William Mark Ormrod
|Died||2 August 2020 62) (aged|
|Alma mater||University of Oxford|
|Thesis||Edward III's government of England, c.1346–1356 (1984)|
|Sub-discipline||Medieval England, Legal history, Political history|
|Institutions||University of York, University of Cambridge, Queens University Belfast, University of Sheffield|
William Mark Ormrod,(1 November 1957 – 2 August 2020) was a Welsh historian who specialised in the Later Middle Ages of England. Born in South Wales, he studied at King's College, London, and then earned his Doctor of Philosophy at Worcester College, Oxford. He was employed at a number of institutions, eventually settling at the University of York where he became Dean of the History Faculty and director of the Centre for Medieval Studies. He researched and published widely, including nine books and over 80 book chapters. Ormrod retired in 2017 and died of cancer in 2020.
Ormrod was born in Neath, South Wales, in 1957 to David and Margaret Ormrod, and had two younger brothers. He attended the local grammar school, where he was head boy; he played and sang music. He took a first-class undergraduate degree at King's College, London, in 1979,and undertook postgraduate study at Oxford University. He researched his D.Phil at Worcester College—examining Edward III's administration between 1346 and 1356—which was awarded in 1984.
After completing his doctorate, Ormrod held positions at the University of Sheffield, Queens University Belfast, and St Catharine's College, Cambridge, obtaining a lectureship at the University of York in 1990.The latter institution promoted him to Professor of History in 1995. He subsequently became Director of York’s Centre for Medieval Studies (1998–2001 and 2002–2003), Head of the Department of History (2001, 2003–2007), and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities from 2009 until taking early retirement in 2017.
Ormrod held numerous professional affiliations and memberships, being a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, a Councillor of the Pipe Roll Society, a trustee of the Richard III and Yorkist History Trust, and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 60 and an "exceptionally complex project that had defeated several earlier scholars".He had also been an editor of the Yorkshire Archaeological Press, the York Medieval Press, and the Parliament Rolls of Medieval England (PROME) project. He frequently collaborated with the Borthwick Institute for Archives, and was particularly interested in opening access to archives online. These projects included England's Immigrants, 1350–1550, which identified 70,000 immigrants to the country over the period, and contributed to the national curriculum. One of his last publications, his contribution to the Yale English Monarchs series on Edward III, has been described as “a first rate example of historical investigation", :
In addition to his prodigious written output — “at least nine books, fourteen edited collections and well over eighty book chapters and articles“ — Ormrod acted as Principal Investigator for nineteen major research projects worth more than £4 million in external funding, and supervised twenty-eight doctoral dissertations. July 2020 brought publication of Monarchy, State, and Political Culture, a Festschrift compiled in his honour by his colleagues Gwilym Dodd and Craig Taylor. Dodd and Taylor also endowed the Mark Ormrod Prize, awarded annually to the best doctoral dissertation, on any medieval topic, at the University of York.
He died of bowel cancer aged 62 on 2 August 2020; the proofs for his final monograph, Winner and Waster, were delivered to his publisher 10 days previously.
Edward III, also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death in 1377. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His fifty-year reign was the second-longest in medieval English history, and saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English Parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death. He outlived his eldest son, Edward the Black Prince, and the throne passed to his grandson, Richard II.
The Battle of Halidon Hill was fought during the Second War of Scottish Independence. Scottish forces under Sir Archibald Douglas were heavily defeated by the English forces of King Edward III of England on unfavourable terrain while trying to relieve Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, Earl of Derby, also styled as Henry of Lancaster and Lord Lancaster, of Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, was a member of the English royal family and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier. He was the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm. The son and heir of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, and Maud Chaworth, he became one of King Edward III's most trusted captains in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War and distinguished himself with victory in the Battle of Auberoche. He was a founding member and the second Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348, and in 1351 was created Duke of Lancaster. An intelligent and reflective man, Grosmont taught himself to write and was the author of the book Livre de seyntz medicines, a highly personal devotional treatise. He is remembered as one of the founders and early patrons of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, which was established by two guilds of the town in 1352.
The siege of Calais occurred at the conclusion of the Crécy campaign, when an English army under the command of King Edward III of England successfully besieged the French town of Calais during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
Louis II, also known as Louis of Male, a member of the House of Dampierre, was count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel from 1346 as well as count of Artois and Burgundy from 1382 until his death.
William Edington was an English bishop and administrator. He served as Bishop of Winchester from 1346 until his death, Keeper of the wardrobe from 1341 to 1344, treasurer from 1344 to 1356, and finally as chancellor from 1356 until he retired from royal administration in 1363. Edington's reforms of the administration – in particular of royal finances – had wide-ranging consequences, and contributed to the English military efficiency in the early stages of the Hundred Years' War. As Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for starting an extensive rebuilding of Winchester Cathedral, and for founding Edington Priory, the church of which still stands today.
The Battle of Caen on 26 July 1346 was the assault on the French-held town by elements of an invading English army under King Edward III as a part of the Hundred Years' War. The English army numbered 12,000–15,000, and part of it, nominally commanded by the Earls of Warwick and Northampton, prematurely attacked the town. Caen was garrisoned by 1,000–1,500 soldiers and an unknown, but large, number of armed townsmen, commanded by Raoul, the Count of Eu, the Grand Constable of France. The town was captured in the first assault; more than 5,000 of the ordinary soldiers and townspeople were killed and a few nobles were taken prisoner. The town was then sacked for five days.
John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford was the nephew and heir of Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford who succeeded as Earl of Oxford in 1331, after his uncle died without issue.
The Black Death was a bubonic plague pandemic, which reached England in June 1348. It was the first and most severe manifestation of the second pandemic, caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria. The term Black Death was not used until the late 17th century.
Edward Balliol was a claimant to the Scottish throne during the Second War of Scottish Independence. With English help, he ruled parts of the kingdom from 1332 to 1356.
The Battle of Kinghorn was fought on 6 August 1332 at Wester Kinghorn, Fife, Scotland. A Scottish army, possibly 4,000 strong, commanded by Duncan, Earl of Fife, and Robert Bruce was heavily defeated by an invading seaborne force of 1,500 men commanded by Edward Balliol and Henry Beaumont, Earl of Buchan. Balliol was the son of King John I of Scotland and was attempting to make good his claim to be the rightful king of Scotland. He had 1,500 men with him and was hoping that many of the Scots would come over to him.
Rosemary Elizabeth Horrox, is an English historian, specialising in the political culture of late medieval England, patronage and society.
Sir John Minsterworth was a fourteenth-century English knight from Gloucestershire, England. Nothing is known of his early life or upbringing but he first comes to prominence in the records during the 1370 invasion of France. Although Edward III of England had started the Hundred Years' War many years' earlier, by then the King was relatively old, and also ill. The war in France was going poorly under the command of the King's son, Edward the Black Prince and had only recently restarted after a truce. Minsterworth was part of a force sent to relieve the English command in France: landing in the north, he and the army carved their way to the west of France. There, divisions, which may have been extant since before their campaign begun, erupted into mutiny.
The Parliament of 1327, the Parliament of England that sat at the Palace of Westminster between 7 January and 9 March 1327, was instrumental in the transfer of the English crown from King Edward II to his son, Edward III. Edward II had become increasingly unpopular with the English nobility due to the excessive influence of unpopular court favourites, the patronage he accorded them, and his perceived ill-treatment of the nobility. By 1325, even his wife, Queen Isabella, despised him. Towards the end of the year, she took the young Edward to her native France, where she entered into an alliance with the powerful and wealthy nobleman Roger Mortimer, who her husband previously had exiled. The following year, they invaded England to depose Edward II. Almost immediately, the King's resistance was beset by betrayal, and he eventually abandoned London and fled west, probably to raise an army in Wales or Ireland. He was soon captured and imprisoned.
The siege of Berwick lasted four months in 1333 and resulted in the Scottish-held town of Berwick-upon-Tweed being captured by an English army commanded by King Edward III. The year before, Edward Balliol had seized the Scottish Crown, surreptitiously supported by Edward III. He was shortly expelled from the kingdom by a popular uprising. Edward III used this as a casus belli and invaded Scotland. The immediate target was the strategically important border town of Berwick.
Lancaster's chevauchée of 1346 was a series of offensives directed by Henry, Earl of Lancaster, in southwestern France during autumn 1346, as a part of the Hundred Years' War.
The Crécy campaign was a large-scale raid (chevauchée) conducted by an English army throughout northern France in 1346, which devastated the French countryside on a wide front and culminated in the eponymous Battle of Crécy. It was part of the Hundred Years' War. The campaign began on 12 July 1346, with the landing of English troops in Normandy, and ended with the capitulation of Calais on 3 August 1347. The English army was led by King Edward III, and the French by King Philip VI.
The Black Prince's chevauchée of 1356, which began on 4 August at Bordeaux and ended with the Battle of Poitiers on 19 September, was a devastating raid of Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King Edward III of England. This expedition of the Black Prince devastated large parts of Bergerac, Périgord, Nontronnais, Confolentais, Nord-Ouest, Limousin, La Marche, Boischaut, Champagne Berrichonne, Berry, Sologne, south of Touraine and Poitou.
Burnt Candlemas was a failed invasion of Scotland in early 1356 by an English army commanded by King Edward III and was the last campaign of the Second War of Scottish Independence. In 1355 tensions on the Anglo-Scottish border led to a military build ups by both sides. In September a nine-month truce was agreed and most of the English forces left for northern France to take part in a campaign of the concurrent Hundred Years' War. A few days after agreeing the truce the Scots, encouraged and subsidised by the French, broke it and invaded and devastated Northumberland. In late December the Scots escaladed and captured the important, English-held border town of Berwick-on-Tweed and laid siege to its castle. The English army redeployed from France to Newcastle in northern England.
The sieges of Berwick include the Scottish capture of the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed by the Scots on 6 November 1355 and their subsequent unsuccessful siege of Berwick castle, and the English siege and recapture of the town in January 1356. In 1355 the Second War of Scottish Independence had been underway for 13 years. After a period of quiescence the Scots, encouraged by the French who were fighting the English in the Hundred Years' War, assembled an army on the border. In September a truce was agreed and much of the English army left the border area to join King Edward III's campaign in France. In October the Scots broke the truce, invaded Northumbria and devastated much of it. On 6 November they captured the town of Berwick in a pre-dawn escalade, but failed to carry the castle, which they besieged.