Mato Grosso do Sul

Last updated

Mato Grosso do Sul
Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul
State of Mato Grosso do Sul
Bandeira de Mato Grosso do Sul.svg
Flag
Brasao de Mato Grosso do Sul.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Hino de Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil.svg
Location of State of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil
Country Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
FoundedOctober 11, 1977
Capital and Largest City Campo Grande
Government
   Governor Reinaldo Azambuja (PSDB)
  Vice GovernorMurilo Zauith (DEM)
   Senators Nelsinho Trad (PSD)
Simone Tebet (MDB)
Soraya Thronicke (PSL)
Area
  Total357,124.962 km2 (137,886.719 sq mi)
Area rank 6th
Population
 (2007) [1]
  Total2,449,024
  Estimate 
(2019)
2,778,986
  Rank 21st
  Density6.9/km2 (18/sq mi)
  Density rank 20th
Demonym(s) Sul-mato-grossense or Mato-grossense-do-sul
GDP
  Year2010 estimate
  TotalR$ 38.484,74 (17th)
  Per capitaR$ 10,599 (11th)
HDI
  Year2017
  Category0.766 [2] high (11th)
Time zone UTC-4 (BRT-1)
Postal Code
79000-000 to 79990-000
ISO 3166 code BR-MS
Website ms.gov.br

Mato Grosso do Sul (Portuguese pronunciation:  [ˈmatu ˈɡɾosu du ˈsuw] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) [3] ) is one of the Midwestern states of Brazil. Neighboring Brazilian states are (from north clockwise) Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay, to the southwest, and Bolivia, to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising. Crossed in the south by the Tropic of Capricorn, Mato Grosso do Sul generally has a warm, sometimes hot, and humid climate, and is crossed by numerous tributaries of the Paraná River. The state has 1,3% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 1,5% of the Brazilian GDP.

Contents

The state is also known for its natural environment, and is a destination for domestic and international tourism. The Pantanal lowlands cover 12 municipalities and presents a variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, savannahs, open pasture, fields and bushes. The city Bonito, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caves, natural rivers, waterfalls, swimming pools and the Blue Lake cave.

The name Mato Grosso do Sul is Portuguese for "Southern Thick Bush"; the name is inherited from its northern neighbour state of Mato Grosso, of which it was part until the 1970s. It is not uncommon for people to mistakenly refer to Mato Grosso do Sul as simply "Mato Grosso". Other names that were proposed, at the time of the split and afterwards, include "Pantanal" (a reference to its best known geographical feature) and "Maracaju" (a reference to the Maracaju Mountain Range that crosses the state from north to south).

Geography

Climate

Temperature change in Mato Grosso do Sul since 1901 in the context of global warming Temperature Bar Chart South America-Brazil-Mato Grosso do Sul-1901-2020--2021-07-13.png
Temperature change in Mato Grosso do Sul since 1901 in the context of global warming
Map of Koppen climate types of Mato Grosso do Sul Mato Grosso do Sul Koppen.svg
Map of Köppen climate types of Mato Grosso do Sul

Mato Grosso do Sul has humid subtropical and tropical climates. The average annual rainfall is 1471.1 mm. January is the warmest month, with mean maximum of 34 °C (93.2 °F) and minimum of 24 °C (75.2 °F) and more rain; July experiences the coldest temperatures, with mean maximum of 25 °C (77 °F) and minimum of -2,0 °C (28 °F) and sun.

Vegetation

Pantanal Horizonte longinquo.jpg
Pantanal
Paraguay River in Mato Grosso do Sul Ponte Poeta Manoel de Barros, Corumba, MS.jpg
Paraguay River in Mato Grosso do Sul

The "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found where the water table is near the surface. Alpine pastures occur at higher altitudes and mesophytic forests on more fertile soils. The "cerrado" trees have characteristic twisted trunks covered by a thick bark, and leaves which are usually broad and rigid. Many herbaceous plants have extensive roots to store water and nutrients. The plant's thick bark and roots serve as adaptations for the periodic fires which sweep the cerrado landscape. The adaptations protect the plants from destruction and make them capable of sprouting again after the fire.

The state is located in western Brazil, in a region mostly occupied by the inland marshes of the Pantanal. The highest elevation is the 1,065 m high Morro Grande.

Campo Grande, 1974. Vista de Campo Grande (MS).tif
Campo Grande, 1974.

History

The first peoples or indigenous peoples of Mato Grosso do Sul, particularly occupying the Nhande Ru Marangatu tropical rainforested area, are the Guarani-Kaiowá, first contacted by non-indigenous peoples in the 1800s.

In October 11, 1977, the state was created by dividing the state of Mato Grosso. Its status as a state went into full effect two years later on January 1, 1979. The new state also incorporated the former territory of Ponta Porã and the northern part of the former territory of Iguaçu.

Demographics

Campo Grande, the capital. Por do sol.jpg
Campo Grande, the capital.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 2,372,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 6.4 inhabitants/km2.

Urbanization: 84.7% (2006); Population growth: 1.7% (1991–2000); Houses: 689,000 (2006) [4]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,157,000 White people (51.78%), 1,056,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (44.51%), 122,000 Black people (5.15%), 20,000 Amerindian people (0.84%), 15,000 Asian people (0.64%). [5]

In the Cerrado areas, mostly in the south, central and east, there is a predominance of Southern Brazilian farmers of Spanish, German, Portuguese, Italian and Slavic descent.

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2008, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is 73,60% European, 13,90% African and 12,40% Native American. [6] Additionally, according to a different 2013 DNA study, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is: 58.8% European, 25.9% Amerindian and 15.3% African ancestries, respectively. [7]

Largest cities

Economy

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 46.1%, followed by the industrial sector at 22.7%. Agriculture represents 31.2%, of GDP (2004). Mato Grosso do Sul exports: soybean 34.9%, pork and chicken 20.9%, beef 13.7%, ores 8%, leather 7.4%, timber 5.1% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 1% (2005).

Corn in Dourados Rota Alternativa Paraguai - Rio Preto - 2 - panoramio.jpg
Corn in Dourados

According to data from 2020, if Mato Grosso do Sul were a country, it would be the world's fifth largest producer of oilseeds. [9] In 2020, Mato Grosso do Sul was the 5th biggest grain producer in the country, with 7.9%. [10] In soy, produced 10.5 million tons in 2020, one of the largest producing states in Brazil, around 5th place. [11] It's the 4th largest producer of sugarcane, with around 49 million tons harvested in the 2019/20 harvest. [12] [10] In 2019, Mato Grosso do Sul was also one of the largest producer of maize in the country with 10,1 million tons. [13] In cassava production, Brazil produced a total of 17.6 million tons in 2018. Mato Grosso do Sul was the 6th largest producer in the country, with 721 thousand tons. [14]

The state has the 4th largest cattle herd in Brazil, with a total of 21.4 million head of cattle. [15] The state is a major exporter of beef, but also poultry and pork. In poultry farming, the state had, in 2017, a flock of 22 million birds. [16] In pork, in 2019, Mato Grosso do Sul slaughtered more than 2 million animals. The state occupies the 7th Brazilian position in pig farming, moving towards becoming the 4th largest Brazilian producer in the coming years. [17]

In 2017, Mato Grosso do Sul had 0.71% of the national mineral participation (6th place in the country). Mato Grosso do Sul had production of iron (3.1 million tons at a value of R$ 324 million) and manganese (648 thousand tons at a value of R$ 299 million). [18]

Mato Grosso do Sul had an industrial GDP of R $ 19.1 billion in 2017, equivalent to 1.6% of the national industry. It employs 122,162 workers in the industry. The main industrial sectors are: Public Utility Industrial Services, such as Electricity and Water (23.2%), Construction (20.8%), Food (15.8%), Pulp and Paper (15.1%) and Petroleum Derivatives and Biofuels (12.5%). These 5 sectors concentrate 87.4% of the state's industry. [19]

In the city of Três Lagoas, the production of paper and cellulose is considerable. Mato Grosso do Sul recorded growth above the national average in the production of cellulose, reached the mark of 1 million hectares of planted eucalyptus, expanded its industrial park in the sector and consolidated itself as the largest exporter of the product in the country in the first quarter of 2020. Between 2010 and 2018, production in the south of Mato Grosso increased by 308%, reaching 17 million cubic meters of round wood for paper and cellulose in 2018. In 2019, Mato Grosso do Sul reached the leadership of exports in the product in the country, with 9.7 million tons traded: 22.20% of the total Brazilian pulp exports that year. [20]

Miscellaneous facts

Vehicles: 835,259 (June 2009); Mobile phones: 2.407 million (July/2009); Telephones: 471,000 (April 2007); Cities: 78 (2007) [21]

Education

Campo Grande is the most important educational centre of the state. PHTO0046.JPG
Campo Grande is the most important educational centre of the state.

There are more than 44 universities in whole state of Mato Grosso do Sul. [22]

Educational institutions

Culture

Radio Club in Campo Grande. RadioClubeCG.JPG
Radio Club in Campo Grande.

Campo Grande Film Festival

It's a film festival held annually in the months of January and February and has been arranged since 2004. It focuses on the independent cinema presenting Brazilian films and foreign films as well. It also presents regional films and short films. As of 2011 the festival is suspended.

Bonito's Winter Festival

"Festival de Inverno de Bonito" (Bonito Winter Festival) is held every year for a week during July or August, with music performances and ecological videos, theatre, folklore and fine arts exhibitions.

Pantanal Micareta

Aquidauana's biggest event is the Pantanal Micareta, which attracts thousands of tourists to Dr. Sabino Avenue, annually.

Tourism and recreation

Rio da Prata (River of Silver) in Jardim. RiodaPrataemBonito.jpg
Rio da Prata (River of Silver) in Jardim.
Waterfall in Bonito. CachoeiraemBonito.jpg
Waterfall in Bonito.
Capybara in Pantanal. Capybara.jpg
Capybara in Pantanal.

Bonito

Concentrations of lime in the soil around the area where Bonito is located is responsible for the transparency of the waters and for the existence of a wide variety of geological formations. Local activities include diving in caverns, observing the underwater fauna and walking along trails in the forest.[ citation needed ] Places like Gruta Lago Azul (Blue Lake Cave) and the Fazenda Estancia Mimosa, Aquario Natural (Natural Aquarium), and the rivers Sucuri, Prata, and Formoso, are popular.[ citation needed ]

South Pantanal

The Pantanal is an ecological destination in the heart of Brazil.[ citation needed ] It is the largest flooded lowland on the planet and the third largest environmental reserve in the world. It is home to one of the richest ecosystems ever found to date,[ citation needed ] with periodically flooded seasonal forests. It displays the largest concentration of neo-tropical fauna, including several endangered species – mammals, reptiles and fish – and it also serves as habitat for a variety of native birds, as well as those migrating from other areas in the Americas. The Pantanal is one of the best places in Brazil for flora and fauna observation and for fishing – permitted only between March and October – due to its abundance of animals.[ citation needed ] It has a total area of 230,000 square kilometres, covering 12 townships in the States of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. To the North, there are the Paracis, Azul and Roncador mountains. To the East, the Maracaju Mountain Range. To the South, the Dodoquena Mountain Range. And, to the West, the Paraguayan and Bolivian swamps. The Pantanal is so diverse that researchers subdivided it in sub-regions. Each "Pantanal" – North and South – has its own natural features, activities and ideal period for visitation.

Infrastructure

International Airports

Campo Grande International Airport. Campo Grande Airport from the boarding lanes.JPG
Campo Grande International Airport.

Other airports

  • Dourados Regional Airport
  • Bonito Airport

Highways

BR-267 in Mato Grosso do Sul. BR-267.jpg
BR-267 in Mato Grosso do Sul.

Flag

Mato Grosso do Sul's flag was designed by Mauro Michael Munhoz. A white stripe divides an upper left green corner from a bottom right blue space with a yellow star. White symbolizes hope, green is an allusion to the state's rich flora, blue represents its vast sky, while the yellow star adds balance, force and serenity. The star on the flag is Alphard, the brightest star in the constellation Hydra.

See also

Related Research Articles

Tocantins State of Brazil

Tocantins is one of the 26 states of Brazil. It is the newest state, formed in 1988 and encompassing what had formerly been the northern two-fifths of the state of Goiás. Tocantins covers 277,620.91 square kilometres (107,190.03 sq mi) and had an estimated population of 1,496,880 in 2014. Construction of its capital, Palmas, began in 1989; most of the other cities in the state date to the Portuguese colonial period. With the exception of Araguaína there are few other cities with a significant population in the state. The government has invested in a new capital, a major hydropower dam, railroads and related infrastructure to develop this primarily agricultural area. The state has 0.75% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 0.5% of the Brazilian GDP.

Goiás State of Brazil

Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the Center-West region of the country. The name Goiás comes from the name of an indigenous community. The original word seems to have been guaiá, a compound of gua e iá, meaning "the same person" or "people of the same origin." It borders the Federal District and the states of Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The state has 3,3% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 2,7% of the Brazilian GDP.

Bahia State of Brazil

Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil and in the northeast of the country, on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth-largest Brazilian state by population and the 5th-largest by area. Bahia's capital is the city of Salvador, on a spit of land separating the Bay of All Saints from the Atlantic. Once a monarchial stronghold dominated by agricultural, slaving, and ranching interests, Bahia is now still predominantly a working-class industrial and agricultural state. The state is home to 7% of the Brazilian population and produces 4.2% of the country's GDP.

Paraná (state) State of Brazil

Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line. It is subdivided into 399 municipalities, and its capital is the city of Curitiba. Other major cities are Londrina, Maringá, Ponta Grossa, Cascavel, São José dos Pinhais and Foz do Iguaçu. The state is home to 5,4% of the Brazilian population and has 6,2% of the Brazilian GDP.

Mato Grosso State of Brazil

Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest by area, located in the Central-West region. The state has 1.66% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 1.9% of the Brazilian GDP.

Rondônia State of Brazil

Rondônia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, located in the northern subdivision of the country. To the west is a short border with the state of Acre, to the north is the state of Amazonas, in the east is Mato Grosso, and in the south and southwest is Bolivia. Rondônia has a population of 1,755,000 as of 2014. It is the fifth least populated state. Its capital and largest city is Porto Velho. The state was named after Cândido Rondon, who explored the north of the country during the 1910s. The state, which is home to 0.8% of the Brazilian population, is responsible for 0.6% of the Brazilian GDP.

Rio Grande do Sul State of Brazil

Rio Grande do Sul is a state in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth-most-populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas to the south and southwest, and the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest. The capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, and the crime rate is relatively low compared to the Brazilian national average. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high in the state, as of 2017. The state has 5.4% of the Brazilian population and it is responsible for 6.6% of the Brazilian GDP.

Santa Catarina (state) State of Brazil

Santa Catarina is a state in the South Region of Brazil. It is the 7th smallest state in total area and the 11th most populous. Additionally, it is the 9th largest settlement, with 295 municipalities. The state, which has 3.4% of the Brazilian population, is responsible for 3.8% of the Brazilian GDP.

Campo Grande Municipality in Center-West, Brazil

Campo Grande is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Center-West region of the country. The city is nicknamed Cidade Morena because of the reddish-brown colour of the region's soil. It has a population of 906.092, according to a 2020 IBGE estimate, while its metropolitan area is home to 991,420 people (2010).

Cuiabá Municipality in Central-West, Brazil

Cuiabá is the capital city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. It is located near the geographical centre of Brazil and forms the metropolitan area of the state, along with the neighbouring town of Várzea Grande. The city's name is an indigenous Bororo word meaning ‘arrow-fishing’, The city was founded in 1719, during the gold rush, it has been the state capital since 1818. The city is a trading centre for an extensive cattle-raising and agricultural area. The capital is among the fastest-growing cities in Brazil, followed by the growth of agribusiness in Mato Grosso, despite the recession that is affecting Brazilian industries. Cuiabá was one of the host cities for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

Central-West Region, Brazil Region in Brazil

The Central-West or Center-West Region of Brazil is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal, where Brazil's national capital, Brasília, is situated. This Region is right in the heart of Brazil, representing 18.86% of the national territory.

Brazilian Highway System

The Brazilian Highway System is the highway system of Brazil. As of 2010, the system consists of almost 2 million kilometers of roads, of which approximately 200,000 km are paved.

Corumbá Municipality in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Corumbá[koɾũˈba] is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, 425 km northwest of Campo Grande, the state's capital. It has a population of approximately 112,000 inhabitants, and its economy is based mainly on agriculture, animal husbandry, mineral extraction, and tourism, being the gateway to the biggest wetlands of the world, the Pantanal. Due to its border with Bolivia, Bolivians in Brazil constitute a significant portion of the city's population, forming a distinct cultural community.

BR-163

BR-163 is a highway in Brazil, going from Tenente Portela, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, to Santarém, Pará, on 3579 kilometers .. It was proposed to pave the road in its entirety part of the Avança Brasil project, which in 2007 was replaced by the Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento. A 51 km long stretch of the highway was finally paved in 2019 in the state of Pará in a cooperation between the Bolsonaro government and the Brazilian army engineering battalion, until the city of Miritituba, leaving only a small part of the highway to be paved on the other side of the Amazon River.

Agriculture in Brazil Major economic sector in Brazil

The agriculture of Brazil is historically one of the principal bases of Brazil's economy. While its initial focus was on sugarcane, Brazil eventually became the world's largest exporter of coffee, soybeans, beef, and crop-based ethanol.

BR-060

BR-060 is a federal highway of Brazil. The 1329 kilometre road connects Brasilia to Bela Vista, on the Paraguayan border.

BR-158

BR-158 is a federal highway of Brazil. One of the longest highways in the country, the 3,955.0-kilometre (2,457.5 mi) road connects Altamira, Pará, to Santana do Livramento on the Uruguayan border where it joins Route 5 (Uruguay).

Espírito Santo State of Brazil

Espírito Santo is a state in southeastern Brazil. Its capital is Vitória, and its largest city is Serra. With an extensive coastline, the state hosts some of the country's main ports, and its beaches are significant tourist attractions.

BR-364 Highway in Brazil

BR-364 is an inter-state highway in Brazil connecting the southeast state of São Paulo to the western state of Acre. The highway was opened in the 1960s and paved in the 1980s. It has brought economic development and population growth in the Amazon basin states of Rondônia and Acre. It has also caused massive environmental damage and socio-economic impacts. The road is extremely important for the flow of agricultural and livestock production in the states of Rondônia, Mato Grosso and Goiás, for Brazilian domestic consumption and for export, mainly by Port of Santos.

Animal husbandry in Brazil

In Brazil, the lords of Casa da Torre de Garcia d'Avila pioneered the livestock industry, often using indigenous labor as cowboys. However, a great drought in the Northeast and the discovery of precious minerals in Minas Gerais at the end of the 18th century moved the cattle ranch in Brazil to the Southeast and South, more specifically São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul.

References

  1. "IBGE" . Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  2. "Radar IDHM: evolução do IDHM e de seus índices componentes no período de 2012 a 2017" (PDF) (in Portuguese). PNUD Brasil. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  3. In Brazilian Portuguese. The European Portuguese pronunciation is [ˈmatu ˈɣɾosu ðu ˈsuɫ].
  4. Source: PNAD.
  5. Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo (PDF) (in Portuguese). Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN   85-240-3919-1 . Retrieved 2010-01-18.
  6. "Untitled Document" (PDF). Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  7. Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels
  8. "Estimativas da população residente nos municípios brasileiros com data de referência em 1º de julho de 2011" [Estimates of the Resident Population of Brazilian Municipalities as of July 1, 2011] (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 30 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  9. MS deve registrar maior safra de soja da história e produção pode chegar a mais de 11 milhões de toneladas
  10. 1 2 IBGE prevê safra recorde de grãos em 2020
  11. Produção de 10 milhões de toneladas confirma safra recorde de soja em Mato Grosso do Sul
  12. Goiás é o segundo maior produtor de cana-de-açúcar do País
  13. Produção de milho em MS pode chegar a mais de 10 milhões de toneladas
  14. Produção brasileira de mandioca em 2018
  15. Com quarto maior rebanho bovino do país, MS recebe evento para debater todos os elos da cadeia produtiva
  16. Com um rebanho de 22 milhões de aves, setor avícola gera 8,8 mil empregos diretos em MS
  17. MS caminha para se tornar o 4º maior produtor de suínos do país
  18. Algumas Gemas Clássicas
  19. Industry Profile of Mato Grosso do Sul
  20. MS se consolida como maior exportador de celulose do país
  21. Source: IBGE.
  22. OnLine - Hospedagens e Desenvolvimento de Web Sites. "Faculdades reconhecidas pelo MEC, Vestibular, Apostilas, Universitário, Profissão, Professor". Ser Universitário. Retrieved 23 May 2015.

Coordinates: 20°26′34″S54°38′45″W / 20.44278°S 54.64583°W / -20.44278; -54.64583