Martín de Ursúa

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Martín de Ursúa (or Urzúa) y Arizmendi (Spanish pronunciation:  [maɾˈtin de uɾˈsu.a] ; February 22, 1653 February 4, 1715), Count of Lizárraga and of Castillo, [1] was a [[Spain|Spanish]conquistador in Central America during the late colonial period of New Spain. Born in Olóriz, Navarre, [2] he is noted for leading the 1696–97 expeditionary force which resulted in the fall of the last significant independent Maya stronghold, Nojpetén, located on an island in Lake Petén Itzá in the northern Petén Basin region of present-day Guatemala. He served as governor of the Yucatán until 1708, when he was named Governor-General of the Philippines. [2] Around the time that he was named to that post, he was made a knight of the Order of Santiago. [2] He died in Manila in 1715. [3]

Estella-Lizarra Municipality in Navarre, Spain

Estella (Spanish) or Lizarra (Basque) is a town located in the autonomous community of Navarre, in northern Spain. It lies south west of Pamplona, close to the border with La Rioja and Álava.

Castillo-Nuevo municipality of Spain

Castillo-Nuevo is a town located in the province of Navarre, in the autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain.

<i>Conquistador</i> soldiers, explorers, and adventurers primarily at the service of the Spanish Empire, and also to the Portuguese Empire

Conquistadors were the knights, soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa, and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes. They colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

Contents

Ursúa arrived in Mexico around 1680 and initially served as a lawyer in Mexico City, until 1692. He used this period to cement relationships with colonial officials in Yucatán. [4] In 1692 he was appointed to be governor of Yucatán, with his term to begin in 1698. [5] By 1694 he had been appointed as alcalde ordinario (a Spanish colonial official) of Mexico City. [4] Ursúa took office in Yucatán four years earlier than planned, becoming acting governor on 17 December 1694. [6]

Alcalde is the traditional Spanish municipal magistrate, who had both judicial and administrative functions. An alcalde was, in the absence of a corregidor, the presiding officer of the Castilian cabildo and judge of first instance of a town. Alcaldes were elected annually, without the right to reelection for two or three years, by the regidores of the municipal council. The office of the alcalde was signified by a staff of office, which they were to take with them when doing their business. A woman who holds the office is termed an Alcaldesa.

Family tree

Martín de Ursúa was from a line of distinguished and successful noblemen that was extremely well connected politically and that intermarried with other influential noble families to form a kinship network that was spread across Europe and the Americas: [7]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General Pedro de Ursúa y Arizmendi
 
 
 
?
 
Diego Egües y Beaumont
Governor and Captain General of Nueva Granada
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pedro de Ursúa y Arizmendi de Egües
Count of Jerena
 
?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pedro de Ursúa,
Abbot of Pamplona
 
Martín de Ursúa y Arizmendi
 
Juana Bolio y Ojeda (criolla)
 

See also

History of the Philippines (1521–1898) The Philippines Spanish colonial period

The history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, also known as the Spanish colonial period from 1565, was the period following the arrival of Magellan in the Philippines and during Spain financed expeditions to the Philippine islands and then ruled them as the Captaincy General of the Philippines within the Spanish East Indies, initially under New Spain until Mexican independence in 1821, which gave Madrid direct control over the area. It started with the arrival in 1521 of European explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for Spain, which heralded the period when the Philippines was a colony of the Spanish Empire, and ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonial era of Philippine history.

Spanish conquest of Guatemala protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, in which Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain

The Spanish conquest of Guatemala was a protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, in which Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain. Before the conquest, this territory contained a number of competing Mesoamerican kingdoms, the majority of which were Maya. Many conquistadors viewed the Maya as "infidels" who needed to be forcefully converted and pacified, disregarding the achievements of their civilization. The first contact between the Maya and European explorers came in the early 16th century when a Spanish ship sailing from Panama to Santo Domingo was wrecked on the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in 1511. Several Spanish expeditions followed in 1517 and 1519, making landfall on various parts of the Yucatán coast. The Spanish conquest of the Maya was a prolonged affair; the Maya kingdoms resisted integration into the Spanish Empire with such tenacity that their defeat took almost two centuries.

The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities in the Yucatán Peninsula, a vast limestone plain covering south-eastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and all of Belize. The Spanish conquest of the Yucatán Peninsula was hindered by its politically fragmented state. The Spanish engaged in a strategy of concentrating native populations in newly founded colonial towns. Native resistance to the new nucleated settlements took the form of the flight into inaccessible regions such as the forest or joining neighbouring Maya groups that had not yet submitted to the Spanish. Among the Maya, ambush was a favoured tactic. Spanish weaponry included broadswords, rapiers, lances, pikes, halberds, crossbows, matchlocks and light artillery. Maya warriors fought with flint-tipped spears, bows and arrows and stones, and wore padded cotton armour to protect themselves. The Spanish introduced a number of Old World diseases previously unknown in the Americas, initiating devastating plagues that swept through the native populations.

Notes

  1. Jones 1998, pp. 113–114.
  2. 1 2 3 Jones 1998, p. 113.
  3. Jones 1998, p. 114.
  4. 1 2 Jones 1998, p. 118.
  5. Jones 1998, pp. 118–119.
  6. Jones 1998, p. 119.
  7. Jones 1998, pp. 113–115.

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References

Jones, Grant D. (1998). The Conquest of the Last Maya Kingdom. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press. ISBN   9780804735223.
Preceded by
Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri
Governor General of the Philippines
1708–1715
Succeeded by
José Torralba