Last updated

Marimba One 4000 Series.jpg
A 5 octave marimba made by Marimba One
Percussion instrument
Classification Keyboard percussion
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 111.212
(Set of percussion sticks)
DevelopedMexico in the late 19th century (modern marimba)
Playing range
Marimba range.svg
Related instruments
See list of marimbists
See list of marimba manufacturers

The marimba ( /məˈrɪmbə/ ) is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars that are struck by mallets. Below each bar is a resonator pipe that amplifies particular harmonics of its sound. Compared to the xylophone, the timbre of the marimba is warmer and more pure. It also tends to have a lower range than that of a xylophone. Typically, the bars of a marimba are arranged chromatically, like the keys of a piano. The marimba is a type of idiophone.


Today, the marimba is used as a solo instrument, or in ensembles like orchestras, marching bands (typically as a part of the front ensemble), percussion ensembles, brass and concert bands, and other traditional ensembles.

Etymology and terminology

An array of named instruments in the Kongo Kingdom by Girolamo Merolla da Sorrento (1692). Instruments de musique des Congolais, gravure extraite de Girolamo Merolla da Sorrento.jpg
An array of named instruments in the Kongo Kingdom by Girolamo Merolla da Sorrento (1692).

The term marimba refers to both the traditional version of this instrument and its modern form. Its first documented use in the English language dates back to 1704. [1] The term is of Bantu origin, deriving from the prefix ma- meaning 'many' and -rimba meaning 'xylophone'. The term is akin to Kikongo and Swahili marimba or malimba. [2]



Marimba players in Africa Women with Water-Pots, Listening to the Music of the Marimba, Sansa, and Pan's Pipes.jpg
Marimba players in Africa

Instruments like the marimba are present throughout the entirety of subsaharan Africa. [3] The instrument Itself is most similar and shares its name with the marimbas of modern-day Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. [4] Although it is also similar to instruments that exist in West Africa such as the balafon of the Mandinka people, known as gyil among the Gur peoples in and around northern Ghana and Burkina Faso. [5]

Central America

"The Marimba" from "The Capitals of Spanish America" (1888) The Marimba (1888).jpg
"The Marimba" from "The Capitals of Spanish America" (1888)

The marimba is popular throughout Central America, with its popularity spreading from southern Mexico to Nicaragua. The first historical account in Central America is from 1550 where enslaved Africans in Guatemala are reported playing it. By 1680 accounts of Maya musicians using marimbas with gourd resonator were made in Guatemala. It became more widespread during the 18th and 19th centuries, as Maya and Ladino ensembles started using it on festivals. In 1821, the marimba was proclaimed the national instrument of Guatemala in its independence proclamation. [6]

South America

A watercolor of marimbas by Manuel Maria Paz from the Province of Barbacoas in Colombia (1853). Manuel Maria Paz (watercolor 9040, 1853 CE).png
A watercolor of marimbas by Manuel María Paz from the Province of Barbacoas in Colombia (1853).

Marimba's second range of popularity in Latin America is in the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. [7] The instruments were brought there via the African diaspora and their cultural significance has survived to the present day. [8] The Afro-Latino communities that take part in preserving and playing it value its importance as a touchstone of their resilience. [9]

Afro-Colombian youth playing the marimba de chonta Colombian Police (6904573755).jpg
Afro-Colombian youth playing the marimba de chonta

In Colombia the most widespread marimba is the marimba de chonta (peach-palm marimba). Marimba music has been listed on UNESCO as an intangible part of Colombian culture. [10] In recent times marimberos (marimba players) and the marimba genres as a whole have started to fade out in popularity. [8] Nonetheless, the genre is still popular in the departments of Chocó and Cauca. [11]

An example of the Afro-Ecuadorian marimba esmeraldena Esmeraldian (Afro-Ecuadorian) marimba.jpg
An example of the Afro-Ecuadorian marimba esmeraldeña

In Ecuador the most widespread marimba is the marimba esmeraldeña (Esmeralda marimba). [12] Marimbas are an important aspect of Afro-Ecuadorian culture: many religious ceremonies and songs are accompanied with marimba music along with festivals and dances. [12] It is most popular in the province of Esmeraldas where in the 16th century Alonso de Illescas, a maroon, found a maroon settlement near the area around modern day Esmeraldas. In that province, it evokes a sense of pride for the community in which years centuries marimba music has been prohibited after government encroachment upon the Esmeraldas province. [13]


A marimba player on the streets of New Orleans, Louisiana during Mardi Gras. MarimbaTimeOnFrenchmenMardiGras2009.JPG
A marimba player on the streets of New Orleans, Louisiana during Mardi Gras.

Marimbas have become widely popular around the world being used throughout Africa, South East Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Central America. [14]

In 1850, Mexican marimbist Manuel Bolán Cruz (1810-1863), modified the old bow marimba, by the wooden straight one, lengthening the legs so that the musicians could play in a standing mode, expanded the keyboard and replaced the gourd resonators by wooden boxes.

In 1892, Mexican musician Corazón de Jesús Borras Moreno  [ es ] expanded marimba to include the chromatic scale by adding another row of sound bars, akin to black keys on the piano. [15]

The name marimba was later applied to the orchestra instrument inspired by the Latin American model. In the United States, companies like J.C. Deagan and the Leedy Manufacturing Company company adapted the Latin American instruments for use in western music. Metal tubes were used as resonators, fine-tuned by rotating metal discs at the bottom; lowest note tubes were U-shaped. The marimbas were first used for light music and dance, such as vaudeville theater and comedy shows. Clair Omar Musser was a chief proponent of marimba in the United States at the time.

French composer Darius Milhaud introduced marimbas into Western classical music with his 1947 Concerto for Marimba and Vibraphone. Four-mallet grip was employed to play chords, enhancing interest for the instrument. [16] In the late 20th century, modernist and contemporary composers found new ways to use marimba: notable examples include Leoš Janáček ( Jenufa ), Carl Orff ( Antigonae ), Karl Amadeus Hartmann, Hans Werner Henze ( Elegy for Young Lovers ), Pierre Boulez ( Le marteau sans maître ) and Steve Reich.


Folk and popular marimba Marimba tlaquepaque.jpg
Folk and popular marimba


Marimba bars are typically made of either wood or synthetic material. Rosewood is the most desirable, while Padauk is a popular affordable alternative. Bars made from synthetic materials generally fall short in sound quality in comparison to wooden bars, but are less expensive and yield added durability and weather resistance, making them suitable for outdoor use; marimbas with wooden bars are usually played inside because the bars are susceptible to pitch change due to weather. Bubinga (Guibourtia demeusei) and mahogany have also been cited as comparable to rosewood in quality for use as marimba bars. The specific rosewood, Dalbergia stevensonii, only grows in Southern Guatemala and Belize, formerly the British Honduras. [17] This wood has a Janka rating of 2200, which is about three times harder than Silver Maple. The bars are wider and longer at the lowest pitched notes, and gradually get narrower and shorter as the notes get higher. During the tuning, wood is taken from the middle underside of the bar to lower the pitch. Because of this, the bars are also thinner in the lowest pitch register and thicker in the highest pitch register.

In Africa, most marimbas are made by local artisans from locally available materials.

Marimba bars produce their fullest sound when struck just off center, while striking the bar in the center produces a more articulate tone. On chromatic marimbas, the accidentals (black keys) can also be played on the extreme front edge of the bar, away from the node (the place where the string goes through the bar) if necessary. Playing on the node produces a sonically weak tone, and the technique is only used when the player or composer is looking for a muted sound from the instrument.

Contrabass marimba: range of G1-G3 Contra Bass Marimba from Emil Richards Collection.jpg
Contrabass marimba: range of G1–G3
Bass marimba: range of C2-F3 Bass Marimba from Emil Richards Collection.jpg
Bass marimba: range of C2–F3


There is no standard range of the marimba, but the most common ranges are 4.3 octaves, 4.5 octaves and 5 octaves; 4, 4.6 and 5.5 octave sizes are also available.

The range of the marimba has been gradually expanding, with companies like Marimba One adding notes up to F above the normal high C (C7) on their 5.5 octave instrument and marimba tuners adding notes lower than the low C on the 5 octave C2. Adding lower notes is somewhat impractical; as the bars become bigger and the resonators become longer, the instrument must be taller and the mallets must be softer in order to produce a tone rather than just a percussive attack. Adding higher notes is also impractical because the hardness of the mallets required to produce the characteristic tone of a marimba are much too hard to play with in almost any other, lower range on the instrument.

The marimba is a non-transposing instrument with no octave displacement, unlike the xylophone which sounds one octave higher than written and the glockenspiel which sounds two octaves higher than written.

PVC resonators Marimba resonators.jpg
PVC resonators


Part of the key to the marimba's rich sound is its resonators. These are tubes (usually aluminum) that hang below each bar.

In the most traditional versions, various sizes of natural gourds are attached below the keys to act as resonators; in more sophisticated versions carved wooden resonators are substituted, allowing for more precise tuning of pitch. In Central America and Mexico, a hole is often carved into the bottom of each resonator and then covered with a delicate membrane taken from the intestine of a pig to add a characteristic "buzzing" or "rattling" sound known as charleo. [18] In more contemporary-style marimbas, wood is replaced by PVC tubing. The holes in the bottoms of the tubes are covered with a thin layer of paper to produce the buzzing noise.

The length of the resonators varies according to the frequency that the bar produces. Vibrations from the bars resonate as they pass through the tubes, which amplify the tone in a manner very similar to the way in which the body of a guitar or cello would. In instruments exceeding 4+12 octaves, the length of tubing required for the bass notes exceeds the height of the instrument. Some manufacturers, such as DeMorrow and Malletech, compensate for this by bending the ends of the tubes. This involves soldering smaller straight sections of tubes to form "curved" tubes. Both DeMorrow and Malletech use brass rather than aluminium. Others, such as Adams and Yamaha, expand the tubes into large box-shaped bottoms, resulting in the necessary amount of resonating space without having to extend the tubes. This result is achieved by the custom manufacturer Marimba One by widening the resonators into an oval shape, with the lowest ones reaching nearly a foot in width, and doubling the tube up inside the lowest resonators—a process known as "Haskelling", originally used in pipe organ resonators, and named for its inventor, William E. Haskell.

Resonator tuning involves adjusting "stops" in the tubes themselves to compensate for temperature and humidity conditions in the room where the instrument is stored. Some companies offer adjustment in the upper octaves only. Others do not have any adjustable stops. Still some companies (Malletech and DeMorrow) offer full range adjustable stops.

On many marimbas, decorative resonators are added to fill the gaps in the accidental resonator bank. In addition to this, the resonator lengths are sometimes altered to form a decorative arch, such as in the Musser M-250. This does not affect the resonant properties, because the end plugs in the resonators are still placed at their respective lengths.


An example of the mallets used when playing a marimba. Miami-Dade County Public Schools - Flickr - Knight Foundation (2).jpg
An example of the mallets used when playing a marimba.

The mallet shaft is commonly made of wood, usually birch, but may also be rattan or fiberglass. The most common diameter of the shaft is around 8 mm (14 in). Shafts made of rattan have a certain elasticity to them, while birch has almost no give. Professionals use both depending on their preferences, whether they are playing with two mallets or more, and which grip they use if they are using a four-mallet grip.

Appropriate mallets for the instrument depend on the range. The material at the end of the shaft is almost always a type of rubber, usually wrapped with yarn. Softer mallets are used at the lowest notes, and harder mallets are used at the highest notes. Mallets that are too hard will damage the instrument, and mallets that might be appropriate for the upper range could damage the notes in the lower range (especially on a padouk or rosewood instrument). On the lower notes, the bars are larger, and require a softer mallet to bring out a strong fundamental. Because of the need to use varying hardnesses of mallets, some players, when playing with four or more mallets, might use graduated mallets to match the bars that they are playing (softer on the left, harder on the right).

Some mallets, called "two-toned" or "multi-tonal", have a hard core, loosely wrapped with yarn. These are designed to sound articulate when playing at a loud dynamic, and broader at the quieter dynamics.

Mallet technique

Modern marimba music calls for simultaneous use of between two and four mallets (sometimes up to six or eight), granting the performer the ability to play chords or music with large interval skips more easily. Multiple mallets are held in the same hand using any of a number of techniques or "grips". For two mallets in each hand, the most common grips are the Burton grip (made popular by Gary Burton), the Traditional Grip (or "cross grip") and the Musser-Stevens grip (made popular by Leigh Howard Stevens). Each grip is perceived to have its own benefits and drawbacks. For example, some marimbists feel the Musser-Stevens grip is more suitable for quick interval changes and mallet independence, while the Burton grip is more suitable for stronger playing or switching between chords and single-note melody lines. The Traditional Grip gives a greater dynamic range and freedom of playing. The choice of grip varies by region (the Musser-Stevens grip and the Burton grip are more popular in the United States, while the traditional grip is more popular in Japan), by instrument (the Burton grip is less likely to be used on marimba than on a vibraphone) and by the preference of the individual performer.[ citation needed ]

Six-mallet grips consist of variations on these three grips. Six mallet marimba grips have been used for years by Mexican and Central American marimbists, but they are generally considered non-standard in the Western classical canon. Keiko Abe has written a number of compositions for six mallets, including a section in her concerto Prism Rhapsody. Other marimbists/composers using this technique include Rebecca Kite (who commissioned composer Evan Hause to write Circe, a major work for six mallets, in 2001), Dean Gronemeier, Robert Paterson, and Kai Stensgaard. Paterson's grip is based on the Burton grip, and his grip and technique have been called the Paterson grip, and even the Wolverine grip. Paterson states that his technique differs from others in that there is less emphasis places on block chords on the lower bank of notes (the naturals or white notes) and more emphasis on independence, one-handed rolls, and alternations between mallets 12-3 or 1–23 in the left hand (or 45-6 or 4–56 in the right hand, respectively), and so on. Ludwig Albert published at first a work for 8 mallets and demonstrated the Ludwig Albert 8 mallet grip based on the traditional grip from 1995.[ citation needed ]


A marimba player for the NDR Radiophilharmonie MarimbaPlayer.jpg
A marimba player for the NDR Radiophilharmonie

The marimba is a standard member of the orchestral percussion section.


The first solo marimba concerto, Concertino for Marimba, was composed by Paul Creston in 1940, after a commission by Frédérique Petrides. The Concertino for Marimba premiered on 29 April 1940 in Carnegie Hall with marimba soloist Ruth Stuber Jeanne and the Orchestrette Classique. [19]

The Oregon Symphony Orchestra commissioned Tomáš Svoboda to compose Concerto for Marimba and Orchestra, Op. 148, in 1995, which it recorded in 2003, conducted by James DePreist with Niel DePonte on marimba. The recording was nominated for the 2003 Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with orchestra).[ citation needed ]


The marimba is the most popular solo keyboard percussion instrument in classical music. Popular marimba solos range from beginner solos such as Yellow After the Rain and Sea Refractions by Mitchell Peters to more advanced works such as "Variations on Lost Love" by David Maslanka and "Rhythmic Caprice" by Leigh Howard Stevens. [20]

Folk marimba with gourds, Highland Guatemala GuatemalanMarimbaGourds.JPG
Folk marimba with gourds, Highland Guatemala

Traditional marimba bands are especially popular in Guatemala, where they are the national symbol of culture, but are also strongly established in the Mexican states of Chiapas, Tabasco, and Oaxaca. They are also very popular in other Central American nations such as Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, as well as among Afro-Ecuadorians and Afro-Colombians.[ citation needed ]

There have been numerous jazz vibraphonists who also played the marimba. Notable among them are Gary Burton, David Friedman, Stefon Harris, Bobby Hutcherson, Joe Locke, Steve Nelson, Red Norvo, Dave Pike, Gloria Parker, Dave Samuels, and Arthur Lipner.[ citation needed ]

Marimbist and vibraphonist Julius Wechter was the leader of a popular 1960s Latin-flavored band called Baja Marimba Band. Herb Alpert and his Tijuana Brass made frequent use of the marimba.[ citation needed ]

Ruth Underwood played an electrically amplified marimba in Frank Zappa's The Mothers of Invention. [21]

The marimba sound has also become recognizable through its role as the default ringtone in Apple's iOS mobile operating system.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Percussion instrument</span> Type of musical instrument that produces a sound by being hit

A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles struck, scraped or rubbed by hand or struck against another similar instrument. Excluding zoomusicological instruments and the human voice, the percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xylophone</span> Wooden keyboard percussion instrument

The xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Like the glockenspiel, the xylophone essentially consists of a set of tuned wooden keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vibraphone</span> Mallet percussion instrument

The vibraphone is a percussion instrument in the metallophone family. It consists of tuned metal bars and is typically played by using mallets to strike the bars. A person who plays the vibraphone is called a vibraphonist,vibraharpist, or vibist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Glockenspiel</span> Mallet percussion instrument

The glockenspiel or bells is a percussion instrument. It consists of pitched aluminum or steel bars arranged in a keyboard layout. This makes the glockenspiel a type of metallophone, similar to the vibraphone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xylorimba</span>

The xylorimba is a pitched percussion instrument similar to an extended-range xylophone with a range identical to some 5-octave celestas or 5-octave marimbas, though typically an octave higher than the latter. Despite its name, it is not a combination of a xylophone and a marimba; its name has been a source of confusion, as many composers have called for a 'xylorimba', including Alban Berg, Pierre Boulez and Olivier Messiaen, but for parts requiring only a four-octave xylophone(Blades and Holland n.d.). However, Pierre Boulez wrote for two five-octave xylorimbas in Pli selon pli(Blades and Holland n.d.).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Music of Guatemala</span> Music and musical traditions of Guatemala

The music of Guatemala is diverse. Music is played all over the country. Towns also have wind and percussion bands that play during the lent and Easter-week processions as well as on other occasions. The marimba is an important instrument in Guatemalan traditional songs. The oldest documented use of marimba in the Americas dates to 1680 during celebrations at Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Percussion mallet</span> Object used to strike or beat a percussion instrument

A percussion mallet or beater is an object used to strike or beat a percussion instrument in order to produce its sound.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Keiko Abe</span> Japanese composer and marimba player

Keiko Abe is a Japanese composer and marimba player. She has been a primary figure in the development of the marimba, in terms of expanding both technique and repertoire, and through her collaboration with the Yamaha Corporation, developed the modern five-octave concert marimba.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leigh Howard Stevens</span>

Leigh Howard Stevens is a marimba artist best known for developing, codifying, and promoting the Stevens technique or Musser-Stevens grip, a method of independent four-mallet marimba performance based on the Musser grip.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Front ensemble</span>

In a marching band, drum and bugle corps, or indoor percussion ensemble, the front ensemble or pit is the stationary percussion ensemble. This ensemble is typically placed in front of the football field, though some designers may use atypical layouts. Some high school marching bands opt not to march any percussion instruments but instead have a "full" front ensemble.

Stevens grip is a technique for playing keyboard percussion instruments with four mallets developed by Leigh Howard Stevens. While marimba performance with two, four, and even six mallets had been done for more than a century, Stevens developed this grip based on the Musser grip, looking to expanded musical possibilities. Stevens codified his grip and his approach to performance techniques developed during his studies at the Eastman School of Music in his 1979 book, Method of Movement for Marimba. In this book, Stevens explains that his grip is an evolution of the Musser grip, and it is sometimes called the Musser-Stevens grip.

The glass marimba is a type of idiophone also known as a vitrephone or crystallophone. Marimba translates to "a xylophone-like instrument" from an African language, probably Bantu. The glass keys are made of either hard glass or soft glass. The keys are resonated with either a single open top box or individual resonators for each key. Mallets used to play the marimba can be constructed using a compressed silicone ball attached to one end of a wooden or synthetic dowel. These mallets bring out the purest sound from glass marimba. Other types of mallets are used for different effects. The tuning system of a glass marimba can be whatever is desired. Glass marimbas are utilised by the Brazilian percussion ensemble, Uakti.

Vida Chenoweth was a solo classical marimbist, an ethnomusicologist, and a linguist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Roneat ek</span> Musical instrument

The Roneat Ek or Roneat Aek is a xylophone used in the Khmer classical music of Cambodia. It is built in the shape of a curved, rectangular shaped boat. It has twenty-one thick bamboo or hard wood bars that are suspended from strings attached to the two walls. They are cut into pieces of the same width, but of different lengths and thickness. Originally these instruments were highly decorated with inlay and carvings on the sides of the sound box. Now they are simpler. The Roneat is played in the Pinpeat ensemble. In that ensemble, sits on the right of the Roneat Thung, a lower-pitched xylophone. The roneat ek is the analogous equivalent to the Thai xylophone called ranat ek, and the Burmese bamboo xylophone called "pattala".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Roneat thung</span> A low-pitched xylophone

The roneat thung or roneat thum is a low-pitched xylophone used in the Khmer classical music of Cambodia. It is built in the shape of a curved, rectangular shaped boat. This instrument plays an important part in the Pinpeat ensemble. The roneat Thung is placed on the left of the roneat ek, a higher-pitched xylophone. The Roneat Thung is analogous to the ranat thum of Thai.

Clair Omar Musser (1901–1998) was a marimba virtuoso, a conductor and promoter of marimba orchestras, a composer, a teacher, a designer of keyboard percussion instruments, an inventor, and an engineer for Hughes Aircraft.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Keyboard percussion instrument</span>

A keyboard percussion instrument, also known as a bar or mallet percussion instrument, is a pitched percussion instrument arranged in a similar pattern to a piano keyboard and played with hands or percussion mallets. While most keyboard percussion instruments are fully chromatic, keyboard instruments for children, such as ones used in the Orff Schulwerk, may be diatonic or pentatonic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flapamba</span> Wooden keyboard percussion instrument

The flapamba is a musical instrument in the percussion family. It consists of tuned wooden bars pinched on one side over the node and mounted over resonator boxes. Sliding the bars slightly forward or backward affects their tuning. Unlike the marimba or xylophone, the sound is not as focused tonally. It is a bit more percussive, sounding closer to tuned log drums.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Instruments by Harry Partch</span>

The American composer Harry Partch (1901-1974) composed using scales of unequal intervals in just intonation, derived from the natural Harmonic series; these scales allowed for more tones of smaller intervals than in the standard Western tuning, which uses twelve equal intervals. One of Partch's scales has 43 tones to the octave. To play this music, he built many unique instruments, with names such as the Chromelodeon, the Quadrangularis Reversum, and the Zymo-Xyl.


  1. "Definition of MARIMBA". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  2. "marimba | Origin and meaning of marimba by Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  3. "The origins of the Marimba:The birth of the marimba - Musical Instrument Guide - Yamaha Corporation". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  4. Nelo, Manuel Neto Matos Osório; Assunção Soares, Armando; Catarino, Paula (2017). "Etnomatemática da Marimba: instrumento etnográfico da provincia de Malanje em Angola". Revista Latinoamericana de Etnomatemática (in Portuguese). 10 (1): 6–20.
  5. Jessup, Lynne (1983). The Mandinka Balafon: An Introduction with Notation for Teaching. Art Path Press. p. 3. ISBN   978-0-916421-04-5.
  6. "The Marimbas of Guatemala". The Concise Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. 11 January 2013. p. 241. ISBN   9781136095702.
  7. "UNESCO - Marimba music, traditional chants and dances from the Colombia South Pacific region and Esmeraldas Province of Ecuador". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  8. 1 2 Kraul, Chris (30 November 2010). "Colombia works to keep marimba traditions alive". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  9. Johnson, Catalina Maria (7 July 2017). "Rio Mira's 'Román Román' Tells A People's History Through The Marimba". NPR . Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  10. "Marimba UNESCO". Retrieved 29 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. "Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  12. 1 2 "Marimba, importance in Ecuador".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. "Marimba origin Ecuador". Retrieved 29 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. "Marimba | musical instrument". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  15. "La marimba, madera que también cambia". Noticiasnet.
  16. "Marimba > History". Vienna Symphonic Orchestra.
  17. Moore, James (1978). Acoustics of Bar Percussion Instruments. Columbus, OH: Per-Mus Publications. p. 17.
  18. Chenowith, Vida. The Marimbas of Guatemala., quoted in Squyres, Danielle (2 January 2002). "The Marimba, Xylophone and Orchestra Bells". Mechanical Music Digest Archives. Retrieved 6 December 2006.
  19. Conklin, M. Christine (2004). "An Annotated Catalog of Published Marimba Concertos in the United States from 1940-2000" (PDF). University of Oklahoma. p. 17. OCLC   56356967 via ProQuest.
  20. Nicole Summerlin, Ashley (2019). "A Repertoire Guide Including Annotations of High School Level Keyboard Percussion Works for Four Mallets". Ohio State University. p. 33. OCLC   1237296973 via ProQuest.
  21. Corcelli, John (2016). "Yearbook Signing: Zappa Alumni". Frank Zappa FAQ: All That's Left to Know About the Father of Invention. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. ISBN   978-1-61713-674-0. OCLC   1050562408.