Massif

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In geology, a massif ( /mæˈsf/ or /ˈmæsɪf/ ) is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole. The term also refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure.

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In mountaineering and climbing literature, a massif is frequently used to denote the main mass of an individual mountain. The massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate and is considered the fourth largest driving force in geomorphology. [1]

The word is taken from French (in which the word also means "massive"), where it is used to refer to a large mountain mass or compact group of connected mountains forming an independent portion of a range. One of the most notable European examples of a massif is the Massif Central of the Auvergne region of France.

The Face on Mars is an example of an extraterrestrial massif. [2]

Massifs may also form underwater, as with the Atlantis Massif. [3]

List of massifs

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Europe

Rila massif, Bulgaria Selo Kostenets 001.jpg
Rila massif, Bulgaria
Panorama of Pirin Mountain massif, Bulgaria Pirin panorama crop 1.JPG
Panorama of Pirin Mountain massif, Bulgaria

North America

Oceania

Caribbean

South America

Submerged

Massif du Mont-Blanc (hiver panoramique).jpg
Panoramic view of Mont Blanc massif, an example of a massif and also the highest summit in the Alps. [4]

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References

  1. Allen, 2008, Time scales of tectonic landscapes and their sediment routing systems, Geol. Soc. Lon. Sp. Pub., v. 296, p. 7–28.
  2. Britt, Robert Roy (2006-09-21). "Mars Face Makeover: Controversial Formation Observed from New Angles". Space.com . Retrieved 2009-05-04.
  3. Blackman, Donna (2002). "Geology of the Atlantis Massif (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N): Implications for the evolution of an ultramafic oceanic core complex". Marine Geophysical Researches. 23 (5): 443–469. Bibcode:2002MarGR..23..443B. doi:10.1023/b:mari.0000018232.14085.75. S2CID   96459991.
  4. "The Sydney Morning Herald, November 6, 2009". 2009-11-06.