|Born||25 April 1722|
|Died||23 November 1799|
|Occupation||Royal Navy Officer|
Admiral Mark Robinson (25 April 1722 – 23 November 1799) was an officer of the British Royal Navy, one of several members of the Robinson family to serve at sea.
He entered the Royal Navy in 1736, at the age of 14 and was examined for his lieutenancy on 14 May 1747, after having been promoted to the rank of Fourth Lieutenant of HMS Vigilante on 30 March 1746.
After serving as Lieutenant on several ships, Mark Robinson was promoted to captain of the 70-gun third rate HMS Vanguard on 13 August 1760. In the mid-1770s he was captain of the 64-gun, third-rate HMS Worcester.
During the American Revolutionary War he participated in several fleet actions against the French. As captain of Worcester he was at the First Battle of Ushant on 27 July 1778. Worcester was heavily engaged in the rear division under command of Sir Hugh Palliser. Subsequently, he was made captain of HMS Shrewsbury in March 1779. He participated in the Battle of Martinique on 17 April 1780, under Sir Samuel Hood and the French Admiral comte de Guichen. Robinson led the division under Rear Admiral Drake, losing six men killed, and fourteen wounded.
He distinguished himself at the Battle of the Chesapeake on 5 September 1781. In the course of the engagement, Shrewsbury lost fourteen men killed, and fifty-two wounded, including Robinson, who lost a leg from cannon shot. Unable to return to sea, he was granted a pension. When he became, by seniority, entitled to a flag, he was placed on the list of superannuated rear admirals. At the time of his death, he was the senior rear admiral in the Royal Navy.
Nelson served under Robinson on Worcester as acting fourth lieutenant (8 October 1776–April 1777). The experience of escorting convoys in the wintery seas to and from Gibraltar completed Nelson's midshipman training. On Worcester's return to England on 3 April, Nelson then completed his lieutenancy examination on 9 April.
Nelson was to subsequently write about this period: "But although my age might have been a sufficient cause for not entrusting me with the charge of a Watch, yet Captain Robinson used to say,'he felt as easy when I was upon deck,as any Officer in the ship".
Admiral Sir Philip Charles Henderson Calderwood Durham, GCB was a Royal Navy officer whose service in the American War of Independence, French Revolutionary War and Napoleonic Wars was lengthy, distinguished and at times controversial.
The Battle of Grenada took place on 6 July 1779 during the American Revolutionary War in the West Indies between the British Royal Navy and the French Navy, just off the coast of Grenada. The British fleet of Admiral John Byron had sailed in an attempt to relieve Grenada, which the French forces of the Comte D'Estaing had just captured.
John Elliot was a Scottish officer of the Royal Navy who served during the Seven Years' War and the American War of Independence. He rose to the rank of admiral, and served briefly as colonial governor of Newfoundland.
HMS Canopus was an 84-gun third rate ship of the line of the British Royal Navy. She had previously served with the French Navy as the Tonnant-classFranklin, but was captured after less than a year in service by the British fleet under Rear Admiral Horatio Nelson at the Battle of the Nile in 1798. Having served for less than six months for the French from her completion in March 1798 to her capture in August that year, she would eventually serve for 89 years for the British.
Sir Charles Cunningham KCH was an officer of the Royal Navy during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. He saw action during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, eventually rising to the rank of Rear-Admiral.
Sir Charles Henry Knowles, 2nd Baronet, GCB was an officer of the Royal Navy, who saw service during the American War of Independence, and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, eventually rising to the rank of Admiral. He was an extraordinary figure and a great tactical innovator. Highly intellectual, he authored a number of signal books and had the chance to put his ideas into practice during his naval career. Knowles was at times beset by problems with discipline aboard his ships, often due to large proportions of raw recruits and untrained seamen. This may have been a factor in his rocky relationship with his superior, Sir John Jervis, which eventually led to Knowles's retirement from active service after the Battle of Cape St Vincent, and his concentration on scholarly studies of the issues affecting the naval service.
William Prowse CB was an officer of the Royal Navy, who saw service during the American War of Independence, and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Rising from humble origins and joining the navy as an able seaman, he had a highly active career, serving under some of the most famous naval commanders of the age of sail, and participating in some of their greatest victories. He was at Grenada and Martinique under Byron and Rodney, the Glorious First of June under Howe; and commanded ships at Cape St Vincent under Jervis, Cape Finisterre under Calder and Trafalgar under Nelson. He finished his career by serving with distinction in the Mediterranean, and died with the rank of Rear-Admiral.
Lord Henry Paulet KCB was an officer in the Royal Navy who saw service in the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Born into the British nobility as a younger son of the Marquess of Winchester, he rose through the ranks and had gained his own command by the early stages of the French Revolutionary Wars. He was involved in a number of famous engagements during his career, such as the capture of the French frigate Gloire in 1795, though he narrowly missed out on seeing direct action at two of the most significant naval battles of the wars with the French. The first was the Battle of Cape St Vincent, where he had left Jervis's fleet a few days previously, the second was the Battle of Copenhagen, where he remained with Sir Hyde Parker's reserve squadron. He nevertheless rose through the ranks to reach vice-admiral, despite an incident that saw him court-martialled and dismissed, only to be reinstated by the intervention of the King; and a tendency to eccentricity. He married towards the end of the wars with France, and had several children. Paulet served as one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty from 1813, and was installed as a Knight Commander of the Bath in 1815, but ill-health forced his retirement from active service shortly afterwards, and he would die of cancer in 1832.
Vice-Admiral Sir George Murray KCB was an officer in the Royal Navy who saw service in a wide range of theatres and campaigns. His active naval career spanned the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Murray served under many of the most notable commanders of his age and participated in several of their greatest victories. He was with Parker and Howe in the West Indies and North America, Johnstone and Hughes in the East Indies, Jervis at Cape St Vincent, Nelson at Copenhagen, and took part in a host of other actions and engagements. Temporarily a captive of the French he was a keen scholar and spent time learning the French language and their naval customs, as well as being a competent surveyor, experience that was to help him in later life. He had a particularly enduring friendship with Nelson, who personally requested his services as his captain of the fleet. It was only chance that prevented Murray from serving as such at Trafalgar. With Murray absent, Nelson declined to appoint a replacement, one biographer reasoning that "none but Murray would do".
Samuel James Ballard was a Vice-Admiral in the Royal Navy.
Sir James Lind KCB was an officer of the Royal Navy who served during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The son of James Lind, a distinguished naval physician, Lind also embarked on a career at sea, but served in a more front line role. After serving on a number of different ships he finally received his own command in 1800, but his first chance to show his ability came only in 1803 when in command of HMS Sheerness. Here he captured a French privateer after his imitation of a merchant ship encouraged the privateer to actually attack his heavily armed frigate. He then revealed the true nature of his ship and the hapless privateer had no choice but to swiftly surrender. Promoted to command the 50-gun HMS Centurion Lind had another opportunity to distinguish himself, when the convoy under his protection was attacked in the harbour of Vizagapatnam by a heavily armed French squadron under Rear-Admiral Charles-Alexandre Durand Linois. Despite being on shore at the time Lind hurried back to take command and supervise operations to resist the French, who though were able to capture one of the merchants, decided not to risk pressing the attack on the Centurion and withdrew. The survival of the Centurion in the face of overwhelming forces was hailed as a great achievement back home in Britain, with Lind being knighted for his efforts.
HMS Amazon was a frigate of the Royal Navy. She served during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars under several notable naval commanders and played a key role in the Battle of Copenhagen under Captain Edward Riou, when Riou commanded the frigate squadron during the attack. After Riou was killed during the battle, command briefly devolved to First-Lieutenant John Quilliam. Quilliam made a significant impression on Rear-Admiral Horatio Nelson who appointed him to serve on the flagship HMS Victory, and Amazon passed to William Parker, who continued the association with Nelson with service in the Mediterranean and participation in the chase to the West Indies during the Trafalgar Campaign. She went on to join Sir John Borlase Warren’s squadron in the Atlantic and took part in the defeat of Charles-Alexandre Léon Durand Linois's forces at the Action of 13 March 1806. During the battle, she hunted down and captured the 40-gun frigate Belle Poule.
Sir Thomas Bertie KSO was an English officer of the Royal Navy who served during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Samuel Sutton was an officer in the Royal Navy. He entered the service shortly after the start of the American War of Independence, and spent most of his early career serving with Captain and later Admiral Joshua Rowley. He saw action at several engagements with the French fleets in the West Indies, and ended the war as a lieutenant. Left without active employment by the following years of peace, Sutton briefly returned to service during the Spanish Armament in 1790, but the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793 brought him steady work. After serving in a number of ships and being present at Cornwallis's Retreat in 1795, Sutton received command of a sloop, and with it the opportunity to render a service to a member of the French aristocracy, and the future Charles X of France. Promoted for his good service, Sutton served as a flag captain to several admirals, including Horatio Nelson. He briefly commanded HMS Victory, before surrendering her to Thomas Hardy, who would go on to command Victory at Trafalgar, and be present at Nelson's death. Sutton instead took command of a frigate, and in 1804 was involved in a controversial action that saw the capture of three Spanish frigates and the destruction of a fourth. Made wealthy from the spoils, Sutton nevertheless remained in the navy, taking part in the chase of the French fleet to the West Indies in 1805. His health declined during this period, and he went ashore in October that year. He retired from active service, and served as a magistrate and local official for his community, being promoted to rear-admiral in 1821 and dying in 1832.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Martin was an officer of the Royal Navy who saw service during the American War of Independence, and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. During his long naval career he took part in several significant battles, for which he was awarded a number of honours and promotions; he commanded ships at Cape St Vincent and Cape Finisterre.
Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, 1st Baronet was an officer of the Royal Navy who served during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
James Walker CB, CavTe was an officer of the Royal Navy. He served during the American War of Independence, and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, rising to the rank of Rear-Admiral.
Charles Inglis was an officer of the Royal Navy who saw service during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, rising to the rank of post-captain.
James Macnamara was an officer of the Royal Navy who served during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Sir George Augustus Alexander Westphal was a Nova Scotian admiral in the Royal Navy who served in more than 100 actions. He was midshipman on HMS Victory during the Battle of Trafalgar.