Martín de Goiti

Last updated
Martin de Goiti
Born
Martín de Goiti

c. 1534
Died1575 (aged 4041)
Nationality Spanish
Occupation Conquistador

Martín de Goiti (c. 1534 - 1575) was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific, in 1565. From his main base in Mexico City, he was the leader of the expedition to Manila, ordered by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1569. There, he fought a number of battles against the Muslim, Tariq Suleiman/Soliman (Arabic سليمان), the Hindu Rajah Matanda (Hindi ऋअज ंअतन्द), and the Taoist Lakandula (trad. Chinese 王 杜拉) of the kingdoms in Luzon; for control of the lands and its settlements. He is also known for his statesmanship by betrothing his sister to Batang Dula, the eldest son and successor apparent of Lakan Dula of Tondo (trad. Chinese"東都" pronounced Dongdu), the paramount ruler of Manila. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the Basque Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family eventually married with the Mendoza family who came over from Latin-America, who were Sephardic Hebrews that were practicing Catholics. Afterwards, the Dula y Goiti surname was shortened to Dulay. However, during the Spanish era, some descendants changed their surnames even further in order to avoid persecution and among which; the Salonga and Macapagal families are known descendants of these royal houses albeit only through a different family name.

East Indies connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural influence, including South, Southeast Asia and the islands of Southeast Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago (except Vietnam which is in the Chinese cultural sphere).

The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia. In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia, especially the Indonesian Archipelago and the Philippine Archipelago. The name "Indies" is derived from the River Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural sphere.

Miguel López de Legazpi Spanish navigator and colonial governor

Miguel López de Legazpi, also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies which included the Philippines and other Pacific archipelagos, namely Guam and the Marianas Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Manila the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1571. The capital city of the province of Albay bears his name.

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The Battles for Manila (1570-1575)

The Spaniards arrived in Luzon on May 8, 1570, and camped on the shores of Manila Bay for several weeks, while forming an alliance with the Muslims. On May 24, 1570, disputes and hostility erupted between the two groups. The Spaniards occupied the city of Tondo where they were greeted with thousands of warriors. There, they defeated most of Tariq Suleiman's (سليمان), Rajah Matanda's (ऋअज ंअतन्द), and Lakan Dula's (王 杜拉) people. The Spaniards marched their armies towards the Pasig River, and occupied the settlements in Manila on June 6, 1570 and burned them.

Luzon largest island of the Philippines

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern region of the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 53 million as of 2015,, it is the fourth most populous island in the world containing 52.5% of the country's total population.

Manila Bay natural harbour, industrial port of Manila on Luzon

Manila Bay is a natural harbour which serves the Port of Manila, in the Philippines. Strategically located around the capital city of the Philippines, Manila Bay facilitated commerce and trade between the Philippines and its neighbouring countries, becoming the gateway for socio-economic development even prior to Spanish occupation. With an area of 1,994 km2 (769.9 sq mi), and a coastline of 190 km (118.1 mi), Manila Bay is situated in the western part of Luzon and is bounded by Cavite and Metro Manila on the east, Bulacan and Pampanga on the north, and Bataan on the west and northwest. Manila Bay drains approximately 17,000 km2 (6,563.7 sq mi) of watershed area, with the Pampanga River contributing about 49% of the freshwater influx. With an average depth of 17 m (55.8 ft), it is estimated to have a total volume of 28.9 billion cubic metres. Entrance to the bay is 19 km (11.8 mi) wide and expands to a width of 48 km (29.8 mi). However, width of the bay varies from 22 km (13.7 mi) at its mouth and expanding to 60 km (37.3 mi) at its widest point.

Tondo, Manila Place in National Capital Region, Philippines

Tondo is a district located in Manila, Philippines. It is the largest in terms of area and population of Manila's sixteen districts, with a Census-estimated 631,313 people in 2015 and consists of two congressional districts. It is also the most densely populated district in the city.

Guerrilla warfare broke out following the battle, which continued for about ten months. The Spaniards fortified themselves in the area and constructed their military barracks of Fort Santiago, which became their outpost for trade with Mexico. The Spaniards gained control of the settlements on June 24, 1571, after the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi in Manila, who agreed to a peace agreement sealed by betrothing one of his half-caste (Half Aztec and Half Spanish) daughters to Batang Dula, heir apparent of Lakan Dula. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the half-Aztec and half Spanish de Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family married with the Mendoza family who were Catholic Sephardic Hebrews and to mark the dynasty, changed the surname to Dulay. However, upon the commencement of persecutions the Dulay family's descendants changed their surnames even further and thus we have the Salonga and Macapagal families that are known descendants of these royal houses but subsist under a different family name.

Guerrilla warfare form of irregular warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility, to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military. Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor.

Fort Santiago citadel built by Spanish conquistador for the city of Manila, Philippines

Fort Santiago is a citadel first built by Spanish conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi for the new established city of Manila in the Philippines. The defense fortress is part of the structures of the walled city of Manila referred to as Intramuros.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

The Spanish colonization paved the way for the establishment of Manila as a permanent settlement and capital city of the Spanish East Indies. He later explored Pampanga, Pangasinan and founded several Spanish cities in Luzon between the periods of 1571 -1573. De Goiti, along with other soldiers were granted with haciendas (estates) for the lands they had conquered, by Philip II of Spain.

Spanish East Indies Spanish territory in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1901

The Spanish East Indies were the colonies of the Spanish Empire in Asia and Oceania from 1565 until 1899. At one time or another, they included the Philippines, Marianas, Carolines, Palaos and Guam, as well as parts of Formosa (Taiwan), Sulawesi (Celebes) and the Moluccas (Maluku). The King of Spain traditionally styled himself "King of the East and West Indies".

Pampanga Province in Central Luzon, Philippines

Pampanga is a province in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Lying on the northern shore of Manila Bay, Pampanga is bordered by Tarlac to the north, Nueva Ecija to the northeast, Bulacan to the east, the Manila Bay to the central-south, Bataan to the southwest and Zambales to the west. Its capital is the City of San Fernando. Angeles City, while geographically within Pampanga, is classified as a first-class, highly urbanized city and is governed independently of the province.

Pangasinan Province in Ilocos Region, Philippines

Pangasinan is a province in the Philippines. Its provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is on the western area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf and West Philippine Sea. It has a total land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi). According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 2,956,726 people. The official number of registered voters in Pangasinan is 1,651,814. The western portion of the province is part of the homeland of the Sambal people, while the central and eastern portions are the homeland of the Pangasinan people. Due to ethnic migration, Ilocano people have settled in some areas of the province.

In 1574, De Goiti fought in the war during the invasion of about 3,000 Chinese sea pirates who had sailed from the South China sea. Their leader, Limahong, besieged on the Spanish settlements in Manila. De Goiti was killed by these pirates. Most of the Spanish reinforcements came from Vigan and Cebu. Martín de Goiti's second in command, Juan de Salcedo left Ilocos Sur, after hearing the news and traveled to Manila where he discovered their settlements had been ceded to the pirates. Salcedo's forces attacked and drove the pirates out of Manila. Limahong and his fleets retreated to Pangasinan where they re-organize their forces.

Piracy Act of robbery or criminal violence at sea

Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates. The earliest documented instances of piracy were in the 14th century BC, when the Sea Peoples, a group of ocean raiders, attacked the ships of the Aegean and Mediterranean civilizations. Narrow channels which funnel shipping into predictable routes have long created opportunities for piracy, as well as for privateering and commerce raiding. Historic examples include the waters of Gibraltar, the Strait of Malacca, Madagascar, the Gulf of Aden, and the English Channel, whose geographic structures facilitated pirate attacks. A land-based parallel is the ambushing of travelers by bandits and brigands in highways and mountain passes. Privateering uses similar methods to piracy, but the captain acts under orders of the state authorizing the capture of merchant ships belonging to an enemy nation, making it a legitimate form of war-like activity by non-state actors.

Limahong Chinese pirate

Limahong, Lim Hong, or Lin Feng, well known as Ah Hong or Lim-A-Hong or Limahon, was a Chinese pirate and warlord who invaded the northern Philippine Islands in 1574. He built up a reputation for his constant raids to ports in Guangdong, Fujian and southern China. He is noted to have twice attempted, and failed, to overthrow the Spanish city of Manila in 1574.

Vigan Component City in Ilocos Region, Philippines

Vigan, officially the City of Vigan, is a 4th class component city and capital of the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 53,879 people.

In 1575, Salcedo's army marched north to Pangasinan, in pursuit of the pirates, and besieged them for three months. There the Spaniards captured Limahong and his fleets in the river of Pangasinan and executed them.

Legacy

De Goiti's remains were laid to rest in a tomb inside the San Agustin Church, in Intramuros.

Intramuros Place in National Capital Region, Philippines

Intramuros is the 0.67 square kilometres (0.26 sq mi) historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration (IA), which was created through the Presidential Decree No. 1616 signed on April 10, 1979. IA is tasked to rebuild, redevelop, administer and preserve the remaining pre-war buildings, structures and fortifications of Intramuros.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Battle of Manila (1570) battle in 1570 between Spanish colonizers and Rajah Sulayman

The Battle of Manila (1570) was fought in Manila between the native Filipinos led by Rajah Sulayman, a vassal to the Sultan of Brunei and the Spaniards led by Martin de Goiti, Maestro de Campo on May 24, 1570. The forces under Goiti were victorious and as a result, Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies.

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Battle of Manila (1574)

The Battle of Manila (1574) was a battle in the Manila area mainly in the location of what is now Parañaque between Chinese pirates, led by Limahong and the Spanish colonial forces and their native allies. The battle occurred on November 29, 1574 when Limahong's fleet landed in the town of Parañaque and from there, began to assault the fortifications of Intramuros. Initially, the inhabitants where disorganized and Limahong's forces routed them. Furthermore, the Chinese killed the Master-of-Camp of the Spanish, Martin de Goiti. This caused them to delay their assault on Manila as Martin de Goiti's house was an obstacle in their march.

Agustin de Legazpi was a Filipino historical figure best known as the leader of the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587–1588, the last native ruler of Tondo, and the last individual to be hold the title of paramount ruler in any of the Indianized indigenous Tagalog polities of the Pasig River delta, although it had been reduced to little more than a courtesy title by the time of Agustin de Legazpi's execution.

References