Matsue

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Matsue

松江市
Matsue montage.jpg
From top left: Kumano Taisha, Yaegaki Shrine, Miho Shrine, Matsue Castle, Lake Shinji (Yomegashima), Tamatsukuri hot springs, Mihonoseki Lighthouse, Night view of Matsue
Flag of Matsue, Shimane.svg
Flag
Emblem of Matsue, Shimane.svg
Emblem
Matsue in Shimane Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Matsue in Shimane Prefecture
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Matsue
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 35°28′15″N133°03′07″E / 35.47083°N 133.05194°E / 35.47083; 133.05194 Coordinates: 35°28′15″N133°03′07″E / 35.47083°N 133.05194°E / 35.47083; 133.05194
CountryJapan
Region Chūgoku (San'in)
Prefecture Shimane Prefecture
Government
  MayorUesada Akihito (since April 2021) (Ind.)
Area
  Total572.99 km2 (221.23 sq mi)
Population
 (February 1, 2021)
  Total202,008
  Density350/km2 (910/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address86 Suetsugu, Matsue-shi, Shimane-ken
690-8540
Website www.city.matsue.shimane.jp
Symbols
Flower Camellia, Peony
Tree Pinus, Cherry blossom

Matsue (Japanese: 松江市, Hepburn: Matsue-shi) is the capital city of Shimane Prefecture, Japan, located in the Chūgoku region of Honshu. [1] [2] The city has an estimated population of 202,008 (February 1, 2021) following the merger with Higashiizumo from Yatsuka District.

Contents

Matsue is located at the northernmost point of Shimane Prefecture, between Lake Shinji and Nakaumi on the banks of the Ohashi River connecting the two lakes, though the city proper reaches the Sea of Japan coast. Matsue is the center of the Lake Shinji-Nakaumi metropolitan area, and with a population of approximately 600,000 is the second largest on the Sea of Japan coast after Niigata.

Matsue is home to the Tokugawa-era Matsue Castle, one of the last surviving feudal castles in Japan.

History

City view from Matsue Castle, 2019

The present-day castle town of Matsue was originally established by Horio Yoshiharu, lord of the Matsue clan, when he built Matsue castle and planned the surrounding Castle town over a five-year period from 1607 to 1611. Matsue continued to be the seat of power in the Sanin Region for many years.

Matsue was first ruled by the Horio family. Horio Yoshiharu's son Tadauji died before his father, thus the province was inherited by his grandson Tadaharu. However, Tadaharu died childless so the province was passed on to the Kyogoku. The Kyogoku were daimyō from Omi and Wakasa. Kyogoku Takatsugu served Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. Takatsugu's son Tadataka married the 4th daughter of Hidetada, Hatsu. He served in the Battle of Osaka and reportedly took 300 heads. In 1634, he received the province of Izumo, succeeding the childless Horio Tadaharu. During his rule he was instrumental in engineering projects that helped control the flow of the Hiikawa river.

In 1637, Tadataka also died childless and the domain passed to the Matsudaira. Naomasa was the third son of Hideyasu. Hideyasu, daimyō of Echizen, himself was the second son of Tokugawa Ieyasu, making Naomasa the grandson of the first Tokugawa Shōgun Ieyasu. Naomasa made a name for himself fighting in the Battle of Osaka at the age of 14. He was daimyō of Ono in Echizen and later Matsumoto in Shinano before becoming the ruler of Izumo 1638. Unlike the previous rulers Naomasa had children and his heirs managed to keep Izumo for ten generations until the end of the Edo Bakufu. Overall, ten Matsudaira Daimyō ruled from Matsue. The most famous after the first (Matsudaira Naomasa) is the seventh, Matsudaira Harusato, more commonly referred to as Lord Fumai (不昧公). [3] He revolutionized the administrative system of the Matsue clan which was in financial difficulties and put it back on its feet. He invested in Mulberry bushes and promoted special foods like clams that were a delicacy in Matsue. Harusato was a great enthusiast of Tea Ceremony. His Tea Ceremony name was Fumai. He founded his own school, Unshyu. He has left the Meimei-An a famous tea house still operating in Matsue. Because his influence on wagashi, Japanese sweets for Tea Ceremony from Matsue are famous, especially one called wakakusa.

The city boasts Matsue Castle, the "black castle" or "plover castle". It is one of the 12 remaining original castles in Japan. It is the second largest, the third tallest and the sixth oldest. The castle grounds include a winding path through mixed forests of bamboo, shrubs and trees, many of which are very old and identified by species. Surrounding the grounds and the castle park is the old moat, "horikawa".

Author Lafcadio Hearn taught in Matsue from 1890–1891. His house is now a museum about his life, and a popular tourist attraction in Matsue. Throughout the city there are monuments and landmarks honouring Hearn. Other museums in the city include the Shimane Art Museum and Tanabe Art Museum.

Sada Jinja in Matsue is the home to Sada Shin Noh, a sacred dance comprising a series of purification rituals related to the changing of the rush mats within the shrine. The mats are held by dancers who then offer them to deities to sit upon. Diverse dance forms are performed on a stage in the shrine accompanied by singing, flute and drums. The performance art is transmitted from generation to generation by the community. In November 2011, Sada Shin Noh was inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. [4] Other important shrines include Yaegaki Jinja, Kamosu Jinja, and Miho Jinja, and there are the ruins of Izumo Kokubunji, an Historic Site. [5]

Municipal timeline

Climate

Matsue has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with very warm summers and cool winters. Precipitation is abundant throughout the year, and is somewhat heavier in June, July and September.

Climate data for Matsue (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1940−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.6
(69.1)
24.7
(76.5)
26.4
(79.5)
30.7
(87.3)
32.4
(90.3)
35.0
(95.0)
37.1
(98.8)
38.5
(101.3)
36.1
(97.0)
32.1
(89.8)
27.4
(81.3)
23.2
(73.8)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F)8.3
(46.9)
9.4
(48.9)
13.1
(55.6)
18.5
(65.3)
23.2
(73.8)
26.2
(79.2)
29.8
(85.6)
31.6
(88.9)
27.1
(80.8)
22.0
(71.6)
16.5
(61.7)
10.9
(51.6)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.6
(40.3)
5.0
(41.0)
8.0
(46.4)
13.1
(55.6)
18.0
(64.4)
21.7
(71.1)
25.8
(78.4)
27.1
(80.8)
22.9
(73.2)
17.4
(63.3)
12.0
(53.6)
7.0
(44.6)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F)1.5
(34.7)
1.3
(34.3)
3.6
(38.5)
8.2
(46.8)
13.5
(56.3)
18.2
(64.8)
22.8
(73.0)
23.8
(74.8)
19.6
(67.3)
13.4
(56.1)
8.0
(46.4)
3.6
(38.5)
11.4
(52.5)
Record low °C (°F)−6.9
(19.6)
−8.7
(16.3)
−4.7
(23.5)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.4
(36.3)
7.8
(46.0)
12.9
(55.2)
15.3
(59.5)
7.9
(46.2)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
−7.5
(18.5)
−8.7
(16.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)153.3
(6.04)
118.4
(4.66)
134.0
(5.28)
113.0
(4.45)
130.3
(5.13)
173.0
(6.81)
234.1
(9.22)
129.6
(5.10)
204.1
(8.04)
126.1
(4.96)
121.6
(4.79)
154.5
(6.08)
1,791.9
(70.55)
Average snowfall cm (inches)28
(11)
25
(9.8)
6
(2.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
11
(4.3)
68
(27)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)21.116.915.011.610.412.012.710.612.612.014.919.8169.7
Average relative humidity (%)76747270717880777976767675
Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.488.6140.5182.4206.5157.1168.6201.0146.2154.4113.878.81,705.2
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [7]

Culture

Various traditional festivals are still held, such as Dōgyōretsu, a drum parade held annually on the third Sunday of October, [8] and Hōranenya, one of Japan's top three boat festivals that is held only once every 10 years (most recently in May 2019). [9]

Education

Universities and colleges

Personalities

International relations

International Friendship Cities [10]

Sister cities [11]

Other

Although not an official friendship city of Matsue, there has been ongoing exchange with Dublin, Ireland since 1988 when former mayor Nakamura Yoshijirō visited the city. [12]

Related Research Articles

Shimane Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Shimane Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region of Honshu. Shimane Prefecture is the second-least populous prefecture of Japan at 665,205 and has a geographic area of 6,708.26 km2. Shimane Prefecture borders Yamaguchi Prefecture to the southwest, Hiroshima Prefecture to the south, and Tottori Prefecture to the east.

Izumo Province Former province of Japan

Izumo Province was an old province of Japan which today consists of the eastern part of Shimane Prefecture. It was sometimes called Unshū (雲州). The province is in the Chūgoku Region.

Oki Province Former province of Japan

Oki Province was a province of Japan consisted of the Oki Islands in the Sea of Japan, located off the coast of the provinces of Izumo and Hōki. The area is now Oki District in modern Shimane Prefecture. Its abbreviated form name was Onshū or Inshū (隠州),

Higashiizumo, Shimane

Higashiizumo was a town located in Yatsuka District, Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

Tamayu was a town located in Yatsuka District, Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

Yatsuka was a district located in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

Matsue Castle

Matsue Castle is a Japanese castle located in Matsue, Shimane Prefecture.

Horio Yoshiharu

Horio Yoshiharu was a Japanese daimyō during the Azuchi–Momoyama and Edo periods. He was appointed to the position of one of san-chūrō by Toyotomi Hideyoshi along with Ikoma Chikamasa and Nakamura Kazuuji. He was the first leader of the Matsue clan and also known as Horio Mosuke.

Horio Tadaharu

Horio Tadaharu was a tozama daimyō in Japan during the Edo period. His father was Horio Tadauji and his grandfather was Horio Yoshiharu. He was the third leader of the Matsue clan. He married Binhime daughter of Okudaira Iemasa of Utsunomiya Domain and adopted daughter of Tokugawa Hidetada. They had 1 daughter married Ishikawa Kadokatsu.

Unnan, Shimane City in Chūgoku, Japan

Unnan is a city located in Shimane Prefecture, Japan, The city belonged to Ohara District which dissolved in 2004 after Unnan was established.

Fukui Domain

The Fukui Domain, also known as the Echizen Domain, was a domain (han) of the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan during the Edo period from 1601 to 1871.

Matsue Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Izumo Province in modern-day Shimane Prefecture.

Gassantoda Castle

Gassantoda Castle was a Japanese castle located in Yasugi, Shimane Prefecture.

Matsudaira Harusato

Matsudaira Harusato was a Japanese daimyō of the mid-Edo period, who ruled the Matsue Domain. He was renowned as a tea master, under the name Matsudaira Fumai.

Sada Jinja

Sada Jinja (佐太神社) is a Shinto shrine in Matsue, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The Taisha-zukuri north, central and south halls of 1807 are Important Cultural Properties.

Meimei-an

Meimei-an (明々庵) is a tea house originally constructed in 1779 by Lord Matsudaira Harusato, daimyō of the Matsue clan at that time. It is located in Matsue, Shimane, Japan.

Kyōgoku Tadataka

Kyōgoku Tadataka was a Japanese noble and the daimyō and head of the Kyōgoku clan of Japan during the Tokugawan power grab of the early 17th century.

Kita-Matsue Line Railway line in Izumo, Shimane

The Kita-Matsue Line is a 22.9 km railway line owned by the Ichibata Electric Railway. The line connects Dentetsu-Izumoshi Station in Izumo with Matsue-Shinjiko-Onsen Station in Matsue, all within Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Tracks run parallel to JR West's San'in Main Line on the north of Lake Shinji.

References

  1. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Matsue" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 617; "Chūgoku" at p. 127.
  2. Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO), "Matsue area"; retrieved 2012-2-11.
  3. https://fumaikou.jp/about
  4. "Sada Shin Noh, sacred dancing at Sada shrine, Shimane". UNESCO . Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  5. "Izumo Kokunbunji". Agency for Cultural Affairs . Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  6. 松江市が人口「最下位」を返上 (in Japanese). Sanin-Chūō Shimbun. Archived from the original on 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2011-03-21.
  7. 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency . Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  8. http://www.dogyoretsu.jp/history
  9. "松江の船神事「ホーランエンヤ」 開催周期10年に短縮". 5 August 2010.
  10. "松江市:市政情報:海外の姉妹都市".
  11. "松江市:市政情報:姉妹都市".
  12. "松江市:市政情報:アイルランド".