Marseille

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Marseille

Marselha  (Occitan)
Marseille panorama.jpg
Marseille 20131005 17.jpg
Calanque en.JPG
Marseille - Vieux port 4.jpg
France - Marseille (29881013814).jpg
Cathedrale Sainte-Marie-Majeure. 4.JPG
Motto(s): 
Actibus immensis urbs fulget massiliensis
"The city of Marseille shines from its great achievements"
Location of Marseille
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
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Marseille
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'azur region location map.svg
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Marseille
Coordinates: 43°17′47″N5°22′12″E / 43.2964°N 5.37°E / 43.2964; 5.37 Coordinates: 43°17′47″N5°22′12″E / 43.2964°N 5.37°E / 43.2964; 5.37
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Bouches-du-Rhône
Arrondissement Marseille
Canton 12 cantons
Intercommunality Aix-Marseille-Provence
Government
  Mayor (since 1995) Jean-Claude Gaudin (LR)
Area
1
240.62 km2 (92.90 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2010)
1,731.91 km2 (668.69 sq mi)
  Metro
 (2010)
3,173.51 km2 (1,225.30 sq mi)
Population
(Jan. 2016 [1] )2
869,815
  Rank2nd after Paris
  Density3,600/km2 (9,400/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2014)
1,578,484 [2]
   Metro
 (Jan. 2011)
1,831,500 [3]
Demonym(s) Marseillais (French)
Marselhés (Occitan)
Massiliot (ancient)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
13055 /13001-13016
Dialling codes 0491 or 0496
Website marseille.fr
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Marseille ( /mɑːrˈs/ , French:  [maʁsɛj] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), locally  [mɑχˈsɛjə] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); also spelled in English as Marseilles; Provençal : Marselha [maʀˈsejɔ, -ˈsijɔ]) is the second-largest city of France. The main city of the historical province of Provence, it is the prefecture of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It is located on the Mediterranean coast near the mouth of the Rhône. The city covers an area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) and had a population of 852,516 in 2012. [1] Its metropolitan area, which extends over 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) is the third-largest in France after Paris and Lyon, with a population of 1,831,500 as of 2010. [3]

Provençal dialect dialect of Occitan

Provençal is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence. In the English-speaking world, the term Provençal has historically also been used to refer to all of Occitan, but is now mainly understood to refer to the variety spoken in Provence.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Contents

Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia [4] (Greek : Μασσαλία, romanized: Massalía), [5] [6] Marseille was an important European trading centre and remains the main commercial port of the French Republic. Marseille is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture in 2013 and European Capital of Sport in 2017; it hosted matches at the 1998 World Cup and Euro 2016. It is home to Aix-Marseille University.

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

Mediterranean Sea Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean between Europe, Africa and Asia

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago.

Marseille-Fos Port port in France

Marseille Fos Port is the main trade seaport of France. In 2011, the port had an overall traffic of 88 million tons. It was also one of the 15 world's largest cruise ports and the fifth-largest in the Mediterranean.

Geography

View of the "Petit Nice" on Marseille's corniche (7th arrondissement) with the Frioul archipelago and the Chateau d'If in the background Marseille-corniche.jpg
View of the "Petit Nice" on Marseille's corniche (7th arrondissement) with the Frioul archipelago and the Château d'If in the background

Marseille is the second-largest city in France after Paris and the centre of the third-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon. To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanques, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets. Farther east still are the Sainte-Baume (a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees), the city of Toulon and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of l'Estaque; farther west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lion and the Camargue region in the Rhône delta. The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre. [7]

Cassis Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Cassis is a commune situated east of Marseille in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, whose coastline is known in English as the French Riviera, in Southern France.

Calanque A narrow, steep-walled inlet on the Mediterranean coast

A calanque is a narrow, steep-walled inlet that is developed in limestone, dolomite, or other carbonate strata and found along the Mediterranean coast. A calanque is a steep-sided valley formed within karstic regions either by fluvial erosion or the collapse of the roof of a cave that has been subsequently partially submerged by a rise in sea level.

Fjord A long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity

Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, Antarctica, British Columbia, Chile, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Norway, Novaya Zemlya, Labrador, Nunavut, Newfoundland, Quebec, Scotland, South Georgia Island, and Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi) with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) when fjords are excluded.

The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the Canebière) stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Farther out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo . The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at Rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse (one of the city's main shopping malls). The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones, most notably Rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th and 8th arrondissements, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde. Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière. [7]

Canebière thoroughfare in Marseille, France

La Canebière is the historic high street in the old quarter of Marseille, France.

Old Port of Marseille seaport

The Old Port of Marseille is at the end of the Canebière, the major street of Marseille. It has been the natural harbour of the city since antiquity and is now the main popular place in Marseille. It became mainly pedestrian in 2013.

Saint Nicholas 4th-century Christian saint

Saint Nicholas of Myra, also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of the ancient Greek maritime city of Myra in Asia Minor during the time of the Roman Empire. He is revered by many Christians as a saint. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, repentant thieves, children, brewers, pawnbrokers, and students in various cities and countries around Europe. His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas.

Satellite view

Marseille from ISS 2017.jpg
Marseille and Calanques National Park from the ISS, February 2017

Climate

The city has a hot-summer mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers. [8] December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during the day and 19 °C (66 °F) at night in the Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) in July. [9]

Mediterranean climate climate zone

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common. Mediterranean climate zones are typically located along the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of Mediterranean, or dry summer climate, is the subtropical ridge which extends northwards during the summer and migrates south during the winter due to greater temperature differences.

Köppen climate classification climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Marseille is officially the sunniest major city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in country (is around 1,950 hours). It is also the driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually, especially thanks to the Mistral, a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhône Valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring and which generally brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent; over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall.[ citation needed ]

Mistral (wind) wind in France

The mistral is a strong, cold, northwesterly wind that blows from southern France into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean. It produces sustained winds often exceeding 66 km/h (41 mph), sometimes reaching 185 km/h (115 mph). It is most common in the winter and spring, and strongest in the transition between the two seasons. Periods of the wind exceeding 30 km/h (19 mph) for more than sixty-five hours have been reported.

Rhône river in Switzerland and France

The Rhône is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire, rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône and the Little Rhône. The resulting delta constitutes the Camargue region.

Sirocco wind

Sirocco, scirocco, jugo or, rarely, siroc is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe, especially during the summer season.

The hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave. [10]

Climate data for Marseille-Marignane (Marseille Provence Airport), elevation: 36 m, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1921–present [lower-alpha 1]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
25.4
(77.7)
29.6
(85.3)
34.9
(94.8)
37.6
(99.7)
39.7
(103.5)
39.2
(102.6)
34.3
(93.7)
30.4
(86.7)
25.2
(77.4)
20.3
(68.5)
39.7
(103.5)
Average high °C (°F)11.4
(52.5)
12.5
(54.5)
15.8
(60.4)
18.6
(65.5)
22.9
(73.2)
27.1
(80.8)
30.2
(86.4)
29.7
(85.5)
25.5
(77.9)
20.9
(69.6)
15.1
(59.2)
11.9
(53.4)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)7.1
(44.8)
8.1
(46.6)
11.0
(51.8)
13.8
(56.8)
18.0
(64.4)
21.8
(71.2)
24.8
(76.6)
24.4
(75.9)
20.6
(69.1)
16.6
(61.9)
11.1
(52.0)
7.9
(46.2)
15.5
(59.9)
Average low °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
3.6
(38.5)
6.2
(43.2)
9.1
(48.4)
13.1
(55.6)
16.6
(61.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.0
(66.2)
15.7
(60.3)
12.4
(54.3)
7.2
(45.0)
4.0
(39.2)
10.8
(51.4)
Record low °C (°F)−12.4
(9.7)
−16.8
(1.8)
−10.0
(14.0)
−2.4
(27.7)
0.0
(32.0)
5.4
(41.7)
7.8
(46.0)
8.1
(46.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.2
(28.0)
−5.8
(21.6)
−12.8
(9.0)
−16.8
(1.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)48.0
(1.89)
31.4
(1.24)
30.4
(1.20)
54.0
(2.13)
41.1
(1.62)
24.5
(0.96)
9.2
(0.36)
31.0
(1.22)
77.1
(3.04)
67.2
(2.65)
55.7
(2.19)
45.8
(1.80)
515.4
(20.29)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)5.34.53.96.14.53.01.32.74.56.15.95.553.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 145.1173.7238.7244.5292.9333.4369.1327.4258.6187.1152.5134.92,857.8
Source: Météo France [13]

History

A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA[LIA] (MASSA[LIA]
), dated 375-200 BC, during the Hellenistic period of Marseille, bearing the head of the Greek goddess Artemis on the obverse and a lion on the reverse Massalia large coin 5th 1st century BCE.jpg
A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA[LIA] (ΜΑΣΣΑ[ΛΙΑ]), dated 375–200 BC, during the Hellenistic period of Marseille, bearing the head of the Greek goddess Artemis on the obverse and a lion on the reverse

Marseille was originally founded circa 600 BC as the Greek colony of Massalia and populated by settlers from Phocaea (modern Foça, Turkey). It became the preeminent Greek polis in the Hellenized region of southern Gaul. The city-state sided with the Roman Republic against Carthage during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), retaining its independence and commercial empire throughout the western Mediterranean even as Rome expanded into Western Europe and North Africa. However, the city lost its independence following the Roman Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, during Caesar's Civil War, in which Massalia sided with the exiled faction at war with Julius Caesar.

Marseille continued to prosper as a Roman city, becoming an early center of Christianity during the Western Roman Empire. The city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub even after its capture by the Visigoths in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of 739 AD by the forces of Charles Martel. It became part of the County of Provence during the 10th century, although its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and sack of the city by the Crown of Aragon in 1423. The city's fortunes rebounded with the ambitious building projects of René of Anjou, Count of Provence, who strengthened the city's fortifications during the mid-15th century. During the 16th century the city hosted a naval fleet with the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance, which threatened the ports and navies of Genoa and the Holy Roman Empire.

Marseille lost a significant portion of its population during the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720, but the population had recovered by mid-century. In 1792 the city became a focal point of the French Revolution and was the birthplace of France's national anthem, La Marseillaise . The Industrial Revolution and establishment of the French Empire during the 19th century allowed for further expansion of the city, although it was occupied by the German Wehrmacht in November 1942 and subsequently heavily damaged during World War II. The city has since become a major center for immigrant communities from former French colonies, such as French Algeria.

Economy

Marseille is a major French centre for trade and industry, with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads, sea port and airport). Marseille Provence Airport is the fourth largest in France. In May 2005, the French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille the most dynamic of France's large cities, citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created in the city since 2000. [16] Marseille is also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. [ citation needed ]As of 2014, the Marseille metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $60.3 billion, or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity). [17]

Port

The entrance to the Old Port, flanked by Fort Saint-Jean and Fort Saint-Nicolas 1 marseille vieux port pano.jpg
The entrance to the Old Port, flanked by Fort Saint-Jean and Fort Saint-Nicolas

Historically, the economy of Marseille was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia with Metropolitan France. The Old Port was replaced as the main port for trade by the Port de la Joliette during the Second Empire and now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and functions mostly as a private marina. The majority of the port and docks, which experienced decline in the 1970s after the oil crisis, have been recently redeveloped with funds from the European Union. Fishing remains important in Marseille and the food economy of Marseille is fed by the local catch; a daily fish market is still held on the Quai des Belges of the Old Port.

The economy of Marseille and its region is still linked to its commercial port, the first French port and the fifth European port by cargo tonnage, which lies north of the Old Port and eastern in Fos-sur-Mer. Some 45,000 jobs are linked to the port activities and it represents 4 billion euros added value to the regional economy. [18] 100 million tons of freight pass annually through the port, 60% of which is petroleum, making it number one in France and the Mediterranean and number three in Europe. However, in the early 2000s, the growth in container traffic was being stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval. [19] The port is among the 20th firsts in Europe for container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU and new infrastructures have already raised the capacity to 2M TEU. [20] Petroleum refining and shipbuilding are the principal industries, but chemicals, soap, glass, sugar, building materials, plastics, textiles, olive oil, and processed foods are also important products. [ citation needed ] Marseille is connected with the Rhône via a canal and thus has access to the extensive waterway network of France. Petroleum is shipped northward to the Paris basin by pipeline. The city also serves as France's leading centre of oil refining.

Companies, services and high technologies

From left to right: La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks), ferry ship docks, new port, Euromediterranee business district (CMA CGM Tower) and surrounding areas Marseille dock strike-pano.jpg
From left to right: La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks), ferry ship docks, new port, Euroméditerranée business district (CMA CGM Tower) and surrounding areas

In recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in service sector employment and a switch from light manufacturing to a cultural, high-tech economy. [ citation needed ] The Marseille region is home to thousands of companies, 90% of which are small and medium enterprises with less than 500 employees. [21] [ full citation needed ] Among the most famous ones are CMA CGM, container-shipping giant; Compagnie maritime d'expertises (Comex), world leader in sub-sea engineering and hydraulic systems; Airbus Helicopters, an Airbus division; Azur Promotel, an active real estate development company; La Provence, the local daily newspaper; RTM, Marseille's public transport company; and Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM), a major operator in passenger, vehicle and freight transportation in the Western Mediterranean. The urban operation Euroméditerranée has developed a large offer of offices and thus Marseille hosts one of the main business district in France.

Marseille is the home of three main technopoles: Château-Gombert (technological innovations), Luminy (biotechnology) and La Belle de Mai (17,000 sq.m. of offices dedicated to multimedia activities). [22] [23]

Tourism and attractions

Pointe Rouge Beach Playa de la Punta Roja, Marsella, Francia, 2016-06-22, DD 04.jpg
Pointe Rouge Beach
Palais du Pharo Edmond Dantes 20130630 Marseille 1.jpg
Palais du Pharo

The port is also an important arrival base for millions of people each year, with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships. [18] With its beaches, history, architecture and culture (24 museums and 42 theatres), Marseille is one of the most visited cities in France, with 4.1 million visitors in 2012. [24] Marseille is ranked 86th in the world for business tourism and events, advancing from the 150th spot one year before. [ citation needed ] The number of congress days hosted on its territory increased from 109,000 in 1996 to almost 300,000 in 2011. [ citation needed ]

They take place in three main sites, the Palais du Pharo, Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) and World Trade Center. [25] In 2012 Marseille hosted the World Water Forum. Several urban projects have been developed to make Marseille attractive. Thus new parks, museums, public spaces and real estate projects aim to improve the city's quality of life (Parc du 26e Centenaire, Old Port of Marseille, [26] numerous places in Euroméditerranée) to attract firms and people. Marseille municipality acts to develop Marseille as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France with high concentration of museums, cinemas, theatres, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and art galleries.

Employment

Unemployment in the economy fell from 20% in 1995 to 14% in 2004. [27] However, Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than the national average. In some parts of Marseille, youth unemployment is reported to be as high as 40%. [28]

Administration

The sectors and arrondissements of Marseille Secteurs Arrondissements Marseille.svg
The sectors and arrondissements of Marseille
Political majority in each sector since 2014 Secteurs de Marseille 2014.svg
Political majority in each sector since 2014

The city of Marseille is divided into 16 municipal arrondissements, which are themselves informally divided into 111 neighbourhoods (French: quartiers). The arrondissements are regrouped in pairs, into 8 sectors, each with a mayor and council (like the arrondissements in Paris and Lyon). [29] Municipal elections are held every six years and are carried out by sector. There are 303 councilmembers in total, two-thirds sitting in the sector councils and one third in the city council.

The 9th arrondissement of Marseille is the largest in terms of area because it comprises parts of Calanques National Park. With a population of 89,316 (2007), the 13th arrondissement of Marseille is the most populous one.

From 1950 to the mid-1990s, Marseille was a Socialist (PS) and Communist (PCF) stronghold. Gaston Defferre (PS) was consecutively reelected six times as Mayor of Marseille from 1953 until his death in 1986. He was succeeded by Robert Vigouroux of the European Democratic and Social Rally (RDSE). Jean-Claude Gaudin of the right-wing UMP was elected Mayor of Marseille in 1995. Gaudin was reelected in 2001, 2008 and 2014.

In recent years, the Communist Party has lost most of its strength in the northern boroughs of the city, whereas the National Front has received significant support. At the last municipal election in 2014, Marseille was divided between the northern arrondissements dominated by the left (PS) and far-right (FN) and the southern part of town dominated by the right-wing (UMP). Marseille is also divided in twelve cantons, each of them sending two members to the Departmental Council of the Bouches-du-Rhône department.

List of Mayors of Marseille since the beginning of the 20th century

Gaston Defferre served as Mayor of Marseille from 1953 to 1986. Gaston Defferre 1964.jpg
Gaston Defferre served as Mayor of Marseille from 1953 to 1986.
Jean-Claude Gaudin has been Mayor of Marseille since 1995. Ouverture des Assises internationales du mecenat d'entreprise par Jean-Claude Gaudin, senateur-maire de la ville de Marseille (5733216714).jpg
Jean-Claude Gaudin has been Mayor of Marseille since 1995.
MayorTerm startTerm end Party
Siméon Flaissières  [ fr ]18951901Socialist
Marius-Justin-Albin-Hector Curet19011902 Independent
Jean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot  [ fr ]19021908 Progressive Republican
Emmanuel Allard19081910 Progressive Republican
Clément Lévy  [ fr ]19101910Independent
Bernard Cadenat 19101912 SFIO
Jean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot  [ fr ]19121914 Progressive Republican
Eugène Pierre  [ fr ]19141919 Republican Independents
Siméon Flaissières  [ fr ]19191931 SFIO
Simon Sabiani 19311931 Republican Independents
Georges Ribot  [ fr ]19311935 Radical
Henri Tasso 19311939 SFIO
Nominated administrators19391944
Gaston Defferre 19441946 SFIO
Marcel Renault19461946Independent
Jean Cristofol 19461947 PCF
Michel Carlini 19471953 RPF
Gaston Defferre 19531986 SFIO, PS
Jean-Victor Cordonnier  [ fr ]19861986 PS
Robert Vigouroux 19861995 DVG
Jean-Claude Gaudin 1995incumbent DL, UMP

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801111,100    
1851195,350+1.14%
1881360,100+2.06%
1911550,619+1.43%
1931606,000+0.48%
1946636,300+0.33%
1954661,407+0.48%
1962778,071+2.05%
1968889,029+2.25%
1975908,600+0.31%
1982874,436−0.55%
1990800,550−1.10%
1999798,430−0.03%
2006839,043+0.71%
2011850,636+0.27%

Immigration

Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille has always been one of the main gateways into France. This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille a cosmopolitan melting pot. By the end of the 18th century about half the population originated from elsewhere in Provence mostly and also from southern France. [30] [31] [ page needed ]

Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world brought several other waves of immigrants during the 20th century: Greeks and Italians started arriving at the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, up to 40% of the city's population was of Italian origin; [32] Russians in 1917; Armenians in 1915 and 1923; Vietnamese in the 1920s, 1954 and after 1975; [33] Corsicans during the 1920s and 1930s; Spanish after 1936; North Africans (both Arab and Berber) in the inter-war period; Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945; the pieds-noirs from the former French Algeria in 1962; and then from Comoros. In 2006, it was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered to be of Maghrebi origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45,000 people. [32]

Currently, over one third of the population of Marseille can trace their roots back to Italy. [34] Marseille also has the second-largest Corsican and Armenian populations of France. Other significant communities include Maghrebis, Turks, Comorians, Chinese, and Vietnamese. [35]

In 1999, in several arrondissements, about 40% of the young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent). [36]

Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel to work in the city of Marseille, attracted by better job opportunities and the good climate of this Mediterranean city. The main nationalities of the immigrants are Romanians and Poles. [37]

Largest groups of foreign residents
NationalityPopulation (2011) [38]
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 37,673
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 32,800
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 30,000
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 12,283
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 9,094
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 8,227
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 7,134
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 6,988
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 5,002
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 4,902
Place of birth of residents of the city proper of Marseille in 1999
Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France
78.9%21.1%
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15 immigrants2Non-EU-15 immigrants
0.9%8.8%2.1%9.3%
Place of birth of residents of the metropolitan area of Marseille in 1999
Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France
81.2%18.8%
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15 immigrants2Non-EU-15 immigrants
0.7%N/A%N/A%N/A%
1This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as pieds-noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), and to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.
2An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

Religion

According to data from 2010, major religious communities in Marseille include:

Culture

Paul Cezanne's The Bay of Marseille, Seen from L'Estaque Le golfe de Marseille vu de l'Estaque, par Paul Cezanne.jpg
Paul Cézanne's The Bay of Marseille, Seen from L'Estaque
Bastille Day military parade in Marseille, 2012 ERC 90 Sagaie-1RCA-IMG 5580.jpg
Bastille Day military parade in Marseille, 2012

Marseille is a city that has its own unique culture and is proud of its differences from the rest of France. [40] Today it is a regional centre for culture and entertainment with an important opera house, historical and maritime museums, five art galleries and numerous cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants.

Marseille has a large number of theatres, including La Criée, Le Gymnase and the Théâtre Toursky. There is also an extensive arts centre in La Friche, a former match factory behind the Saint-Charles station. The Alcazar, until the 1960s a well known music hall and variety theatre, has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade and now houses the central municipal library. [41] Other music venues in Marseille include Le Silo (also a theatre) and GRIM.

Marseille has also been important in the arts. It has been the birthplace and home of many French writers and poets, including Victor Gélu  [ fr ], Valère Bernard  [ fr ], Pierre Bertas, [42] Edmond Rostand and André Roussin. The small port of l'Estaque on the far end of the Bay of Marseille became a favourite haunt for artists, including Auguste Renoir, Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home in Aix), Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy.

European Capital of Culture

Marseille served as the European Capital of Culture for 2013 along with Košice. [43] Marseille-Provence 2013 (MP2013) featured more than 900 cultural events held throughout Marseille and the surrounding communities. These cultural events generated more than 11 million visits. [44] The European Capital of Culture was also the occasion to unveil more than 600 million euros in new cultural infrastructure in Marseille and its environs, including the iconic MuCEM designed by Rudy Ricciotti.

Tarot de Marseille

Marseille tarot card Jean Dodal Tarot trump 13.jpg
Marseille tarot card

The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from the city; it has been called the Tarot de Marseille since the 1930s—a name coined for commercial use by the French cardmaker and cartomancer Paul Marteau, owner of B–P Grimaud. Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) and even earlier it was simply called Tarot. Before being de Marseille, it was used to play the local variant of tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy at the end of the 18th century, following the trend set by Antoine Court de Gébelin. The name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used the name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used by contrast to other types of Tarots such as Tarot de Besançon ; those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers in the 18th century (previously several cities in France were involved in cardmaking). [45]

Another local tradition is the making of santons, small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provençal Christmas creche. Since 1803, starting on the last Sunday of November, there has been a Santon Fair in Marseille; it is currently held in the Cours d'Estienne d'Orves, a large square off the Vieux-Port.

Opera

The Opera de Marseille Laika ac Marseille (9491261832).jpg
The Opéra de Marseille

Marseille's main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late 1970s, the Opéra. Located near the Old Port and the Canebière, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in Lyon and Bordeaux. In 1919, a fire almost completely destroyed the house, leaving only the stone colonnade and peristyle from the original façade. [46] [47] The classical façade was restored and the opera house reconstructed in a predominantly Art Deco style, as the result of a major competition. Currently the Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each year. [48]

Since 1972, the Ballet national de Marseille has performed at the opera house; its director from its foundation to 1998 was Roland Petit.

There are several popular festivals in different neighborhoods, with concerts, animations, and outdoor bars, like the Fête du Panier in June. On 21 June, there are dozens of free concerts in the city as part of France's Fête de la Musique, featuring music from all over the world. Being free events, many Marseille residents attend.

Marseille hosts a Gay Pride event in early July. In 2013, Marseille hosted Europride, an international LGBT event, 10 July20. [49] At the beginning of July, there is the International Documentary Festival. [50] At the end of September, the electronic music festival Marsatac takes place. In October, the Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world music. [51]

Hip hop music

Marseille is also well known in France for its hip hop music. [52] Bands like IAM originated from Marseille and initiated the rap phenomenon in France. Other known groups include Fonky Family, Psy 4 de la Rime (including rappers Soprano and Alonzo), and Keny Arkana. In a slightly different way, ragga music is represented by Massilia Sound System.

Food

Traditional Marseille bouillabaisse Bullabessa.jpg
Traditional Marseille bouillabaisse
Swordfish in olive oil with ratatouille and saffron rice Espadon Ratatouille.JPG
Swordfish in olive oil with ratatouille and saffron rice
Pieds paquets Pieds & Paquets.JPG
Pieds paquets

Films set in Marseille

Marseille has been the setting for many films.

Marseille in television

The French television series Plus belle la vie is set in an imaginary quarter, Le Mistral, of Marseille. It is filmed in the Panier quarter of Marseille.

The Netflix series Marseille is set in the city in the 2010s.

Main sights

Marseille is listed as a major centre of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest.

Central Marseille

Le Panier quarter with the Hotel de Ville and the church of Notre-Dame des Accoules L'Hotel de Ville (Marseille) (14181557102).jpg
Le Panier quarter with the Hotel de Ville and the church of Notre-Dame des Accoules
La Vieille Charite La Vieille Charite (Marseille) (14177078901).jpg
La Vieille Charité
The Abbey of St. Victor and the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde Christian Marseille.jpg
The Abbey of St. Victor and the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde

Most of the attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements. These include: [63] [64]

Museums

In addition to the two in the Centre de la Vieille Charité, described above, the main museums are: [67]

Outside central Marseille

The Calanque of Sugiton in the 9th arrondissement of Marseille Calanques.jpg
The Calanque of Sugiton in the 9th arrondissement of Marseille
The Chateau d'If Marseille Chateau d'If 26.jpg
The Château d'If
Hollywood-style "Marseille" sign Marseille 20160827 92.jpg
Hollywood-style "Marseille" sign

The main attractions outside the city centre include: [64]

Education and research

A number of the faculties of the three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University are located in Marseille:

In addition Marseille has four grandes écoles:

The main French research bodies including the CNRS, INSERM and INRA are all well represented in Marseille. Scientific research is concentrated at several sites across the city, including Luminy, where there are institutes in developmental biology (the IBDML), immunology (CIML), marine sciences and neurobiology (INMED), at the CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular and environmental microbiology) and at the Timone hospital site (known for work in medical microbiology). Marseille is also home to the headquarters of the IRD, which promotes research into questions affecting developing countries.

Transport

Motorways around Marseille Marseille Autoroutes.svg
Motorways around Marseille

International and regional transport

Marseille Provence Airport, the fifth busiest in France. Marseille Provence Airport 2017 09.jpg
Marseille Provence Airport, the fifth busiest in France.

The city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airport, located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in 2012. [81] An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west (A7), Aix-en-Provence in the north (A51), Toulon (A50) and the French Riviera (A8) to the east.

Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles is Marseille's main railway station. It operates direct regional services to Aix-en-Provence, Briançon, Toulon, Avignon, Nice, Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Nantes, etc. Gare Saint-Charles is also one of the main terminal stations for the TGV in the south of France making Marseille reachable in three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) and just over one and a half hours from Lyon. There are also direct TGV lines to Lille, Brussels, Nantes, Geneva, Strasbourg and Frankfurt as well as Eurostar services to London. In addition, the night train (Intercités de Nuit) from Luxembourg and Strasbourg stops here on its way to Nice, whereas the night train from Paris to Nice serves the Gare de Marseille-Blancarde.

There is a new long distance bus station adjacent to new modern extension to the Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly to other Bouches-du-Rhône towns, including buses to Aix-en-Provence, Cassis, La Ciotat and Aubagne. The city is also served with 11 other regional trains stations in the east and the north of the city.

Marseille has a large ferry terminal, the Gare Maritime, with services to Corsica, Sardinia, Algeria and Tunisia.

Public transport

Metro and tramway network Marseille - SPNV - Netzplan.png
Metro and tramway network

Marseille is connected by the Marseille Métro train system operated by the Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM). It consists of two lines: Line 1 (blue) between Castellane and La Rose opened in 1977 and Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel and Bougainville opened between 1984 and 1987. An extension of the Line 1 from Castellane to La Timone was completed in 1992, another extension from La Timone to La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) and 4 new stations) was opened in May 2010. The Métro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths. Both lines of the Métro intersect at Gare Saint-Charles and Castellane. Three bus rapid transit lines are under construction to better connect the Métro to farther places (Castellane -> Luminy ; Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves ; La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome).

The new tramway Marseille1.jpg
The new tramway

An extensive bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille, with 104 lines and 633 buses. The three lines of the tramway, [82] opened in 2007, go from the CMA CGM Tower towards Les Caillols.

As in many other French cities, a bike-sharing service nicknamed "Le vélo", free for trips of less than half an hour, was introduced by the city council in 2007. [83]

A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and Pointe Rouge; in spring 2013 it will also run to l'Estaque. [84] There are also ferry services and boat trips available from the Old Port to Frioul, the Calanques and Cassis.

Sport

The Stade Velodrome, home of Olympique de Marseille Stade Velodrome (20150405).jpg
The Stade Vélodrome, home of Olympique de Marseille

The city boasts a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city's football club, Olympique de Marseille, which was the finalist of the UEFA Champions League in 1991, before winning the competition in 1993. The club also became finalists of the UEFA Europa League in 1999, 2004 and 2018. The club had a history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie. The club's home, the Stade Vélodrome, which can seat around 67,000 people, also functions for other local sports, as well as the national rugby team. Stade Velodrome hosted a number of games during the 1998 FIFA World Cup, 2007 Rugby World Cup, and UEFA Euro 2016. The local rugby teams are Marseille XIII and Marseille Vitrolles Rugby.[ citation needed ] Marseille is famous for its important pétanque activity, it is even renowned as the pétanque capitale. [85] In 2012 Marseille hosted the Pétanque World Championship and the city hosts every year the Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque, the main pétanque competition.

Match Race France 2008 Match Race J80.jpg
Match Race France 2008

Sailing is a major sport in Marseille. The wind conditions allow regattas in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. [ citation needed ] Throughout most seasons of the year it can be windy while the sea remains smooth enough to allow sailing. Marseille has been the host of 8 (2010) Match Race France events which are part of the World Match Racing Tour. The event draws the world's best sailing teams to Marseille. The identical supplied boats (J Boats J-80 racing yachts) are raced two at a time in an on the water dogfight which tests the sailors and skippers to the limits of their physical abilities. Points accrued count towards the World Match Racing Tour and a place in the final event, with the overall winner taking the title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion. Match racing is an ideal sport for spectators in Marseille, as racing in close proximity to the shore provides excellent views. The city was also considered as a possible venue for 2007 America's Cup. [86]

Marseille is also a place for other water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating. Marseille has three golf courses. The city has dozens of gyms and several public swimming pools. Running is also popular in many of Marseille's parks such as Le Pharo and Le Jardin Pierre Puget. An annual footrace is held between the city and neighbouring Cassis: the Marseille-Cassis Classique Internationale.[ citation needed ]

Notable people

Pytheas Pytheas.jpg
Pytheas
Honore Daumier: Sunday at the Museum Daumier dimanche au musee.jpg
Honoré Daumier: Sunday at the Museum
Edmond Rostand Edmond Rostand en habit vert 01.jpg
Edmond Rostand
Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud 1923.jpg
Darius Milhaud
Maurice Bejart Maurice Bejart (1988) by Erling Mandelmann - 2.jpg
Maurice Béjart
Eric Cantona Eric Cantona Cannes 2009.jpg
Eric Cantona
Zinedine Zidane Zinedine Zidane by Tasnim 03.jpg
Zinedine Zidane
Jessica Fox Jessica Fox 2016.jpg
Jessica Fox

Marseille was the birthplace of:

Newsreel showing the assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou in Marseille (October 1934).

The following personalities died in Marseille:

International relations

Sister cities

Marseille is currently officially twinned with 13 cities: [91]

Partner cities

In addition, Marseille has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with 27 cities all over the world: [94]

See also

Notes

  1. The altitude provided from the site varies about 31 m, a much larger value than the margin of error, which may mean that the station was relocated ms in one of the data had maintained the elevation from when measured, which should be used. [11] [12]
  2. Although the values have a record of more than two decades, it can not be used as an overview of the local climate, as it does not reach the minimum period of 30 years required by WMO. [14]

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Further reading