Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange

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Mary
Princess Royal
Mary Princess of Orange.jpg
Portrait by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1652
Princess consort of Orange;
Countess consort of Nassau
Tenure14 March 1647 – 6 November 1650
Born4 November 1631
St. James's Palace, London
Died24 December 1660(1660-12-24) (aged 29)
Whitehall Palace, London
Burial29 December 1660
Spouse
William II, Prince of Orange
(m. 1641;died 1650)
Issue William III of England
House Stuart
Father Charles I of England
Mother Henrietta Maria of France
Religion Protestant

Mary, Princess Royal (Mary Henrietta; 4 November 1631 – 24 December 1660) was Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau by marriage to Prince William II, and co-regent for her son during his minority as Sovereign Prince of Orange from 1651 to 1660.

Contents

She was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France. Her only child, William succeeded her husband as Prince of Orange and later reigned as King of England, Ireland and Scotland. Mary was the first daughter of a British sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal.

Charles I of England 17th-century monarch of kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Scotland Country in Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

Life

Early life

Princess Mary, Daughter of Charles I; by Anthony van Dyck, ca. 1637 Anthony van Dyck - Princess Mary, Daughter of Charles I - Google Art Project.jpg
Princess Mary, Daughter of Charles I; by Anthony van Dyck, ca. 1637
Betrothed William and Mary by Anthony van Dyck, 1641 Anthonis van Dyck 036.jpg
Betrothed William and Mary by Anthony van Dyck, 1641
Mary on the day after her marriage, May 3, 1641; by Anthony van Dyck Princess Mary, daughter of King Charles I of England by Anthony Van Dyck.jpg
Mary on the day after her marriage, May 3, 1641; by Anthony van Dyck
Mary, Princess Royal, and William II, Prince of Orange by Gerard van Honthorst, 1647 Willem II prince of Orange and Maria Stuart.jpg
Mary, Princess Royal, and William II, Prince of Orange by Gerard van Honthorst, 1647
Scottish and English Royalty
House of Stuart
Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649).svg
Charles I
Children
Prince Charles James, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay
Charles II, King of England
Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
James II & VII
Princess Elizabeth
Princess Anne
Princess Catherine
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Princess Henriette, Duchess of Orléans

Mary Henrietta was born at St. James's Palace, London to Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria, Queen of England and was named after her mother. Charles I designated her Princess Royal in 1642, thus establishing the tradition that the eldest daughter of the British sovereign might bear this title. The title came into being when Queen Henrietta Maria, the daughter of King Henry IV of France wished to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the French king was styled (Madame Royale). Until that time, the eldest daughters of English and Scottish kings were variously titled lady or princess (The younger daughters of British sovereigns were not consistently titled princesses of Great Britain and styled Royal Highness until the accession of George I in 1714).

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Henrietta Maria of France queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I

Henrietta Maria of France was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II and VII.

Princess Royal

Princess Royal is a substantive title customarily awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. There have been seven Princesses Royal. Princess Anne is the current Princess Royal. Queen Elizabeth II never held the title as her aunt, Princess Mary, was in possession of the title.

Marriage

Her father, Charles I, wished that Mary marry her first cousin Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias, the son of Philip IV of Spain, while her first cousin, Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, was also a suitor for her hand. Both proposals fell through and she was betrothed to William, the son and heir of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of the United Provinces, and of Amalia of Solms-Braunfels. The marriage took place on 2 May 1641 at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall Palace, London.

Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias Prince of Asturias

Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias, Prince of Girona, Duke of Montblanc, Count of Cervera, and Lord of Balaguer, Prince of Viana was heir apparent to all the kingdoms, states and dominions of the Spanish monarchy until his death.

Philip IV of Spain King of Spain

Philip IV was King of Spain and Portugal. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War.

Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine Elector palatine of the Rhine

Charles Louis,, Elector Palatine KG was the second son of Frederick V of the Palatinate, the "Winter King" of Bohemia, and of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia and sister of Charles I of England.

The marriage was reputedly not consummated for several years because the bride was nine years old. In 1642, Mary moved to the Dutch Republic with her mother, Queen Henrietta Maria, and in 1644, as the daughter-in-law of the stadtholder, Frederick Henry, she became more engaged in courtly and public events. [1]

Dutch Republic Republican predecessor state of the Netherlands from 1581 to 1795

The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795. It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first Dutch nation state.

In March 1647, Mary's husband, William II, succeeded his father as stadholder. However, in November 1650, just after his attempt to capture Amsterdam from his political opponents, he died of smallpox. [1]

Co-regency

The couple's only child, Willem (later William III), was born a few days later. [1] Mary, now the Dowager Princess of Orange, was obliged to share the guardianship of her infant son with her mother-in-law, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, and brother-in-law, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg. They had more power over the young Prince's affairs than she, as evidenced by his being christened Willem, and not Charles as she had desired.

She was unpopular with the Dutch because of her sympathies with her own family, the Stuarts. She lived in the palace of the Stadthouder at the Binnenhof in the Hague, the building complex that now houses the Senate of the Netherlands. Her boudoir is still intact. At length, public opinion having been further angered by the hospitality that she showed to her brothers, the exiled Charles II and the Duke of York (later James II), [1] she was forbidden to receive her relatives. Her moral reputation was damaged by rumours that she was having an affair with (or had been secretly married to) Henry Jermyn, a member of her brother James' household. The rumours were probably untrue, but Charles II took them seriously, and tried to prevent any further contact between Jermyn and Mary. From 1654 to 1657, Mary was usually not in Holland. In 1657, she became regent on behalf of her son for the principality of Orange, but the difficulties of her position led her to implore the assistance of her first cousin Louis XIV of France.

Death

The restoration of Charles II in England and Scotland greatly enhanced the position of the Princess of Orange and her son in Holland. In September 1660, she returned to England. She died of smallpox on 24 December 1660, [1] at Whitehall Palace, London and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Ancestry

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Ferdinand, Prince of Solms-Braunfels

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Royal renegades: the forgotten children of Charles I". Pan Macmillan. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  2. 1 2 Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 27.
  3. 1 2 Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 50.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 140.

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The Correspondence of Mary Stuart, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange in EMLO

Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
Born: 4 November 1631 Died: 24 December 1660
British royalty
New title Princess Royal
1642–1660
Vacant
Title next held by
Anne, Princess of Orange