Mariposa County, California

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Mariposa County, California
Mariposa County Courthouse, 5088 Bullion Street, Mariposa, California.jpg
Yosemite Valley from Tunnel View.jpg
The Mariposa County Courthouse (top) and Yosemite Valley from Tunnel View (bottom)
Flag of Mariposa County, California.png
Seal of Mariposa County, California.png
Mariposa County, California
Interactive map of Mariposa County
Map of California highlighting Mariposa County.svg
Location in the state of California
CountryUnited States
State California
Region Sierra Nevada
Incorporated February 18, 1850 [1]
Named for Spanish word for "butterfly" and Mariposa Creek
County seat Mariposa
Largest communityMariposa
Government
  Type Council–CAO
  BodyBoard of Supervisors [2]
  ChairRosemarie Smallcombe [3]
  Vice ChairMiles Menetrey
  Board of Supervisors
Supervisors
  • Rosemarie Smallcombe
  • Vacant [4]
  • Marshall Long
  • Wayne Forsythe
  • Miles Menetrey
  County Administrative OfficerDallin Kimble
Area
  Total1,463 sq mi (3,790 km2)
  Land1,449 sq mi (3,750 km2)
  Water14 sq mi (40 km2)
Population
 (2020)
  Total17,131
  Density12/sq mi (4.5/km2)
Time zone UTC-8 (Pacific Standard Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC-7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
Website www.mariposacounty.org

Mariposa County ( /ˌmærɪˈpzə,-sə/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) [5] is a county located in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2020 U.S. Census, the population was 17,131. [6] The county seat is Mariposa. [7] It is located in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains, north of Fresno, east of Merced, and southeast of Stockton.

Contents

The county's eastern section is the central portion of Yosemite National Park.

There are no incorporated cities in Mariposa County; however, there are communities recognized as census-designated places for statistical purposes. It also has the distinction of having no actual traffic signals anywhere in the county.

History

Mariposa County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850. While it began as the state's largest county, territory that was once part of Mariposa was ceded over time to form all or part of twelve other counties, including all of Merced, Madera, Fresno, Tulare, Kings, and Kern; and parts of San Benito, Mono, Inyo, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles. Thus, Mariposa County is known as the "Mother of Counties". [8]

Mariposa County's original seat was a now-nonexistent hamlet known as Agua Fria (Spanish for "cold water"), about 3 miles directly west of Mariposa proper on Agua Fria Road, which runs from Highway 140 to the south, to the community of Mt. Bullion to the northwest. Charles Fremont moved the county seat to Mariposa in 1854, resulting in the construction of the Mariposa County Courthouse, whose grounds occupies an entire block. The historic structure is fronted by Bullion Street; Jones Street is to the rear, with 9th and 10th Streets on either side. This handsome, white judicial building erected with whip-sawed wood from nearby forests is the oldest courthouse still in use in California: cases are still tried there to this day. The courthouse is so recognizable that its likeness is on the Mariposa County Seal. Also particularly noteworthy is the courthouse's clock tower and bell, which chimes every hour, on the hour, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

The county took its name from Mariposa Creek, which was so named by Spanish explorers in 1806, when they discovered a great cluster of butterflies ("mariposas" in Spanish and Portuguese) in the foothills of the Sierra. Each year, the first weekend in May, residents mark the annual arrival of migrating monarch butterflies with a "Butterfly Days" festival and parade.

Gold Rush

Specimen gold from the Mockingbird mine Gold-mm08a.jpg
Specimen gold from the Mockingbird mine

Mariposa County is located at the southern end of California's Mother Lode region. During the California Gold Rush, great quantities of the prized mineral were found and extracted, first in local stream-beds and later in hard rock mines. One of the most notable beneficiaries of this wealth was the famed explorer and 1856 Republican presidential candidate, John Charles Frémont, for whom the local hospital and Charles Street (more commonly known as "Highway 140") are named. Jessie Street, in the town of Mariposa, is named for Fremont's wife, Jessie Benton Frémont, who came to Mariposa with her husband on many extended visits although they never took up permanent residence within the county.

Many aspects of the area's mining history are depicted in exhibits at two local museums: the Mariposa History Museum, located in the town of Mariposa; and the California Mining and Mineral Museum, located at the Mariposa Fairgrounds (2 miles east of Mariposa on Highway 49).

Two small gold mines in Mariposa County, the Mockingbird mine and the Colorado Quartz mine, intermittently produce world-class (and very expensive) specimens of crystalline gold for mineral collectors. "Specimens from these occurrences commonly have bright luster and rich color, with well-developed crystals in unusual and attractive arrangements." [9] The best-known example is "The Dragon", now on display at the Houston Museum of Natural Science. [10]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,463 square miles (3,790 km2), of which 1,449 square miles (3,750 km2) is land and 14 square miles (36 km2) (1.0%) is water. [11] Along the banks of the Merced River is found the sole habitat for the limestone salamander, a rare species endemic to Mariposa County.

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 4,379
1860 6,24342.6%
1870 4,572−26.8%
1880 4,339−5.1%
1890 3,787−12.7%
1900 4,72024.6%
1910 3,956−16.2%
1920 2,775−29.9%
1930 3,23316.5%
1940 5,60573.4%
1950 5,145−8.2%
1960 5,064−1.6%
1970 6,01518.8%
1980 11,10884.7%
1990 14,30228.8%
2000 17,13019.8%
2010 18,2516.5%
2020 17,131−6.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [12]
1790–1960 [13] 1900–1990 [14]
1990–2000 [15] 2010 [16] 2020 [17]

2020 census

Mariposa County, California - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / EthnicityPop 2010 [16] Pop 2020 [17] % 2010% 2020
White alone (NH)15,19212,83883.24%74.94%
Black or African American alone (NH)1291050.71%0.61%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH)4594102.51%2.39%
Asian alone (NH)2012871.10%1.68%
Pacific Islander alone (NH)26150.14%0.09%
Some Other Race alone (NH)221140.12%0.67%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH)5461,2222.99%7.13%
Hispanic or Latino (any race)1,6762,1409.18%12.49%
Total18,25117,131100.00%100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

2014

The largest self-reported ancestry groups in Mariposa County were English (14.5%), German (13.7%), Irish (13.1%), Italian (4.1%), "American" (3.8%), Scottish (3.2%) and Portuguese (3.0%). [18]

2011

Places by population, race, and income

2010 Census

The 2010 United States Census reported that Mariposa County had a population of 18,251. The racial makeup of Mariposa County was 16,103 (88.2%) White, 138 (0.8%) African American, 527 (2.9%) Native American, 204 (1.1%) Asian, 26 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 508 (2.8%) from other races, and 745 (4.1%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,676 persons (9.2%). [27]

2000

As of the census [28] of 2000, there were 17,130 people, 6,613 households, and 4,490 families residing in the county. The population density was 12 people per square mile (5/km2). There were 8,826 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile (2/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 88.9% White, 0.7% Black or African American, 3.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, and 3.4% from two or more races. 7.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.8% were of German, 13.4% English, 12.7% Irish and 6.7% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.0% spoke English and 3.5% Spanish as their first language.

There were 6,613 households, out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.1% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.86.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 21.6% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, and 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 104.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.4 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $34,626, and the median income for a family was $42,655. Males had a median income of $31,194 versus $25,440 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,190. About 10.5% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Historic Spanish Colonial Revival style Mariposa County High School, built in 1914. MariposaCtyHSAuditorium (cropped).jpg
Historic Spanish Colonial Revival style Mariposa County High School, built in 1914.

The Government of Mariposa County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution and law as a general law county. The County government is composed of the Board of Supervisors, which has legislative and executive power. It is composed of five members elected from the five separate districts of the county, on a non-partisan basis, to serve four-year staggered terms.

State and federal representation

In the California State Legislature, Mariposa is in the 8th Senate District , represented by Democrat Angelique Ashby, and in the 5th Assembly District , represented by Republican Joe Patterson.

In the United States House of Representatives, Mariposa County is in California's 4th congressional district , represented by Democrat Mike Thompson. [29]

Politics

In its early history Mariposa was one of the most reliable Democratic counties in California. Along with Colusa County, it was one of only two counties in the Pacific States to support Alton B. Parker in 1904. [30] Over time, however, the county has steadily moved away from its Democratic roots, seen demonstrably in 1948 when Thomas E. Dewey won Mariposa without carrying California, as part of a trend turning the Great Basin into a rock-solid Republican stronghold. [31] Currently Mariposa is a strongly Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections. The last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964 but the last Democrat to win Mariposa was Bill Clinton in 1992 who won a plurality of forty-one votes.

United States presidential election results for Mariposa County, California [32]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.%No.%No.%
2020 5,95057.88%4,08839.77%2422.35%
2016 5,18558.41%3,12235.17%5706.42%
2012 5,14056.87%3,49838.70%4004.43%
2008 5,29854.75%4,10042.37%2792.88%
2004 5,21560.23%3,25137.55%1922.22%
2000 4,72758.55%2,81634.88%5316.58%
1996 3,97650.02%2,92036.73%1,05313.25%
1992 2,98235.98%3,02336.48%2,28227.54%
1988 3,76854.53%2,99843.39%1442.08%
1984 3,98961.20%2,39936.81%1301.99%
1980 3,08254.96%1,88933.68%63711.36%
1976 2,01246.61%2,09348.48%2124.91%
1972 2,12256.15%1,48739.35%1704.50%
1968 1,49649.92%1,18739.61%31410.48%
1964 1,26442.59%1,70457.41%00.00%
1960 1,59953.97%1,33845.16%260.88%
1956 1,57760.31%1,03139.43%70.27%
1952 2,21465.91%1,10232.81%431.28%
1948 1,37855.86%98339.85%1064.30%
1944 96544.16%1,20355.06%170.78%
1940 1,03534.47%1,93564.44%331.10%
1936 62124.23%1,90774.40%351.37%
1932 56027.48%1,38668.01%924.51%
1928 65655.03%51743.37%191.59%
1924 34440.23%16819.65%34340.12%
1920 48455.38%32036.61%708.01%
1916 45132.75%80258.24%1249.01%
1912 201.71%68958.89%46139.40%
1908 35236.86%48050.26%12312.88%
1904 46142.88%48645.21%12811.91%
1900 50540.79%71757.92%161.29%
1896 56339.68%82958.42%271.90%
1892 40439.92%52651.98%828.10%

On Nov. 4, 2008, Mariposa County voted 62.1% for Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages. [33]

Voter registration

Crime

The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

Healthcare

Mariposa County has one hospital, John C. Fremont Hospital. [37]

According to a 2013 study, Mariposa County had the highest rate of child abuse and neglect, [38] and as recently as 2014, had the second highest of rate of unvaccinated children [39] in the state of California.

Media

Mariposa County primarily receives the major Fresno TV and radio stations.

The county also has media outlets that serve the local community. These include:

Transportation

Major highways

Public transportation

Airports

Mariposa-Yosemite Airport is a general aviation airport. The nearest airports with scheduled flights are in Fresno and Merced.

Communities

The historic Wawona Hotel, built in 1876 Wawona Hotel1.jpg
The historic Wawona Hotel, built in 1876

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Mariposa County. [40]

county seat

RankCity/Town/etc.Municipal typePopulation (2010 Census)
1 Mariposa CDP2,173
2 Midpines CDP1,204
3 Lake Don Pedro CDP1,077
4 Yosemite Valley CDP1,035
5 Bootjack CDP960
6 Greeley Hill CDP915
7 Catheys Valley CDP825
8 El Portal CDP474
9 Coulterville CDP201
10 Wawona CDP169
11 Bear Valley CDP125
12 Hornitos CDP75
13 Fish Camp CDP59
14 Buck Meadows CDP31

See also

Notes

  1. Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  2. Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
  3. Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.

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Mariposa is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in and the county seat of Mariposa County, California, United States. The population was 1,526 at the 2020 census. The community is named after the flocks of monarch butterflies seen overwintering there by early explorers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yosemite Valley, California</span> Census-designated place in California, United States

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">El Portal, California</span> Census-designated place in California, United States

El Portal is a census-designated place in Mariposa County, California, United States. It is located 11.5 miles (19 km) west-southwest of Yosemite Village, at an elevation of 1,939 feet (591 m). The population was 372 at the 2020 census, down from 474 at the 2010 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Midpines, California</span> Census-designated place in California, United States

Midpines is a census-designated place in Mariposa County, California. It lies among the Sierra Nevada foothills of the central part of the state at an elevation of 2,585 feet (788 m), 5 miles (8 km) northeast of Mariposa, the county seat, and 22 miles (35 km) by road southwest of El Portal. It is composed of scattered residential areas along both sides of State Route 140, which is one of three principal routes to Yosemite National Park, some 30 miles (48 km) to the east of Midpines. The population was 379 at the 2020 census, down from 1,204 in 2010, when the CDP was drawn to cover significantly more area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bear Valley, Mariposa County, California</span> Census-designated place in California, United States

Bear Valley is a census-designated place in Mariposa County, California, United States. It is located 10.5 miles (16.9 km) south-southeast of Coulterville, at an elevation of 2,054 feet (626 m). Bear Valley has been designated California Historical Landmark #331. The population was 156 at the 2020 census.

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Further reading

Coordinates: 37°35′N119°55′W / 37.58°N 119.91°W / 37.58; -119.91