|City of Markham|
The High-Tech Capital
Leading While Remembering
|Coordinates: 43°52′36″N79°15′48″W / 43.87667°N 79.26333°W  Coordinates: 43°52′36″N79°15′48″W / 43.87667°N 79.26333°W |
|Regional Municipality||York Region|
|Settled||1794 (Thornhill and Unionville)|
|Incorporated||1872 (village) |
|• Mayor||Frank Scarpitti|
|• Deputy Mayor||Don Hamilton|
|• Governing Body||Markham City Council|
List of MPs
List of MPPs
|• Total||210.93 km2 (81.44 sq mi)|
|Elevation||200 m (700 ft)|
|• Total||338,503 (16th)|
|• Density||1,604.8/km2 (4,156/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−04:00 (EDT)|
|Forward Sortation Area|
|Area codes||905, 289, 365, and 742|
|GNBC Code||FDNFZ |
Markham ( /ˈmɑːrkəm/ ) is a city in the Regional Municipality of York, Ontario, Canada. It is approximately 30 km (19 mi) northeast of Downtown Toronto. In the 2021 Census, Markham had a population of 338,503,  which ranked it the largest in York Region, fourth largest in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), and 16th largest in Canada. 
The city gained its name from the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe (in office 1791–1796), who named the area after his friend, William Markham, the Archbishop of York from 1776 to 1807.
Indigenous people lived in the area of present-day Markham for thousands of years before Europeans arrived in the area.  The first European settlement in Markham occurred when William Berczy, a German artist and developer, led a group of approximately sixty-four German families to North America. While they planned to settle in New York, disputes over finances and land tenure led Berczy to negotiate with Simcoe for 26,000 ha (64,000 acres) in what would later become Markham Township in 1794.  Since the 1970s, Markham rapidly shifted from being an agricultural community to an industrialized municipality due to urban sprawl from neighbouring Toronto.  Markham changed its status from town to city on July 1, 2012. 
As of 2013 [update] , tertiary industry mainly drives Markham. As of 2010 [update] , "business services" employed the largest proportion of workers in Markham – nearly 22% of its labour force.  The city also has over 1,000  technology and life-sciences companies, with IBM as the city's largest employer.   Several multinational companies have their Canadian headquarters in Markham, including: Honda Canada, Hyundai,  Advanced Micro Devices,  Johnson & Johnson, General Motors, Avaya,  IBM,  Motorola,  Oracle,  Toshiba,  Toyota Financial Services,  Huawei, Honeywell and Scholastic Canada. 
Indigenous people lived in the area of present-day Markham since the end of the last Ice Age and the city is situated on the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), Huron Wendat, Petun and Neutral people.   In the early 1600s, when explorers from France arrived, they encountered the Huron-Wendat First Nation.  The southwest corner of Markham is included in Treaty 13, known as the Toronto Purchase of 1787, which transferred roughly 250,800 acres of land from the Mississauga people to the British Crown for 10 shillings and fishing rights on the Etobicoke river.   The remainder of Markham's land (roughly east of Woodbine Avenue/Highway 404) is covered by the Johnson-Butler Purchase of 1787-88 (aka Gunshot Treaty) and formally by the Williams Treaties, signed in 1923. 
Objects recovered by local mill-owners, the Milne family, in the 1870s give evidence of a village within the boundaries of the present Milne Conservation Area. 
The Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe (in office 1791–1796), named the township of Markham, north of the town of York (now Toronto), after his friend William Markham, then Archbishop of York. William Berczy first surveyed Markham as a township in 1793, and in 1794 led 75 German families (including the Ramers, Reesors, Wheters, Burkholders, Bunkers, Wicks and Lewis) from Upstate New York to an area of Markham now known as German Mills.  Each family was granted 81 ha (200 acres) of land; however the lack of roads in the region led many to settle in York (present-day Toronto) and Niagara. German Mills later became a ghost town. Between 1803 and 1812 another attempt at settling the region was made. The largest group of settlers were Pennsylvania Dutch, most of them Mennonites. These highly skilled craftsmen and knowledgeable farmers settled the region and founded Reesorville, named after the Mennonite settler Joseph Reesor.  In 1825 Reesorville was renamed to Markham and took the name of the unincorporated village (see Markham Village, Ontario).
By 1830, many Irish, Scottish and English families began immigrating to Upper Canada and settling in Markham.  Markham's early years blended the rigours of the frontier with the development of agriculture-based industries.[ citation needed ] The township's many rivers and streams soon supported water-powered saws and gristmills and later wooden mills. With improved transportation routes, such as the construction of Yonge Street in the 1800s, along with the growing population, urbanization increased. In 1842 the township population had reached 5,698; 11,738 ha (29,005 acres) were under cultivation (second highest in the province), and the township had eleven gristmills and twenty-four sawmills. 
In 1846 Smith's Canadian Gazetteer indicated a population of about 300, mostly Canadians, Pennsylvanian Dutch (actually Pennsylvania Deitsch or German), other Germans, Americans, Irish and a few from Britain. There were two churches with a third being built. There were tradesmen of various types, a grist mill, an oatmill mill, five stores, a distillery and a threshing-machine maker. There were eleven grist and twenty-four saw mills in the surrounding township.  In 1850 the first form of structured municipal government formed in Markham. 
By 1857 most of the township had been cleared of timber and was under cultivation. Villages like Thornhill, Unionville and Markham greatly expanded.  In 1851 Markham Village "was a considerable village, containing between eight and nine hundred inhabitants, pleasantly situated on the Rouge River. It contains two grist mills ... a woollen factory, oatmeal mill, barley mill and distillery, foundry, two tanneries, brewery, etc., a temperance hall and four churches... ."  In 1871, with a township population of 8,152,  the Toronto and Nipissing Railway built the first rail line to Markham Village and Unionville, which is still used today by the GO Transit commuter services.
In 1971 Markham was incorporated as a town, as its population skyrocketed due to urban sprawl from Toronto. In 1976 Markham's population was approximately 56,000. Since that time, the population has more than quintupled, with explosive growth in new subdivisions. Much of Markham's farmland has disappeared, but some still remains north of Major Mackenzie Drive. Controversy over the development of the environmentally-sensitive Oak Ridges Moraine will likely[ original research? ] curb development north of Major Mackenzie Drive and by Rouge National Urban Park east of Reesor Road between Major Mackenzie Drive to Steeles Avenue East to the south.
Since the 1980s Markham has been recognized[ by whom? ] as a suburb of Toronto. As of 2006 [update] the city comprises six major communities: Berczy Village, Cornell, Markham Village, Milliken, Thornhill and Unionville. Many high-tech companies have established head offices in Markham, attracted by the relative abundance of land, low tax-rates and good transportation routes. Broadcom Canada, ATI Technologies (now known as AMD Graphics Product Group), IBM Canada, Motorola Canada, Honeywell Canada and many other well-known companies have chosen Markham as their home in Canada. The city has accordingly started branding itself as Canada's "High-Tech Capital". The province of Ontario has erected a historical plaque in front of the Markham Museum to commemorate the founding of Markham's role[ clarification needed ] in Ontario's heritage. 
Town council voted on May 29, 2012, to change Markham's legal designation from "town" to "city"; according to Councillor Alex Chiu, who introduced the motion, the change of designation merely reflects the fact that many people already think of Markham as a city.  Some residents objected to the change because it will involve unknown costs without any demonstrated benefits. The designation officially took effect on July 1. 
Markham covers 212.47 km2 (82.04 sq mi) and Markham's city centre is at 43°53′N79°15′W / 43.883°N 79.250°W . It is bounded by five municipalities; in the west is Vaughan with the boundary along Yonge Street between Steeles Avenue and Highway 7 and Richmond Hill with the boundary along Highway 7 from Yonge Street to Highway 404 and at Highway 404 from Highway 7 to 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road. In the south, it borders Toronto with the boundary along Steeles Avenue. In the north it borders Whitchurch–Stouffville with the boundary from Highway 404 to York-Durham Line between 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road. In the east it borders Pickering along York-Durham Line.
Markham's average altitude is at 200 m (660 ft) and in general consists of gently rolling hills. The city is intersected by two rivers; the Don River and Rouge River, as well as their tributaries. To the north is the Oak Ridges Moraine, which further elevates the elevation towards the north.
Markham borders and shares the same climate as Toronto. On an average day, Markham is generally 1–2 °C (1.8–3.6 °F) cooler than in downtown Toronto. It has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) and features warm, humid summers with rainfall occurring from May to October and cold, snowy winters. The highest temperature recorded was 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) on August 8, 2001, during the eastern North America heat wave and the lowest temperature recorded was −35.2 °C (−31.4 °F) on January 16, 1994, during the 1994 North American cold wave. 
|Climate data for Markham (Buttonville at Toronto Buttonville Airport)|
WMO ID: 71639; coordinates 43°51′44″N79°22′12″W / 43.86222°N 79.37000°W ; elevation: 198.1 m (650 ft); 1981–2010 normals
|Record high humidex||16.0||14.4||29.2||35.7||41.0||44.6||50.9||47.4||43.6||37.8||24.9||20.6||50.9|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.9|
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.5|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.1|
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.2|
|Record low wind chill||−42.6||−37.4||−35.6||−18.6||−4.4||0.0||0.0||0.0||−4.2||−8.8||−23.9||−36.6||−42.6|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||62.1|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||26.0|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||38.9|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||16.7||12.9||12.0||12.3||12.0||11.8||11.2||9.9||10.8||13.2||14.5||15.3||152.7|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||5.8||3.8||6.7||10.8||12.0||11.8||11.2||9.9||10.8||13.0||11.3||6.6||113.7|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||13.4||10.8||7.0||2.9||0.13||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.48||4.7||10.8||50.2|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 1500 LST)||69.6||64.0||57.8||52.9||52.3||53.9||53.4||55.9||59.2||62.4||68.9||71.1||60.1|
|Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada |
Markham is made up of many original 19th-century communities, each with a distinctive character. Many of these, despite being technically suburban districts today, are still signed with official "city limits" signs on major roads:
Thornhill and Unionville are popularly seen as being separate communities. Thornhill straddles the Markham-Vaughan municipal boundary (portions of it in both municipalities). Unionville is a single community with three sub-communities:
|2021  , 2016  , 2011  , 2006  , 2001 and 1996  , 1991 and 1986 |
In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Markham had a population of 338,503 living in 110,867 of its 114,908 total private dwellings, a change of 2.9% from its 2016 population of 328,966. With a land area of 210.93 km2 (81.44 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,604.8/km2 (4,156.4/sq mi) in 2021. 
Immigrants made up 58% of the population of Markham in the 2021 census. Top countries of origin for the immigrant population were China (33.8%, excluding 16.4% from Hong Kong), India (7.2%), Sri Lanka (6.4%), Philippines (3.6%), Iran (3.5%), Pakistan (2.7%), Vietnam (1.8%), Jamaica (1.8%), Guyana (1.6). 
In the 2021 census, the most reported ethnocultural background was Chinese (47.9%), followed by European (17.7%), South Asian (17.6%), Black (3.1%), West Asian (2.9%), Filipino (2.7%), Korean (1.3%), Arab (1.0%), Latin American (0.8%), and Southeast Asian (0.7%). 
The most common ethnic or cultural origins as per the 2021 census are as follows: Chinese (43.3%), Indian (7.0%), Canadian (4.0%), English (3.8%), Hong Konger (3.7%), Sri Lankan (3.3%), Tamil (3.1%), Irish (3.1%), Scottish (3.1%), Filipino (2.9%), Italian (2.8%), Pakistani (2.1%), and Iranian (2.0%). 
| Panethnic |
|2021 ||2016 ||2011 ||2006 ||2001 |
|East Asian [lower-alpha 1]||166,655||49.42%||153,075||46.75%||119,255||39.73%||93,375||35.81%||65,290||31.4%|
|European [lower-alpha 2]||59,745||17.72%||71,505||21.84%||82,560||27.51%||89,820||34.45%||92,165||44.32%|
|Middle Eastern [lower-alpha 3]||12,900||3.82%||11,160||3.41%||9,585||3.19%||7,515||2.88%||3,965||1.91%|
|Southeast Asian [lower-alpha 4]||11,760||3.49%||11,425||3.49%||11,770||3.92%||9,340||3.58%||6,220||2.99%|
|Other/Multiracial [lower-alpha 5]||12,985||3.85%||9,815||3%||7,800||2.6%||5,920||2.27%||4,730||2.27%|
|Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses|
In 2021, 40.8% of the population did not identify with a particular religion. The most reported religions were Christianity (35.1%), Hinduism (9.2%), Islam (7.9%), Buddhism (4.0%), Judaism (1.4%), and Sikhism (1.1%). 
|Mother tongue ||Population||%|
|Knowledge of language ||Population||%|
Markham City Council consists of Frank Scarpitti as mayor, four regional councillors and eight ward councillors each representing one of the city's eight wards. Scarpitti replaced Don Cousens, a former Progressive Conservative MPP for Markham and a Presbyterian church minister. The community elects the mayor and four regional councillors to represent the City of Markham at the regional level. The municipality pays the Councillors for their services, but in many municipalities, members of council usually serve part-time and work at other jobs. Residents elected the current members of council to a four-year term of office, in accordance with standards set by the province. The selection of members for the offices of mayor and regional councillors are made town-wide, while ward councillors are elected by individual ward.
The city council is at the Markham Civic Centre at the intersection of York Regional Road 7 and Warden Avenue. The site of the previous offices on Woodbine Avenue has been redeveloped for commercial uses. The historic town hall on Main Street is now a restored office building. The Mayor's Youth Task Force was created to discuss issues facing young people in the city and to plan and publicize events. Its primary purpose is to encourage youth participation within the community.
Municipal elections are held every four years in Ontario. The most recent election took place in October, 2018, and the next is scheduled for October, 2022. The links listed below provide the results of recent election results:
The city is permitted to create and enforce by-laws upon residents on various matters affecting the town. The by-laws are generally enforced by City By-Law enforcement officers, but they may involve York Regional Police if violations are deemed too dangerous for the officers to handle. In addition the by-laws can be linked to various provincial acts and enforced by the town. Violation of by-laws is subject to fines of up to $20,000 CAD. The by-laws of Markham include:
There are no courts in Markham, but the city is served by an Ontario Court of Justice in Newmarket, as well as an Ontario Small Claims court in Richmond Hill. There are also served by a Provincial Offence Court in Richmond Hill. The Ontario Court of Appeal is in Toronto, while the Supreme Court of Canada is in Ottawa, Ontario.
Policing is provided by York Regional Police at a station (5 District) at the corner of McCowan Road and Carlton Road and Highway 7.  Highway 404, Highway 407 and parts of Highway 48 are patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. Toronto Police Service is responsible for patrol on Steeles from Yonge Street to the York—Durham Line.[ citation needed ]
Markham Fire and Emergency Services was established in 1970 as Markham Fire Department and replaced various local volunteer fire units. Nine fire stations serve Markham. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport is also served by Markham's Fire service.
Markham Stouffville Hospital in the city's far eastern end is Markham's main healthcare facility, located at the intersection of Highway 7 and 9th Line (407 and Donald Cousens Parkway). Markham is also home to Shouldice Hospital, one of the world's premier facilities for people suffering from hernias. For those living near Steeles, they sometimes will be able to receive treatment at The Scarborough Hospital Birchmount Campus in Toronto/Scarborough. North York General Hospital also serves for 24/7 care, serving North York and the lower Markham area.
Garbage collection is provided by Miller Waste Systems since the company's founding in 1961.  Different areas of the city are assigned different garbage collection days. Recycling is collected weekly, while household trash and yard waste is collected every other week. The last week of May is "Bulk Collection", where residents can put out as much waste as needed without limits. 
To promote recycling, Markham mandated the use of clear garbage bags in 2013 to let Miller Waste staff see the contents of trash bags. Bags containing high amounts of recycling mixed with regular trash will not be collected. 
Winter operations are conducted on all City-owned roads according to the following criteria: 
Plowing of all roads takes around 16 hours to complete after the end of a snowfall, which exceeds provincial standards.
Winter operations are conducted on all City-owned sidewalks according to the following criteria: 
Plowing of all sidewalks takes around 17 hours to complete after the end of a snowfall.
Parking is only permitted on the odd numbered side of a street from November 15 to April 15 and parking is banned when snow is falling. 
Seneca College has a campus in Markham, at Highway 7 and the 404 near Woodbine Avenue/Leslie Street, in the York Region business district.  This location opened in 2005, offering full and part-time programs in business, marketing and tourism, and also the college's departments of Finance, Human Resources and Information Technology Services. Since 2011 the campus has also housed the Confucius Institute.  York University has plans to open a new campus in Downtown Markham on Enterprise Dr and Kennedy Rd (near Markham YMCA). It will serve the entirety of York Region and upper Scarborough. 
Markham has a number of both public and Catholic high schools. All have consistently scored high on standardized tests and have some of the highest rate of graduates attending universities. [ citation needed ]
The York Region District School Board operates secular English public schools. The York Catholic District School Board operates English Catholic schools. The Conseil scolaire Viamonde operates secular French schools, and the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir operates Catholic French schools.
In the 19th century Markham had a vibrant, independent community with mills, distilleries and breweries around the intersection of Highway 7 and Markham Road. The Thomas Speight Wagon Works exported products (wagons, horsecars) around the world, and Markham had a reputation as being more active than York (the former name for Toronto) early on. Most of these industries disappeared leaving farming as the main source of business.
Light industries and businesses began to move into Markham in the 1980s attracted by land and lower taxes. Today, it claims to be "Canada's Hi-Tech Capital" with a number of key companies in the area, such as IBM, Motorola, Toshiba, Honeywell, Apple, Genesis Microchip, and is home to the head office of graphics card producer ATI Technologies (in 2006 merged with AMD). Over 1,100 technology and life science companies have offices in Markham, employing over one fifth of the total workforce.  In 2014, the top five employers in the city in order are IBM Canada, the City of Markham, TD Waterhouse Inc., Markham Stouffville Hospital and AMD Technologies Inc. 
Yogen Früz has its headquarters in Markham. 
General Motors Canada Canadian Technical Centre has been located in Markham since 2017, in the building which was formerly the Canadian head office of American Express from 1985 to 2015.
Markham is home to several locally oriented performing arts groups:
A key arts venue is the 'Markham Theatre For Performing Arts', at the Markham Civic Centre at Highway 7 and Warden Avenue. The facility is owned by the City of Markham and operates under the city's Culture Department.
Until the 1970s, Markham was mostly farmland and marsh, as reflected in events like the Markham Fair. Markham has several theatres, Markham Little Theatre at the Markham Museum,  the Markham Youth Theatre, and the Markham Theatre.
The Varley Art Gallery is the city of Markham's art museum. The gallery hosts rotating exhibits, public events, art camps and art classes, among other opportunities for citizens to get involved in the community and learn about local and Canadian art. 
The Markham Public Library system has eight branches.  Some branches offer unique digital tools such as a Digital Media lab with graphic designs software, a recording studio with video editing / audio editing software and a green screen, and a maker space with 3D printers, virtual reality, and laser cutters.  With a library card, user can take free online courses,  borrow household tools and equipment  and educational toys. 
Recreation Department runs programs in these facilities and maintained by the city's Operations Department:
Markham has scenic pathways running over 22 km over its region. These pathways include 12 bridges allowing walkers, joggers, and cyclists to make use and enjoy the sights it has to offer. Markham's green space includes woodlots, ravines, and valleys that are not only enjoyable to its residents, but are important for the continued growth of the region's plants and animals. These natural spaces are the habitats for rare plant and insect species, offering food and homes essential for the survival of different native insects and birds. 
Parks and pathways are maintained by the city's Operations Department.
Markham has retained its historic past in part of the town. Here a just few places of interest:
Heritage streets preserve the old town feeling:
There are still farms operating in the northern reaches of the town, but there are a few 'theme' farms in other parts of Markham:
Markham's heritage railway stations are either an active station or converted to other uses:
Events taking place annually include the Night It Up! Night Market, Taste of Asia Festival, Tony Roman Memorial Hockey Tournament, Markham Youth Week, Unionville Festival, Markham Village Music Festival, Markham Jazz Festival, Milliken Mills Children's Festival, Markham Ribfest & Music Festival, Doors Open Markham, Thornhill Village Festival, Markham Fair, Olde Tyme Christmas Unionville, Markham Santa Claus Parade and Markham Festival of Lights.
Markham is home to several large malls of 100+ stores. These include:
There are also a lot of higher-profile malls in nearby Toronto, and elsewhere in York Region.
Many shopping centres in Markham are also ethnically Chinese and East Asian-oriented. This is a reflection of Markham's large East Asian, particularly Chinese Canadian, population making it an important Chinese community in the GTA. They carry a wide variety of traditional Chinese products, apparel, and foods.
On Highway 7, between Woodbine and Warden Avenues, is First Markham Place, containing numerous shops and restaurants; this is several kilometres east of Richmond Hill's Chinese malls. Further east along Highway 7 is an older plaza is at the southwest quadrant with the intersection with Kennedy Road.
Pacific Mall is the most well-known Chinese mall in Markham, at Kennedy Road and Steeles Avenue East, which, combined with neighbouring Market Village (now closed) and Splendid China Mall, formed the second largest Chinese shopping area in North America, after the Golden Village in Richmond, British Columbia.[ citation needed ] In close proximity, at Steeles Avenue and Warden Avenue, there is the New Century Plaza mall and a half-block away there is a plaza of Chinese shops anchored by a T & T Supermarket.
There are also some smaller shopping centres in Markham, such as:
Markham's road network is based on the concession system. In 1801, Markham was divided into 10 concessions, with a north–south road separating each one. The concessions were further divided by a number of east–west sideroads. This formed a grid plan road network, with an intersection occurring approximately every two kilometers. Even though some of these roads have been realigned, Markham's present road network for the most part still follows the original grid plan.
Markham's concession (north–south) arterial roads are listed below, ordered from west to east (former numbers in parenthesis):
Reesor Road and Eleventh Line are the only north–south roads to not be regional roads. These two roads are rural routes with very few homes and minimal traffic and Eleventh Line ends just south of Highway 407 with road rerouted (old section fenced off with partial gravel bed) to intersect with York-Durham Line.
Markham's sideroad (east–west) arterials are listed below, ordered from south to north (former numbers in parenthesis):
Most of Elgin Mills Road in Markham (east of Woodbine) is not be regional road. East of Donald Cousens Boulevard serves new residential developments and east is named rural and/or agricultural.
Major highways that pass through Markham include King's Highway 404 (from Toronto to just south of Lake Simcoe), which marks Markham's boundary with the City of Richmond Hill, and the 407 ETR (more commonly known as Highway 407), a privately owned toll highway that passes north of Toronto and connects Markham with Burlington and Oshawa. Highway 404 is one of the most important routes used for travel to and from the City of Toronto. Highway 407 primarily serves Markham from Yonge Street to York-Durham Line. The highway connects Markham with Clarington to the east, and Burlington to the west.
One of the most heavily travelled arterial roads in Markham is Regional Road 7, a major east–west artery. This road is more commonly referred to as Highway 7, a name which comes from the time when it used to be a provincial highway. The road is still officially Highway 7 east of Reesor Road. Other major east–west routes include 16th Avenue, Major MacKenzie Drive, the combination of John Street/Esna Park Drive/14th Avenue, and Steeles Avenue which forms Markham's southern boundary with Toronto.
The GO Transit Stouffville line, a commuter rail line stretching from Lincolnville to downtown Toronto, provides passenger rail service in Markham. It operates only at rush hour and uses tracks owned by Metrolinx, the provincial transit agency. Five stations on the Stouffville line serve Markham, of which 4 are within the municipal borders. In 2015, Metrolinx announced that the Stouffville Line would get an expansion in service, bringing all day both directional trains from Union Station to Unionville GO Station.  Markham's section of this GO line also came under the spotlight in 2015 as City of Toronto Mayor John Tory's announced SMART Track plan for rapid transit expansion in Toronto includes the rail spur between Union Station and the Unionville GO. 
On April 8, 2019, GO Transit added ten midday train trips to Mount Joy GO Station, replacing the need for passengers to change to buses at Unionville GO. 
York Region Transit (YRT) connects Markham with surrounding municipalities in York Region, and was created in 2001 from the merger of Markham Transit, Richmond Hill Transit, Newmarket Transit and Vaughan Transit. YRT to connects to the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) subway system by way of Viva bus rapid transit from Finch station along Yonge Street, and Don Mills station through Unionville and on to Markville Mall.
YRT has two major terminals in Markham: Unionville GO Terminal and the new Cornell Terminal, replacing Markham Stouffville Hospital Bus Terminal.
The TTC also provides service in Markham on several north–south routes, such as Warden Avenue, Birchmount Road, McCowan Road and Markham Road. These routes charge riders a double fare if they are travelling across the Steeles border.
GO Transit provides train service on the old trackbed of the Toronto and Nipissing Railway, which connects Markham with downtown Toronto on the Stouffville commuter rail service. The line has stops at several stations in Markham, namely Unionville GO Station, Centennial GO Station, Markham GO Station, and Mount Joy GO Station. The Richmond Hill commuter rail line provides service to the Langstaff GO Station, which straddles Markham and Richmond Hill but is used primarily by residents of west-central Markham and southern Richmond Hill.
Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport, Canada's 11th busiest airport (Ontario's 4th busiest).  The airport permits general aviation and business commuter traffic to Ottawa and Montreal, Quebec. The airport is slated to close for development, but it has been delayed until at least 2023.
Markham Airport or Toronto/Markham Airport, (TC LID: CNU8), is a private airport operating 2.6 nautical miles (4.8 kilometres; 3.0 miles) north of Markham, north of Elgin Mills Road. The airport is owned and operated by Markham Airport Inc. and owned by a numbered Ontario company owned by the Thomson family of Toronto. The airport is not part of the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA). The airport has a 2,013 ft (614 m) runway for small and private aircraft only (with night flying capabilities). The Royal Canadian Air Cadets Gliding Program formerly used the airport for glider operations in the spring and fall.
The Regional Municipality of York, also called York Region, is a regional municipality in Southern Ontario, Canada, between Lake Simcoe and Toronto. The region was established after the passing of then Bill 102, An Act to Establish The Regional Municipality of York, in 1970. It replaced the former York County in 1971, and is part of the Greater Toronto Area and the inner ring of the Golden Horseshoe. The regional government is headquartered in Newmarket.
Whitchurch-Stouffville is a town in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada, approximately 50 km (31 mi) north of downtown Toronto, and 55 km (34 mi) north-east of Toronto Pearson International Airport. It is 206.22 km2 (79.62 sq mi) in area, and located in the mid-eastern area of the Regional Municipality of York on the ecologically-sensitive Oak Ridges Moraine. Its motto since 1993 is "country close to the city".
The Rouge River is a river in Markham, Pickering, Richmond Hill and Toronto in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada. The river flows from the Oak Ridges Moraine to Lake Ontario at the eastern border of Toronto, and is the location of Rouge Park, the only national park in Canada within a municipality. At its southern end, the Rouge River is the boundary between Toronto and southwestern Pickering in the Regional Municipality of Durham.
Stouffville is the primary urban area within the town of Whitchurch-Stouffville in York Region, Ontario, Canada. It is situated within the Greater Toronto Area and the inner ring of the Golden Horseshoe. The urban area is centred at the intersection of Main Street, Mill Street, and Market Street. Between 2006 and 2011, the population of the Community of Stouffville grew 100.5% from 12,411 to 24,886, or from 51% to 66% of the total population of the larger town of Whitchurch-Stouffville.
Oak Ridges—Markham was a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 2004 to 2015. Its population in 2006 was 169,645., with 136,755 electors, the highest of any riding in Canada. By 2011, the riding's population had risen to 228,997, the largest population of all ridings in Canada.
Unionville is a suburban district and former village in Markham, Ontario, Canada, 2 km (2.5 mi) west of Markham Village, and 33 km (20.5 mi) northeast of Downtown Toronto. The boundaries of Unionville are not well-defined. Several neighbourhoods claim to be part of it however, this has been disputed between the various wards.
Markham—Unionville is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 2004.
Markham was a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada created in 1988. Also known as Markham—Whitchurch-Stouffville, it was a federal electoral district that elected representatives to the House of Commons of Canada from 1988 to 2000. Notably in 1997 this was the only district in Ontario that did not elect a Liberal MP or an Independent.
Centennial GO Station is a train station on the GO Transit Stouffville line in Markham, Ontario, Canada. The station is located directly west of McCowan Road and north of Bullock Drive, near the Markham Centennial Park.
The history of Markham, Ontario dates back several millennia. What would become Markham, Ontario was home to First Nations long before European settlement. Seasonal settlements were found from 900 BC to 1650, but traces of these first residence were buried before the area was farmed.
Markham—Stouffville is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada. It encompasses a portion of Ontario previously included in the electoral districts of Markham—Unionville and Oak Ridges—Markham.
German Mills is a community within the city of Markham in Ontario, Canada. The easternmost community in the historic town of Thornhill, German Mills was named for the early German settlers in the area.
Cornell is a new community village being developed in northeast Markham, Ontario and bounded by Highway 407, 16th Avenue, Ninth Line, and the Donald Cousens Parkway. The 2011 population of this area was 9,880. Adding Cornell North's 2,178 it had 12,058 residents.
Angus Glen(Census Tract No. 5350403.05) is a community in the city of Markham, just north of the community and former municipality of Unionville, Ontario, Canada. The area was originally farmland, but as Unionville's housing development in the late 1990s matured in 1997 the original Angus Glen East Village, comprising approximately 500 single family homes and townhouses, was developed. Angus Glen incorporated the residential concept of "New Urbanism", to allow for the homes to be designed with the appearance of old downtown Toronto houses, with lane-ways on which the homes' separate garages were built. In the mid-2000s the land west of the small creek on the west border of the East Village commenced development, and is still under construction, known as the West Village. Throughout this period the East Village had a tract of land which had originally been sold to the school board for a possible school. However, the demographic studies could not support a school and after many years of negotiations the developer re-purchased the land in early 2014 and the East Village has had approximately 50 homes under construction, just east of the baseball park and along the north border of York Downs Golf Club. These homes will increase the East Village's homes to close to 600 and the entire community to approximately 1,100.
Berczy Village is a residential neighbourhood in Markham, Ontario, Canada. It is bounded to the north by Major Mackenzie Drive, to the east by McCowan Road, to the south by 16th Avenue, and to the west by Kennedy Road. This area is north of Unionville. The community is named after William Berczy, Markham's founder. The name can be found on limestone plaques throughout the community's many arterial road entrances.
The city of Markham in Ontario, Canada, offers a complex transportation infrastructure. These include airports, highways, public transit, regional roads, municipality-funded roads, and train services.
Downtown Markham is the central business district of Markham, Ontario, Canada currently being developed. It is located within Markham Centre near the historic Unionville district and is proposed to serve as the heart of Markham. Businesses in the district are expected to employ up to 16,000 individuals, and it may house as many as 10,000 residents. The development plans will have a high density of residential, retail, commercial and mixed-use structures. The community is being developed, built and wholly financed by The Remington Group Inc.
Markham Village is the historic town centre of Markham, Ontario, Canada. Originally settled in 1825, the village, which was originally named "Reesorville" sometime after 1804 and also known as "Mannheim", was founded by Mennonites from Upstate New York and Pennsylvania. Eventually, as Upper Canada started to experience immigration from the British Isles, Markham would experience significant growth. By 1825, the name "Markham" was established as the permanent name. In 1850, it was established as a police village, and in 1873 was fully incorporated as a village within York County. Markham was amalgamated with the surrounding Markham Township, which included the villages of Unionville and Thornhill in 1971, and incorporated as a town.
Oak Ridges—Markham was a provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that was represented in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario between the 2007 provincial election and the 2018 provincial election. Its population in 2006 was 169,645, with 136,755 electors, the highest of any riding in Ontario. It was the fastest growing riding in the province, having experienced a 52.5% increase in population from 2001 to 2006.
Markham—Stouffville is a provincial electoral district in Ontario. It encompasses a portion of Ontario formerly included in the electoral districts of Markham—Unionville and Oak Ridges—Markham.
In May 1794, Berczy negotiated with Simcoe for 64,000 acres in Markham Township, soon to be known as the German Company Lands. The Berczy settlers, joined by several Pennsylvania German families, set out for Upper Canada. Sixty-four families arrived that year [...]