the original city of Cañete occupied. In its upper part is a passage that traverses the mountain range. Its name derives from the Mapudungun cayu six and quypil, frame of a house. It was a Moluche rehue of the Tucapel aillarehue.
Guanoalca was the Mapuche toqui (leader) elected in 1586 following the death in battle of the previous toqui, Cadeguala, killed in a duel with the garrison commander of the Spanish fort at Purén in 1586. He returned to continue the siege and forced the Spanish to evacuate the fort, which he then destroyed.
Bay of Arauco or Bahia de Araucan, is a bay located on the coast of the Arauco Province, of the Bío Bío Region of Chile. The bay, is between the mountains of the Nahuelbuta Range to the east and to the west the Santa Maria Island and northwest the Pacific Ocean. It is south and west of the Bay of Concepción and north of Arauco. The Bio Bio River flows into the bay at its northern end 10 km west of the city of Concepcion. On its shores are the cities of Lota, Colonel and Arauco.
Fort Colcura was a small fort that was the first Spanish settlement that existed in the commune of Lota, Chile. It was on a small height on the edge of the Bay of Arauco, a little more than two kilometers to the southeast of the modern city of Lota. From its position it dominated the north slope of cerro Marihueñu and the valley of Colcura in whose extreme west is the mouth of the riachuelo Colcura that empties into the cove of Colcura. This place was established as a small fort at the start of the conquest, and was several times destroyed by the Moluches and repaired. Following the Mapuche Uprising of 1598 it was rebuilt again in 1602 by governor Alonso de Ribera. After the Mapuche Insurrection of 1655, Pedro Porter Casanate built a new fortress of San Miguel Arcángel de Colcura on the same site in 1662.
Jesus de Huenuraquí was a Spanish fort on heights to the north of the north bank of the Bio Bio River, next to the site of the modern rail station of Huenuraquí, in the commune of San Rosendo. It is eight kilometers west of San Rosendo and ten kilometers south of the town of Rere, Chile.