Mato Grosso do Sul

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State of Mato Grosso do Sul
"The Natural State"
Bandeira de Mato Grosso do Sul.svg
Flag
Brasao de Mato Grosso do Sul.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Hino de Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil.svg
Location of State of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil
Country Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
FoundedOctober 11, 1977
Capital and Largest City Campo Grande
Government
   Governor Reinaldo Azambuja (PSDB)
  Vice GovernorMurilo Zauith (DEM)
   Senators Nelsinho Trad (PSD)
Simone Tebet (MDB)
Soraya Thronicke (PSL)
Area
  Total 357,124.962 km2 (137,886.719 sq mi)
Area rank 6th
Population
 (2010) [1]
  Total2,449,024
  Estimate 
(2019)
2,778,986
  Rank 21st
  Density6.9/km2 (18/sq mi)
  Density rank 20th
Demonym(s) Sul-mato-grossense or Mato-grossense-do-sul
GDP
  Year2010 estimate
  TotalR$ 38.484,74 (17th)
  Per capitaR$ 10,599 (11th)
HDI
  Year2017
  Category0.766 [2] high (11th)
Time zone UTC-4 (BRT-1)
Postal Code
79000-000 to 79990-000
ISO 3166 code BR-MS
Website ms.gov.br

Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazilian Portuguese:  [ˈmatu ˈɡɾosu du ˈsuw] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) [3] ) is one of the Midwestern states of Brazil. Its total area of 357,125 square kilometers, or 137,891 square miles, is roughly the same size as Germany.

Contents

Neighboring Brazilian states are (from north clockwise) Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay, to the southwest, and Bolivia, to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising. Crossed in the south by the Tropic of Capricorn, Mato Grosso do Sul generally has a warm, sometimes hot, and humid climate, and is crossed by numerous tributaries of the Paraná River.

The state is also known for its natural environment, and is a destination for domestic and international tourism. The Pantanal lowlands cover 12 municipalities and presents a variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, savannahs, open pasture, fields and bushes. The city Bonito, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caves, natural rivers, waterfalls, swimming pools and the Blue Lake cave.

The name Mato Grosso do Sul is Portuguese for "Thick Bushes of the South"; the name is inherited from its northern neighbour state of Mato Grosso, of which it was part until the 1970s. It is not uncommon for people to mistakenly refer to Mato Grosso do Sul as simply "Mato Grosso". Other names that were proposed, at the time of the split and afterwards, include "Pantanal" (a reference to its best known geographical feature) and "Maracaju" (a reference to the Maracaju Mountain Range that crosses the state from north to south).

Geography

Pantanal Horizonte longinquo.jpg
Pantanal
Paraguay River in Mato Grosso do Sul Ponte Poeta Manoel de Barros, Corumba, MS.jpg
Paraguay River in Mato Grosso do Sul

Climate

Map of Koppen climate types of Mato Grosso do Sul. Mato Grosso do Sul Koppen.svg
Map of Köppen climate types of Mato Grosso do Sul.

Mato Grosso do Sul has humid subtropical and tropical climates. The average annual rainfall is 1471.1 mm. January is the warmest month, with mean maximum of 34 °C (93.2 °F) and minimum of 24 °C (75.2 °F) and more rain; July experiences the coldest temperatures, with mean maximum of 25 °C (77 °F) and minimum of -2,0 °C (28 °F) and sun.

Vegetation

The "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found where the water table is near the surface. Alpine pastures occur at higher altitudes and mesophytic forests on more fertile soils. The "cerrado" trees have characteristic twisted trunks covered by a thick bark, and leaves which are usually broad and rigid. Many herbaceous plants have extensive roots to store water and nutrients. The plant's thick bark and roots serve as adaptations for the periodic fires which sweep the cerrado landscape. The adaptations protect the plants from destruction and make them capable of sprouting again after the fire.

The state is located in western Brazil, in a region mostly occupied by the inland marshes of the Pantanal. The highest elevation is the 1,065 m high Morro Grande.

Campo Grande, 1974. Vista de Campo Grande (MS).tif
Campo Grande, 1974.

History

The first peoples or indigenous peoples of Mato Grosso do Sul, particularly occupying the Nhande Ru Marangatu tropical rainforested area, are the Guarani-Kaiowá, first contacted by non-indigenous peoples in the 1800s.

In October 11, 1977, the state was created by dividing the state of Mato Grosso. Its status as a state went into full effect two years later on January 1, 1979. The new state also incorporated the former territory of Ponta Porã and the northern part of the former territory of Iguaçu.

Demographics

Campo Grande, the capital. Por do sol.jpg
Campo Grande, the capital.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 2,372,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 6.4 inhabitants/km2.

Urbanization: 84.7% (2006); Population growth: 1.7% (1991–2000); Houses: 689,000 (2006) [4]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,157,000 White people (51.78%), 1,056,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (44.51%), 122,000 Black people (5.15%), 20,000 Amerindian people (0.84%), 15,000 Asian people (0.64%). [5]

In the Cerrado areas, mostly in the south, central and east, there is a predominance of Southern Brazilian farmers of Spanish, German, Portuguese, Italian and Slavic descent.

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2008, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is 73,60% European, 13,90% African and 12,40% Native American. [6] Additionally, according to a different 2013 DNA study, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is: 58.8% European, 25.9% Amerindian and 15.3% African ancestries, respectively. [7]

Largest cities

Economy

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 46.1%, followed by the industrial sector at 22.7%. Agriculture represents 31.2%, of GDP (2004). Mato Grosso do Sul exports: soybean 34.9%, pork and chicken 20.9%, beef 13.7%, ores 8%, leather 7.4%, timber 5.1% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 1% (2005).

Interesting facts

Vehicles: 835,259 (June 2009); Mobile phones: 2.407 million (July/2009); Telephones: 471,000 (April 2007); Cities: 78 (2007) [9]

Education

Campo Grande is the most important educational centre of the state. PHTO0046.JPG
Campo Grande is the most important educational centre of the state.

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. Brazil a country of all, in the Center-West Region does not have structure to have large tourist port much less is well positioned.

There are more than 44 universities in whole state of Mato Grosso do Sul. [10]

Educational institutions

Culture

Radio Club in Campo Grande. RadioClubeCG.JPG
Radio Club in Campo Grande.

Campo Grande Film Festival

It's a film festival held annually in the months of January and February and has been arranged since 2004. It focuses on the independent cinema presenting Brazilian films and foreign films as well. It also presents regional films and short films. As of 2011 the festival is suspended.

Bonito's Winter Festival

"Festival de Inverno de Bonito" (Bonito Winter Festival) is held every year for a week during July or August, with music performances and ecological videos, theatre, folklore and fine arts exhibitions.

Pantanal Micareta

Aquidauana's biggest event is the Pantanal Micareta, which attracts thousands of tourists to Dr. Sabino Avenue, annually.

Tourism and recreation

Rio da Prata (River of Silver) in Jardim. RiodaPrataemBonito.jpg
Rio da Prata (River of Silver) in Jardim.
Waterfall in Bonito. CachoeiraemBonito.jpg
Waterfall in Bonito.
Capybara in Pantanal. Capybara.jpg
Capybara in Pantanal.

Bonito

Concentrations of lime in the soil around the area where Bonito is located is responsible for the transparency of the waters and for the existence of a wide variety of geological formations. Local activities include diving in caverns, observing the underwater fauna and walking along trails in the forest.[ citation needed ] Places like Gruta Lago Azul (Blue Lake Cave) and the Fazenda Estancia Mimosa, Aquario Natural (Natural Aquarium), and the rivers Sucuri, Prata, and Formoso, are popular.[ citation needed ]

South Pantanal

The Pantanal is an ecological destination in the heart of Brazil.[ citation needed ] It is the largest flooded lowland on the planet and the third largest environmental reserve in the world. It is home to one of the richest ecosystems ever found to date,[ citation needed ] with periodically flooded seasonal forests. It displays the largest concentration of neo-tropical fauna, including several endangered species – mammals, reptiles and fish – and it also serves as habitat for a variety of native birds, as well as those migrating from other areas in the Americas. The Pantanal is one of the best places in Brazil for flora and fauna observation and for fishing – permitted only between March and October – due to its abundance of animals.[ citation needed ] It has a total area of 230,000 square kilometres, covering 12 townships in the States of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. To the North, there are the Paracis, Azul and Roncador mountains. To the East, the Maracaju Mountain Range. To the South, the Dodoquena Mountain Range. And, to the West, the Paraguayan and Bolivian swamps. The Pantanal is so diverse that researchers subdivided it in sub-regions. Each "Pantanal" – North and South – has its own natural features, activities and ideal period for visitation.

Infrastructure

International Airports

Campo Grande International Airport. Campo Grande Airport from the boarding lanes.JPG
Campo Grande International Airport.

Other airports

  • Dourados Regional Airport
  • Bonito Airport

Highways

BR-267 in Mato Grosso do Sul. BR-267.jpg
BR-267 in Mato Grosso do Sul.

Sports

Campo Grande was one of the 18 candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup which will take place in Brazil. It did not make to the final list, being one of the 5 cities left off. Maceió gave up its bid before the end of the process.

Flag

Mato Grosso do Sul's flag was designed by Mauro Michael Munhoz. A white stripe divides an upper left green corner from a bottom right blue space with a yellow star. White symbolizes hope, green is an allusion to the state's rich flora, blue represents its vast sky, while the yellow star adds balance, force and serenity. The star on the flag is Alphard, the brightest star in the constellation Hydra.

See also

Related Research Articles

Mato Grosso State of Brazil

Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest by area, located in the western part of the country.

Campo Grande Municipality in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Campo Grande is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Center-West region of the country. The city is nicknamed Cidade Morena because of the reddish-brown colour of the region's soil. It has a population of 796,252, according to a 2011 IBGE estimate, while its metropolitan area is home to 991,420 people (2010).

Cuiabá Municipality in Central-West, Brazil

Cuiabá is the capital city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. It serves as the Geographical Centre of South America and forms the metropolitan area of the state, along with the neighbouring town of Várzea Grande.. The city’s name is an indigenous Bororo word meaning ‘arrow-fishing’.

Central-West Region, Brazil Region in Brazil

The Central-West or Center-West Region of Brazil is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal, where Brazil's national capital, Brasília, is situated. This Region is right in the heart of Brazil, representing 18.86% of the national territory.

Corumbá Municipality in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

CorumbáPortuguese pronunciation: [koɾũˈba] is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, 425 km northwest of Campo Grande, the state's capital. It has a population of approximately 111,000 inhabitants, and its economy is based mainly on agriculture, animal husbandry, mineral extraction, and tourism, being the gateway to the biggest wetlands of the world, the Pantanal.

Pantanal Linhas Aéreas S.A. was a regional airline based in São Paulo, Brazil and incorporated by TAM Airlines in 2013. It served destinations mainly in the southeast region of Brazil from its bases at Congonhas and Guarulhos airports in São Paulo.

Dourados Municipality in Brazil

Dourados is a Brazilian municipality, situated in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, 225 km (140 mi) Southwest of Campo Grande. It has a population of about 210,000 inhabitants, and its economy is based mainly in arable agriculture and in cattle ranching. Dourados is also the second most populous and important city of this state.

Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul Place in Center-West, Brazil

Bonito is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. As of 2010 its population was 19,587, and it has an area of 4,934 square kilometres (1,905 sq mi).

Ladário Place in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Ladário is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The municipality of Ladário is surrounded by the municipality of Corumbá in all directions. Together, Corumbá and Ladário total 123,320 inhabitants.

Ponta Porã Municipality in Central-West, Brazil

Ponta Porã is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Its population is 83.747 (2013) and its area is 5,329 km². It has a dry border and a conurbation with the city of Pedro Juan Caballero in Paraguay.

Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul academic publisher

The Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, is a public university located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil.

Corumbá International Airport airport in Brazil

Corumbá International Airport is the airport serving Corumbá, Brazil.

Pantanal Matogrossense National Park

The Pantanal Matogrossense National Park is a national park in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Serra da Bodoquena National Park

Serra da Bodoquena National Park is a national park in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Train of Pantanal

The Train of Pantanal is a railway in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil that passes through the Pantanal region. It begins in the city of Campo Grande and ends in Corumbá, a total distance of 420 km. It is sometimes referred to as the Train of Death.

Pantanal Futebol Clube

Pantanal Futebol Clube, usually known simply as Pantanal, is a Brazilian football (soccer) club based in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul.

The Western Military Command is one of eight Military Commands of the Brazilian Army. The Western Military Command or "Comando Militar do Oeste" (CMO) is responsible for the defence of the states Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul.

José Fragelli Brazilian politician

José Manuel Fontanillas Fragelli was a Brazilian politician, lawyer and academic. Fragelli served as the Governor of Mato Grosso from 1970 until 1974 and the President of the Senate of Brazil from 1985 through 1987.

The Federal University of Grande Dourados is a Brazilian public institution which is located in the city of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Mato Grosso do Sul State University academic publisher

The Mato Grosso do Sul State University is a public university in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. It has 15 campuses all over the state, and its rectory is located in the city of Dourados.

References

  1. "IBGE" . Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  2. "Radar IDHM: evolução do IDHM e de seus índices componentes no período de 2012 a 2017" (PDF) (in Portuguese). PNUD Brasil. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  3. In Brazilian Portuguese. The European Portuguese pronunciation is [ˈmatu ˈɣɾosu ðu ˈsuɫ].
  4. Source: PNAD.
  5. Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo (PDF) (in Portuguese). Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN   85-240-3919-1 . Retrieved 2010-01-18.
  6. "Untitled Document" (PDF). Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  7. Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels
  8. "Estimativas da população residente nos municípios brasileiros com data de referência em 1º de julho de 2011" [Estimates of the Resident Population of Brazilian Municipalities as of July 1, 2011] (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 30 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  9. Source: IBGE.
  10. OnLine - Hospedagens e Desenvolvimento de Web Sites. "Faculdades reconhecidas pelo MEC, Vestibular, Apostilas, Universitário, Profissão, Professor". Ser Universitário. Retrieved 23 May 2015.

Coordinates: 20°26′34″S54°38′45″W / 20.44278°S 54.64583°W / -20.44278; -54.64583