Mary of Teck

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Mary of Teck
Queenmaryformalportrait edit3.jpg
Formal portrait from the 1920s
Queen consort of the United Kingdom
and the British Dominions;
Empress consort of India
Tenure6 May 1910 – 20 January 1936
Coronation 22 June 1911
Imperial Durbar 12 December 1911
Born(1867-05-26)26 May 1867
Kensington Palace, London
Died24 March 1953(1953-03-24) (aged 85)
Marlborough House, London
Burial31 March 1953
Spouse
George V
(m. 1893;died 1936)
Issue
Full name
Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes
House Teck / Cambridge
Father Francis, Duke of Teck
Mother Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge

Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress consort of India as the wife of King George V.

Contents

Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in the United Kingdom. Her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, who was of German extraction, and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, who was a granddaughter of King George III. She was informally known as "May", after her birth month.

Kingdom of Württemberg kingdom in Central Europe between 1806–1918, from January 1871 part of the German Empire

The Kingdom of Württemberg was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg. The kingdom was a continuation of the Duchy of Württemberg, which existed from 1495 to 1805. Prior to 1495, Württemberg was a County in the former Duchy of Swabia, which had dissolved after the death of Duke Conradin in 1268.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1921

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

Francis, Duke of Teck British Army general

Francis, Duke of Teck GCB GCVO, known as Count Francis von Hohenstein until 1863, was an Austrian-born nobleman who married into the British royal family. He was the father of Queen Mary, and thus a great-grandfather of the current British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. Francis held the Austrian title of Count of Hohenstein, and the German titles of Prince (Fürst) and later Duke of Teck, and was given the style of Serene Highness in 1863. He was granted the British style of Highness in 1887.

At the age of 24, she was betrothed to her second cousin once removed Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, but six weeks after the announcement of the engagement, he died unexpectedly during an influenza pandemic. The following year, she became engaged to Albert Victor's next surviving brother, George, who subsequently became king. Before her husband's accession, she was successively Duchess of York, Duchess of Cornwall, and Princess of Wales.

Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale prince of the United Kingdom

Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, was the eldest child of the Prince and Princess of Wales and grandson of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria. From the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to the British throne, but never became king because he died before his father and grandmother.

Edward VII King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India 1901-1910

Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

Influenza pandemic epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the human population

An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population. In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly – there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. Pandemics can cause high levels of mortality, with the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic being the worst in recorded history; this pandemic was estimated to be responsible for the deaths of approximately 50–100 million people. There have been about three influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years, the most recent one being the 2009 flu pandemic.

As queen consort from 1910, she supported her husband through the First World War, his ill health, and major political changes arising from the aftermath of the war. After George's death in 1936, she became queen mother when her eldest son, Edward VIII, ascended the throne, but to her dismay, he abdicated later the same year in order to marry twice-divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. She supported her second son, George VI, until his death in 1952. She died the following year, during the reign of her granddaughter Elizabeth II, who had not yet been crowned.

A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's social rank and status. She holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the king's political and military powers. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, who (usually) has become queen by inheriting the throne upon the death of the previous monarch.

Aftermath of World War I Period after the conclusion of World War I

The Aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia, Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved. Four empires collapsed due to the war, old countries were abolished, new ones were formed, boundaries were redrawn, international organizations were established, and many new and old ideologies took a firm hold in people's minds.

A queen mother is a dowager queen who is the mother of the reigning monarch. The term has been used in English since at least 1560. It arises in hereditary monarchies in Europe and is also used to describe a number of similar yet distinct monarchical concepts in non-European cultures around the world.

Early life

Mary as an infant with her parents Family of Teck.jpg
Mary as an infant with her parents

Princess Victoria Mary ("May") of Teck was born on 26 May 1867 at Kensington Palace, London, in the same room where Queen Victoria, her first cousin once removed, was born 48 years earlier. Queen Victoria came to visit the baby, writing that she was "a very fine one, with pretty little features and a quantity of hair". May would become the first British queen consort born in Britain since Catherine Parr. [1] Her father was Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, the son of Duke Alexander of Württemberg by his morganatic wife, Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde (created Countess von Hohenstein in the Austrian Empire). Her mother was Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a granddaughter of King George III and the third child and younger daughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, and Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel.

Kensington Palace royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, London, England

Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British Royal Family since the 17th century, and is currently the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, Princess Eugenie and her husband Jack Brooksbank, the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, the Duke and Duchess of Kent, and Prince and Princess Michael of Kent.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, and the largest city in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

She was baptised in the Chapel Royal of Kensington Palace on 27 July 1867 by Charles Thomas Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury. [3] From an early age, she was known to her family, friends and the public by the diminutive name of "May", after her birth month. [4]

The Chapel Royal is an establishment in the Royal Household serving the spiritual needs of the sovereign of the British royal family. Historically it was a body of priests and singers that travelled with the monarch. The term is now also applied to the chapels within royal palaces, most notably at Hampton Court and St James's Palace, and other chapels within the Commonwealth designated as such by the monarch.

Archbishop of Canterbury senior bishop of the Church of England

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, who was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.

May's upbringing was "merry but fairly strict". [1] [5] She was the eldest of four children, the only daughter, and "learned to exercise her native discretion, firmness, and tact" by resolving her three younger brothers' petty boyhood squabbles. [6] They played with their cousins, the children of the Prince of Wales, who were similar in age. [7] She grew up at Kensington Palace and White Lodge, in Richmond Park, which was granted by Queen Victoria on permanent loan, and was educated at home by her mother and governess (as were her brothers until they were sent to boarding schools). [8] The Duchess of Teck spent an unusually long time with her children for a lady of her time and class, [5] and enlisted May in various charitable endeavours, which included visiting the tenements of the poor. [9]

Although May was a great-grandchild of George III, she was only a minor member of the British royal family. Her father, the Duke of Teck, had no inheritance or wealth and carried the lower royal style of Serene Highness because his parents' marriage was morganatic. [10] The Duchess of Teck was granted a parliamentary annuity of £5,000 and received about £4,000 a year from her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge, [11] but she donated lavishly to dozens of charities. [1] Prince Francis was deeply in debt and moved his family abroad with a small staff in 1883, in order to economise. [12] They travelled throughout Europe, visiting their various relations. They stayed in Florence, Italy, for a time, where May enjoyed visiting the art galleries, churches, and museums. [13] She was fluent in English, German, and French. [1]

In 1885, the family returned to London and lived for some time in Chester Square. [1] May was close to her mother, and acted as an unofficial secretary, helping to organise parties and social events. She was also close to her aunt, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and wrote to her every week. During the First World War, the Crown Princess of Sweden helped pass letters from May to her aunt, who lived in enemy territory in Germany until her death in 1916. [14]

Engagements

In 1886, Princess May was a debutante in her first season and introduced at court. Her status as the only unmarried British princess who was not descended from Queen Victoria made her a suitable candidate for the royal family's most eligible bachelor, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, [1] her second cousin once removed and the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. [15]

In December 1891, May and Albert Victor were engaged. [1] The choice of May as bride for the Duke owed much to Queen Victoria's fondness for her, as well as to her strong character and sense of duty. However, Albert Victor died six weeks later, in a recurrence of the worldwide 1889–90 influenza pandemic, [16] before the date was fixed for their wedding. [1]

Albert Victor's brother, Prince George, Duke of York, now second in line to the throne, evidently became close to May during their shared period of mourning, and Queen Victoria still favoured May as a suitable candidate to marry a future king. [17] The public was also anxious that the Duke of York should marry and settle the succession. [1] In May 1893, George proposed, and May accepted. They were soon deeply in love, and their marriage was a success. George wrote to May every day they were apart and, unlike his father, never took a mistress. [18]

Duchess of York (1893–1901)

Princess Victoria Mary shortly before her marriage to the Duke of York in 1893 Victoria Mary of Teck.jpg
Princess Victoria Mary shortly before her marriage to the Duke of York in 1893

May married Prince George, Duke of York, in London on 6 July 1893 at the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. [19] The new Duke and Duchess of York lived in York Cottage on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, and in apartments in St James's Palace. York Cottage was a modest house for royalty, but it was a favourite of George, who liked a relatively simple life. [20] They had six children: Edward, Albert, Mary, Henry, George, and John.

The children were put into the care of a nanny, as was usual in upper-class families at the time. The first nanny was dismissed for insolence and the second for abusing the children. This second woman, anxious to suggest that the children preferred her to anyone else, would pinch Edward and Albert whenever they were about to be presented to their parents so that they would start crying and be speedily returned to her. On discovery, she was replaced by her effective and much-loved assistant, Charlotte Bill. [21]

Sometimes, Mary and George appear to have been distant parents. At first, they failed to notice the nanny's abuse of the young Princes Edward and Albert, [22] and their youngest son, Prince John, was housed in a private farm on the Sandringham Estate, in Bill's care, perhaps to hide his epilepsy from the public. However, despite Mary's austere public image and her strait-laced private life, she was a caring mother in many respects, revealing a fun-loving and frivolous side to her children and teaching them history and music.

Edward wrote fondly of his mother in his memoirs: "Her soft voice, her cultivated mind, the cosy room overflowing with personal treasures were all inseparable ingredients of the happiness associated with this last hour of a child's day ... Such was my mother's pride in her children that everything that happened to each one was of the utmost importance to her. With the birth of each new child, Mama started an album in which she painstakingly recorded each progressive stage of our childhood". [23] He expressed a less charitable view, however, in private letters to his wife after his mother's death: "My sadness was mixed with incredulity that any mother could have been so hard and cruel towards her eldest son for so many years and yet so demanding at the end without relenting a scrap. I'm afraid the fluids in her veins have always been as icy cold as they are now in death." [24]

As Duke and Duchess of York, George and May carried out a variety of public duties. In 1897, she became the patron of the London Needlework Guild in succession to her mother. The guild, initially established as The London Guild in 1882, was renamed several times and was named after May between 1914 and 2010. [25] Samples of her own embroidery range from chair seats to tea cosies. [26]

The Duchess of Cornwall and York in Ottawa, 1901 Mary of Teck 4.jpg
The Duchess of Cornwall and York in Ottawa, 1901

On 22 January 1901, Queen Victoria died, and May's father-in-law ascended the throne. For most of the rest of that year, George and May were known as the "Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York". For eight months they toured the British Empire, visiting Gibraltar, Malta, Egypt, Ceylon, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, South Africa and Canada. No royal had undertaken such an ambitious tour before. She broke down in tears at the thought of leaving her children, who were to be left in the care of their grandparents, for such a long time. [27]

Princess of Wales (1901–1910)

On 9 November 1901, nine days after arriving back in Britain and on the King's sixtieth birthday, George was created Prince of Wales. The family moved their London residence from St James's Palace to Marlborough House. As Princess of Wales, May accompanied her husband on trips to Austria-Hungary and Württemberg in 1904. The following year, she gave birth to her last child, John. It was a difficult labour, and although she recovered quickly, her newborn son suffered respiratory problems. [28]

From October 1905 the Prince and Princess of Wales undertook another eight-month tour, this time of India, and the children were once again left in the care of their grandparents. [29] They passed through Egypt both ways and on the way back stopped in Greece. The tour was almost immediately followed by a trip to Spain for the wedding of King Alfonso XIII to Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, at which the bride and groom narrowly avoided assassination. [30] Only a week after returning to Britain, May and George went to Norway for the coronation of George's brother-in-law and sister, King Haakon VII and Queen Maud. [31]

Queen consort (1910–1936)

Portrait by William Llewellyn, c. 1911 Queen Mary by William Llewellyn.jpg
Portrait by  William Llewellyn, c. 1911

On 6 May 1910, Edward VII died. Mary's husband ascended the throne and she became queen consort. When her husband asked her to drop one of her two official names, Victoria Mary, she chose to be called Mary, preferring not to be known by the same style as her husband's grandmother, Queen Victoria. [32] Queen Mary was crowned with the King on 22 June 1911 at Westminster Abbey. Later in the year, the new King and Queen travelled to India for the Delhi Durbar held on 12 December 1911, and toured the sub-continent as Emperor and Empress of India, returning to Britain in February. [33]

The beginning of Mary's period as consort brought her into conflict with her mother-in-law, Queen Alexandra. Although the two were on friendly terms, Alexandra could be stubborn; she demanded precedence over Mary at the funeral of Edward VII, was slow in leaving Buckingham Palace, and kept some of the royal jewels that should have been passed to the new queen. [34]

During the First World War, Queen Mary instituted an austerity drive at the palace, where she rationed food, and visited wounded and dying servicemen in hospital, which caused her great emotional strain. [35] After three years of war against Germany, and with anti-German feeling in Britain running high, the Russian Imperial Family, which had been deposed by a revolutionary government, was refused asylum, possibly in part because the Tsar's wife was German-born. [36] News of the Tsar's abdication provided a boost to those in Britain who wished to replace their own monarchy with a republic. [37] The war ended in 1918 with the defeat of Germany and the abdication and exile of the Kaiser.

The Queen with her daughter Mary during the First World War Queen Mary and Princess Mary.jpg
The Queen with her daughter Mary during the First World War

Two months after the end of the war, Queen Mary's youngest son, John, died at the age of thirteen. She described her shock and sorrow in her diary and letters, extracts of which were published after her death: "our poor darling little Johnnie had passed away suddenly ... The first break in the family circle is hard to bear but people have been so kind & sympathetic & this has helped us [the King and me] much." [38]

Her staunch support of her husband continued during the later half of his reign. She advised him on speeches and used her extensive knowledge of history and royalty to advise him on matters affecting his position. He appreciated her discretion, intelligence, and judgement. [39] She maintained an air of self-assured calm throughout all her public engagements in the years after the war, a period marked by civil unrest over social conditions, Irish independence, and Indian nationalism. [40]

In the late 1920s, George V became increasingly ill with lung problems, exacerbated by his heavy smoking. Queen Mary paid particular attention to his care. During his illness in 1928, one of his doctors, Sir Farquhar Buzzard, was asked who had saved the King's life. He replied, "The Queen". [41] In 1935, King George V and Queen Mary celebrated their silver jubilee, with celebrations taking place throughout the British Empire. In his jubilee speech, George paid public tribute to his wife, having told his speechwriter, "Put that paragraph at the very end. I cannot trust myself to speak of the Queen when I think of all I owe her." [42]

Queen mother (1936–1952)

George V died on 20 January 1936, after his physician, Lord Dawson of Penn, gave him an injection of morphine and cocaine that may have hastened his death. [43] Queen Mary's eldest son ascended the throne as Edward VIII. She was now the queen mother, though she did not use that style, and was instead known as Her Majesty Queen Mary.

Within the year, Edward caused a constitutional crisis by announcing his desire to marry his twice-divorced American mistress, Wallis Simpson. Mary disapproved of divorce, which was against the teaching of the Anglican church, and thought Simpson wholly unsuitable to be the wife of a king. After receiving advice from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Stanley Baldwin, as well as the Dominion governments, that he could not remain king and marry Simpson, Edward abdicated.

Though loyal and supportive of her son, Mary could not comprehend why Edward would neglect his royal duties in favour of his personal feelings. [44] Simpson had been presented formally to both King George V and Queen Mary at court, [45] but Mary later refused to meet her either in public or privately. [46] She saw it as her duty to provide moral support for her second son, the reserved and stammering Prince Albert, Duke of York, who ascended the throne on Edward's abdication, taking the name George VI. When Mary attended the coronation, she became the first British dowager queen to do so. [47] Edward's abdication did not lessen her love for him, but she never wavered in her disapproval of his actions. [18] [48]

Queen Mary with her granddaughters, Princesses Margaret (front) and Elizabeth, May 1939 Queen Mary with Princess Elizabeth and Margaret.jpg
Queen Mary with her granddaughters, Princesses Margaret (front) and Elizabeth, May 1939

Mary took an interest in the upbringing of her granddaughters, Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret, and took them on various excursions in London, to art galleries and museums. (The princesses' own parents thought it unnecessary for them to be taxed with any demanding educational regime.) [49]

During the Second World War, George VI wished his mother to be evacuated from London. Although she was reluctant, she decided to live at Badminton House, Gloucestershire, with her niece, Mary Somerset, Duchess of Beaufort, the daughter of her brother Lord Cambridge. [50] Her personal belongings were transported from London in seventy pieces of luggage. Her household, which comprised fifty-five servants, occupied most of the house, except for the Duke and Duchess's private suites, until after the war. The only people to complain about the arrangements were the royal servants, who found the house too small, [51] though Queen Mary annoyed her niece by having the ancient ivy torn from the walls as she considered it unattractive and a hazard. From Badminton, in support of the war effort, she visited troops and factories and directed the gathering of scrap materials. She was known to offer lifts to soldiers she spotted on the roads. [52] In 1942, her youngest surviving son, Prince George, Duke of Kent, was killed in an air crash while on active service. Mary finally returned to Marlborough House in June 1945, after the war in Europe had resulted in the defeat of Nazi Germany.

Mary was an eager collector of objects and pictures with a royal connection. [53] She paid above-market estimates when purchasing jewels from the estate of Dowager Empress Marie of Russia [54] and paid almost three times the estimate when buying the family's Cambridge Emeralds from Lady Kilmorey, the mistress of her late brother Prince Francis. [55] In 1924, the famous architect Sir Edwin Lutyens created Queen Mary's Dolls' House for her collection of miniature pieces. [56] Indeed, she has sometimes been criticised for her aggressive acquisition of objets d'art for the Royal Collection. On several occasions, she would express to hosts, or others, that she admired something they had in their possession, in the expectation that the owner would be willing to donate it. [57] Her extensive knowledge of, and research into, the Royal Collection helped in identifying artefacts and artwork that had gone astray over the years. [58] The royal family had lent out many objects over previous generations. Once she had identified unreturned items through old inventories, she would write to the holders, requesting that they be returned. [59] In addition to being an avid collector, Mary was also generous in giving gifts of jewellery, such as presenting her ladies-in-waiting with rings on the occasion of their engagements. [60]

Death

Queen Mary's Coffin1.JPG
Queen Mary's funeral carriage. At her funeral, Mary's coffin was draped in her personal banner of arms. [61]
Royal Standard of Mary of Teck, Queen Consort.svg

In 1952, King George VI died, the third of Queen Mary's children to predecease her; her eldest granddaughter, Princess Elizabeth, ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. The death of a third child profoundly affected her. Mary remarked to Princess Marie Louise: "I have lost three sons through death, but I have never been privileged to be there to say a last farewell to them." [62]

Mary died on 24 March 1953 in her sleep at the age of 85, ten weeks before her granddaughter's coronation. [63] Mary let it be known that, in the event of her death, the coronation was not to be postponed. Her remains lay in state at Westminster Hall, where large numbers of mourners filed past her coffin. She is buried beside her husband in the nave of St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. [64]

Legacy

Sir Henry "Chips" Channon wrote that she was "above politics ... magnificent, humorous, worldly, in fact nearly sublime, though cold and hard. But what a grand Queen." [65]

The ocean liner RMS Queen Mary; [66] the Royal Navy battlecruiser, HMS Queen Mary, which was destroyed at the Battle of Jutland in 1916; Queen Mary University of London; [67] Queen Mary Reservoir in Surrey, United Kingdom; [68] Queen Mary College, Lahore; [69] Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton; Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong; Queen Mary's Peak, the highest mountain in Tristan da Cunha; Queen Mary Land in Antarctica; and Queen Mary's College in Chennai, India, are named in her honour.

Actresses who have portrayed Queen Mary include Dame Wendy Hiller (on the London stage in Crown Matrimonial), [70] Greer Garson (in the television production of Crown Matrimonial), Judy Loe (in Edward the Seventh ), Dame Flora Robson (in A King's Story), Dame Peggy Ashcroft (in Edward & Mrs. Simpson ), Phyllis Calvert (in The Woman He Loved ), Gaye Brown (in All the King's Men ), Miranda Richardson (in The Lost Prince ), Margaret Tyzack (in Wallis & Edward ), Claire Bloom (in The King's Speech ), Judy Parfitt (in W.E.), Valerie Dane (in Downton Abbey), and Dame Eileen Atkins (in Bertie and Elizabeth and The Crown ).

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Queen Mary's coat of arms Coat of Arms of Mary of Teck.svg
Queen Mary's coat of arms

Honours

Arms

Queen Mary's arms were the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom impaled with her family arms – the arms of her grandfather, Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, in the 1st and 4th quarters, and the arms of her father, Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, in the 2nd and 3rd quarters. [71] [72] The shield is surmounted by the imperial crown, and supported by the crowned lion of England and "a stag Proper" as in the arms of Württemberg. [72]

Issue

NameBirthDeathSpouseChildren
Edward VIII
Later Duke of Windsor
23 June 189428 May 1972 Wallis Simpson None
George VI 14 December 18956 February 1952 Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Elizabeth II
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Mary, Princess Royal 25 April 189728 March 1965 Henry Lascelles, 6th Earl of Harewood George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood
The Honourable Gerald Lascelles
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester 31 March 190010 June 1974 Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott Prince William of Gloucester
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
Prince George, Duke of Kent 20 December 190225 August 1942 Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
Prince Michael of Kent
Prince John 12 July 190518 January 1919Never marriedNone

Ancestry

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Queen Mary: A Lifetime of Gracious Service". The Times . The Times Digital Archive. 25 March 1953. p. 5.
  2. The Times (London), Monday, 29 July 1867 p. 12 col. E
  3. Her three godparents were Queen Victoria, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII and May's future father-in-law), and Princess Augusta, Duchess of Cambridge. [2]
  4. Pope-Hennessy, p. 24
  5. 1 2 Pope-Hennessy, p. 66
  6. Pope-Hennessy, p. 45
  7. Pope-Hennessy, p. 55
  8. Pope-Hennessy, pp. 68, 76, 123
  9. Pope-Hennessy, p. 68
  10. Pope-Hennessy, pp. 36–37
  11. Pope-Hennessy, p. 114
  12. Pope-Hennessy, p. 112
  13. Pope-Hennessy, p. 133
  14. Pope-Hennessy, pp. 503–505
  15. May's maternal grandfather, Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, was a brother of Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, who was the father of Queen Victoria, Albert Victor's paternal grandmother.
  16. Pope-Hennessy, p. 201
  17. Edwards, p. 61
  18. 1 2 Prochaska, Frank (January 2008) [September 2004], "Mary (1867–1953)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.), Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34914 , retrieved 1 May 2010
  19. Her bridesmaids were the Princesses Maud and Victoria of Wales, Victoria Melita, Alexandra and Beatrice of Edinburgh, Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, Margaret and Patricia of Connaught and Strathearn, and Alice and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg.
  20. Pope-Hennessy, p. 291
  21. Wheeler-Bennett, pp. 16–17
  22. Pope-Hennessy, p. 393
  23. Windsor, pp. 24–25
  24. Ziegler, p. 538
  25. Queen Mother's Clothing Guild official website , retrieved 1 May 2010
  26. e.g. Mary, Queen of England (1943), Chair seat, Metropolitan Museum of Art ; Queen Mary (1909), Tea cosy, Springhill, County Londonderry: National Trust
  27. Edwards, p. 115
  28. Edwards, pp. 142–143
  29. Edwards, p. 146
  30. The driver of their coach and over a dozen spectators were killed by a bomb thrown by an anarchist, Mateo Morral.
  31. Pope-Hennessy, p. 407
  32. Pope-Hennessy, p. 421
  33. Pope-Hennessy, pp. 452–463
  34. Edwards, pp. 182–193
  35. Edwards, pp. 244–245
  36. Edwards, p. 258
  37. Edwards, p. 262
  38. Pope-Hennessy, p. 511
  39. Pope-Hennessy, p. 549
  40. Edwards, p. 311
  41. Gore, p. 243
  42. The Times (London), Wednesday, 25 March 1953 p. 5
  43. Watson, Francis (1986), "The Death of George V", History Today, 36: 21–30
  44. Airlie, p. 200
  45. Windsor, p. 255
  46. Windsor, p. 334
  47. According to custom, crowned heads do not attend coronations of other kings and queens. Pope-Hennessy, p. 584
  48. Edwards, p. 401 and Pope-Hennessy, p. 575
  49. Edwards, p. 349
  50. Pope-Hennessy, p. 596
  51. Mosley, Charles, ed. (2003), "Duke of Beaufort, 'Seat' section", Burke's Peerage & Gentry, 107th edition, vol. I p. 308
  52. Pope-Hennessy, p. 600
  53. Pope-Hennessy, p. 412
  54. Clarke, William (1995), The Lost Fortune of the Tsars
  55. Thomson, Mark (29 August 2005), Document – A Right Royal Affair, BBC Radio 4
    See also Kilmorey Papers (D/2638) (pdf), Public Record Office of Northern Ireland.
  56. Pope-Hennessy, pp. 531–534
  57. Rose, p. 284
  58. Pope-Hennessy, p. 414
  59. Windsor, p. 238
  60. "S. J. Rood – Jewellers" . Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  61. "Queen Mary laid to rest in Windsor", BBC On This Day: 31 March 1953; retrieved 19 October 2010.
  62. Marie Louise, p. 238
  63. "1953: Queen Mary dies peacefully after illness". BBC. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
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References

Royal titles
Preceded by
Alexandra of Denmark
Queen consort of the United Kingdom
and the British Dominions;
Empress consort of India

1910–1936
Vacant
Title next held by
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
Grand Master of the Order of the British Empire
1936–1953
Succeeded by
The Duke of Edinburgh