Matthew Lewis (writer)

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Matthew Lewis
Matthew Gregory Lewis by George Lethbridge Saunders, after Unknown artist.jpg
Portrait by George Lethbridge Saunders
(ca. 1800)
Born(1775-07-09)9 July 1775
Died14 or 16 May 1818 (aged 42)
OccupationDeputy-Secretary at War;
Member of Parliament
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford
Notable works The Monk

Matthew Gregory Lewis (9 July 1775 – 14 or 16 May 1818) [1] was an English novelist and dramatist. He was often referred to as "Monk" Lewis, because of the success of his 1796 Gothic novel, The Monk .

A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they often continue to be published, although very few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work.

<i>The Monk</i> novel by Matthew Lewis

The Monk: A Romance is a Gothic novel by Matthew Gregory Lewis, published in 1796. A quickly written book from early in Lewis's career, it was published before he turned twenty. It is a prime example of the male Gothic that specialises in the aspect of horror. Its convoluted and scandalous plot has made it one of the most important Gothic novels of its time, often imitated and adapted for the stage and the screen.




Lewis was the first-born child of Matthew and Frances Maria Sewell Lewis. His father, Matthew Lewis, was the son of William Lewis and Jane Gregory and was born in England in 1750. He attended Westminster School before proceeding to Christ Church, Oxford, where he received his bachelor's degree in 1769 and his master's in 1772. During his time at Westminster, Lewis's parents separated, and he idolized his mother without disregarding his father. Mrs Lewis moved to France in this period; while there, she was in continuous correspondence with Matthew. [2] The correspondence between Matthew and his mother consisted of discussion regarding the poor state of his mother's welfare and estate.

Westminster School school in Westminster, London, England

Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, England, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster probably dates back as far as 960, in line with the Abbey's history. Boys are admitted to the Under School at age seven and to the senior school at age thirteen; girls are admitted at age sixteen into the Sixth Form. The school has around 750 pupils; around a quarter are boarders, most of whom go home at weekends, after Saturday morning school. The school motto, Dat Deus Incrementum, is taken from the New Testament, specifically 1 Corinthians 3:6.

Christ Church, Oxford constituent college of the University of Oxford in England

Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head.

That same year, Lewis was appointed Chief Clerk in the War Office. The following year, he married Frances Maria Sewell, a young woman who was very popular at court. She was the third daughter of Sir Thomas Sewell and was one of eight children born in his first marriage. Her family, like Lewis's, had connections with Jamaica. As a child, she spent her time in Ottershaw. In December 1775, in addition to his War Office post, Lewis became the Deputy Secretary at War. With one exception, he was the first to hold both positions and receive both salaries contemporaneously. Lewis owned considerable property in Jamaica, within four miles of Savanna-la-Mer, or Savanna-la-Mar, which was hit by a devastating earthquake and hurricane in 1779. His son would later inherit this property. [3]

Sir Thomas Sewell was an English judge and Member of Parliament, and Master of the Rolls from 1764 to 1784.

Ottershaw village in the United Kingdom

Ottershaw is a village in the Runnymede district of Surrey, England about 20 miles to the south-west of London. It is in the mixed rural and suburban Foxhills ward and is part of the ecclesiastical parish of Ottershaw first established as a chapelry in 1865 in what was part of the parish of Addlestone, itself then a new parish. It became a parish in its own right in 1871. It is outside of and adjoins the M25 motorway's circuit of London.

Savanna-la-Mar town in Jamaica

Savanna-la-Mar is the chief town and capital of Westmoreland Parish, Jamaica. A coastal town, it contains an 18th-century fort constructed for colonial defence against pirates in the Caribbean.

In addition to Matthew Gregory Lewis, Matthew and Frances had three other children: Maria, Barrington, and Sophia Elizabeth. On 23 July 1781, when Matthew was six and his youngest sister one-and-a-half years old, Frances left her husband, taking the music master, Samuel Harrison, as her lover. During their estrangement, Frances lived under a different name, Langley, in order to hide her location from her husband, although he still learned of whereabouts. On 3 July 1782, Frances gave birth to a child. That same day, hearing of the birth, her estranged husband returned. Afterwards, he began to arrange a legal separation from his wife. After formally accusing his wife of adultery through the Consistory Court of the Bishop of London on 27 February 1783, he petitioned the House of Lords for permission to bring about a bill of divorce. However, as these bills were rarely granted, it was rejected when brought to a vote. Consequently, Matthew and Frances remained married until his death in 1818. Frances, though withdrawing from society and temporarily moving to France, was always supported financially by her husband and then later, her son. She later returned to London and then finished her life at Leatherhead, [3] rejoining society and even becoming a lady-in-waiting to the Princess of Wales. [4] Frances and her son remained quite close, with her taking on the responsibility of helping him with his literary career. She even became a published author, much to her son's dislike. [5]

Leatherhead town in Surrey, England

Leatherhead is a town in Surrey, England on the right bank of the River Mole, and at the edge of the contiguous built-up area of London. Its local district is Mole Valley. Records exist of the place from Anglo Saxon England. It has a combined theatre and cinema, which is at the centre of the re-modelling following late 20th century pedestrianisation. The streets bypassing the town centre close and feature in the annual London-Surrey cycle classic.


Matthew Gregory Lewis began his education at a preparatory school called Marylebone Seminary under the Rev. Dr John Fountaine, Dean of York. Fountain was a friend of both the Lewis and Sewell families. There Lewis learned Latin, Greek, French, writing, arithmetic, drawing, dancing, and fencing. He and his classmates were only permitted to converse in French throughout the day. Like many of his classmates, Lewis used the Marylebone Seminary as a stepping stone, proceeding from there to Westminster School, like his father, at the age of eight. There he acted in the Town Boys' Play as Falconbridge in King John and then My Lord Duke in James Townley's farce, High Life Below Stairs.

Marylebone inner-city area of central London

Marylebone is an area in the West End of London, England, which is part of the City of Westminster.

<i>King John</i> (play) play by Shakespeare

The Life and Death of King John, a history play by William Shakespeare, dramatises the reign of John, King of England, son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and father of Henry III of England. It is believed to have been written in the mid-1590s but was not published until it appeared in the First Folio in 1623.

Rev. James Townley was an English dramatist, the second son of Charles Townley, a merchant.

Again like his father, he entered Christ Church, Oxford on 27 April 1790 at the age of 15. He graduated with a bachelor's degree in 1794 and earned a master's degree from the same college in 1797. [3]

Professional life

Intended for a diplomatic career like his father, Matthew Gregory Lewis spent most of his school vacations abroad, studying modern languages. His travels sent him to London, Chatham, Scotland, and the continent at least twice, including Paris in 1791 and Weimar, Germany in 1792–93. During these travels, Lewis enjoyed spending time in society, a trait that he retained throughout his life. In the same period he began translating existing works and writing his own plays.

In 1791, he sent his mother a copy of a farce that he had written named The Epistolary Intrigue. Though he intended the play to be performed at London’s Drury Lane, it was rejected there and then later by the neighbouring Covent Garden. He supposedly completed a two-volume novel in the same period. This survives only in fragments in the posthumously published The Life and Correspondence of M. G. Lewis. In March 1792, Lewis translated the French opera Felix and sent it to Drury Lane, hoping to earn money for his mother. While he tried to write a novel like Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto , he mainly adhered to theatre, writing The East Indian. However, it would be seven years before this appeared on stage at Drury Lane. In Germany, he even translated Wieland's Oberon , a difficult work of poetry which earned him the respect of his acquaintance, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

While Lewis pursued these literary ambitions, mainly to earn money for his mother, his father's influences secured him the position as an attaché to the British embassy in The Hague. He arrived on 15 May 1794 and remained until December of the same year. Though finding friends at the local pubs (his favourite being Madame de Matignon's Salon), amongst visiting French aristocracy who were fleeing revolutionary France, Lewis saw The Hague as a place of boredom and disliked its Dutch citizens. [6] It was here that he produced, in ten weeks, his romance Ambrosio, or The Monk which was published anonymously in the summer of the following year. It immediately achieved celebrity for Lewis. However, some passages were of such a nature that about a year after its appearance, an injunction to restrain its sale was obtained. In the second edition, Lewis, in addition to citing himself as the author and as a Member of Parliament (for Hindon, Wiltshire), removed what he assumed were the objectionable passages, yet, the work retained much of its horrific character. Lord Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers wrote of "Wonder-working Lewis, Monk or Bard, who fain wouldst make Parnassus a churchyard; Even Satan's self with thee might dread to dwell, And in thy skull discern a deeper hell." The Marquis de Sade also praised Lewis in his essay "Reflections on the Novel".

Matthew Gregory Lewis, by Henry William Pickersgill, 1809 Matthew Gregory Lewis by Henry William Pickersgill.jpg
Matthew Gregory Lewis, by Henry William Pickersgill, 1809

On 22 March 1802 Harriett Litchfield appeared in a Gothic monodrama at The Haymarket called The Captive by Lewis. This recounts the story of a wife imprisoned by her husband. The stage directions included details designed to improve the gothic situation. Litchfield was complimented for her delivery "in the most perfect manner", but she plays a woman denied any human contact and kept in a modern dungeon. She is not mad but realises that she will soon be a maniac. The play is thought to have been suggested by one of Mary Wollstonecraft's books. It was said that even the staff of the theatre left in horror. The play was only staged once. [7]

Lewis held two estates in Jamaica, Cornwall estate in Westmoreland Parish and Hordley estate in Saint Thomas Parish. According to the slave registers, Hordley was co-owned with George Scott and Matthew Henry Scott and their shares were purchased by Lewis in 1817, thus making him sole owner of more than 500 slaves. [8] [9]

Lewis visited Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Shelley at Geneva, Switzerland in the summer of 1816 and recounted five ghost stories which Shelley recorded in his "Journal at Geneva (including ghost stories) and on return to England, 1816", beginning with the entry for 18 August, which was published posthumously.

Lewis died on board ship whilst sailing back from visiting his estates in Jamaica in 1818, and was buried at sea.

The Life and Correspondence of M. G. Lewis, in two volumes, was published in 1839. The Effusions of Sensibility, his first novel, was never completed.

Reception of his work

Engraving of Lewis in later life, by William Holl Portrait of M. G. Lewis (4673361).jpg
Engraving of Lewis in later life, by William Holl

As a writer, Lewis is typically classified as writing in the Gothic horror genre, along with the authors Charles Robert Maturin and Mary Shelley. [10] Lewis was most assuredly influenced by Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho and William Godwin's Caleb Williams. In fact, Lewis actually wrote a letter to his mother a few months before he began writing The Monk in which he stated that he saw resemblance between the villain Montoni from The Mysteries of Udolpho and himself. [3] He took Radcliffe's obsession with the supernatural and Godwin's narrative drive and interest in crime and punishment, Lewis differed with his literary approach. Whereas Radcliffe would allude to the imagined horrors under the genre of terror-Gothic, Lewis defined himself by disclosing the details of the gruesome scenes, earning him the title of a Gothic horror novelist. [11] By giving the reader actual details rather than the terrified feelings rampant in Radcliffe, Lewis provides a more novelistic experience. In the article "Matthew Lewis and the Gothic Horror of Obsessional Neurosis", Ed Cameron argues that "Lewis disregards and often parodies the sentimentality found in Radcliffe's work."

Lewis is often criticized for a lack of originality. Though much of Lewis's career went on the translation of other texts, these criticisms more often refer to his novel The Monk and his play The Castle Spectre . Beginning with The Monk , Lewis starts the novel with an advertisement which reads:

The first idea of this Romance was suggested by the story of the Santon Barsisa, related in The Guardian. – The Bleeding Nun is a tradition still credited in many parts of Germany; and I have been told, that the ruins of the Castle of Lauenstein, which She is supposed to haunt, may yet be seen upon the borders of Thuringia. –The Water-King, from the third to twelfth stanza, is the fragment of an original Danish Ballad – And Belerma and Durandarte is translated from some stanzas to be found in a collection of old Spanish poetry, which contains also the popular song of Gayferos and Melesindra, mentioned in Don Quixote. – I have now made a full avowal of all the plagiarisms of which I am aware myself; but I doubt not, many more may be found, of which I am at present totally unconscious.

While some critics, like those of The Monthly Review, saw combinations of previous works as a new invention, others, including Samuel Coleridge, have argued that by revealing where Lewis found inspiration, he surrendered part of his authorship. This bothered Lewis so much that in addition to a note written by Lewis in the fourth edition of The Monk , he included notes to the text when he published The Castle Spectre as a way to counteract any accusations of plagiarism. The success of this tactic is debatable. [12]



  1. The Effusions of Sensibility (unfinished)
  2. Ambrosio, or, The Monk: A Romance (3 volumes) (1796, revised 1798)
  3. The Bravo of Venice (1805)


Feudal Tyrants; or, The Counts of Carlsheim and Sargans. A romance (1806, free translation of Benedikte Naubert: Elisabeth, Erbin von Toggenburg, oder Geschichte der Frauen von Sargans in der Schweiz, 1789)

Short Story

"My Uncle's Garret Window"


  1. Tales of Terror [1779]
  2. Tales of Wonder (1801)
  3. Romantic Tales (1808)


  1. Village Virtues: A Dramatic Satire (1796)
  2. The Castle Spectre: A Dramatic Romance in Five Acts (1796)
  3. The East Indian: A Comedy in Five Acts (1800)
  4. The Minister: A Tragedy, in Five Acts (1797)
  5. Alfonso, King of Castile: A Tragedy in Five Acts (1801)
  6. Adelgitha; or, The Fruit of a Single Error. A Tragedy in Five Acts (1806)


  1. Journal of a West India Proprietor Kept during a Residence in the Island of Jamaica (1833)
  2. The Life and Correspondence of M. G. Lewis (1839)

Related Research Articles

Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled "A Gothic Story". The effect of Gothic fiction feeds on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole's novel. It originated in England in the second half of the 18th century where, following Walpole, it was further developed by Clara Reeve, Ann Radcliffe, William Thomas Beckford and Matthew Lewis. The genre had much success in the 19th century, as witnessed in prose by Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and the works of Edgar Allan Poe as well as Charles Dickens with his novella, A Christmas Carol, and in poetry in the work of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Lord Byron. Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the late Victorian era, is Bram Stoker's Dracula. The name Gothic, which originally referred to the Goths, and then came to mean "German", refers to the medieval Gothic architecture, in which many of these stories take place. This extreme form of Romanticism was very popular throughout Europe, especially among English- and German-language writers and artists. The English Gothic novel also led to new novel types such as the German Schauerroman and the French Roman Noir.

Horror fiction genre of fiction

Horror is a genre of speculative fiction which is intended to frighten, scare, disgust, or startle its readers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length... which shocks, or even frightens the reader, or perhaps induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing". It creates an eerie and frightening atmosphere. Horror is frequently supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural. Often the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society.

John William Polidori English writer and physician

John William Polidori was an English writer and physician. He is known for his associations with the Romantic movement and credited by some as the creator of the vampire genre of fantasy fiction. His most successful work was the short story "The Vampyre" (1819), the first published modern vampire story. Although originally and erroneously accredited to Lord Byron, both Byron and Polidori affirmed that the story is Polidori's.

Ann Radcliffe English author and a pioneer of the Gothic novel

Ann Radcliffe was an English author and pioneer of the Gothic novel. Radcliffe's technique of explaining the apparently supernatural elements in her novels has been credited with enabling Gothic fiction to achieve respectability in the 1790s.

<i>The Castle of Otranto</i> novel

The Castle of Otranto is a 1764 novel by Horace Walpole. It is generally regarded as the first gothic novel. In the second edition, Walpole applied the word 'Gothic' to the novel in the subtitle – "A Gothic Story". The novel merged medievalism and terror in a style that has endured ever since. The aesthetics of the book shaped modern-day gothic books, films, art, music and the goth subculture.

<i>The Italian</i> (novel) novel by Ann Radcliffe

The Italian, or the Confessional of the Black Penitents (1797) is a Gothic novel written by the English author Ann Radcliffe. It is the last book Radcliffe published during her lifetime. The Italian has a dark, mysterious and somber tone, and concerns the themes of love, devotion and persecution by the Holy Inquisition. The novel also deals with issues prevalent at the time of the French Revolution, such as religion, aristocracy, and nationality. Radcliffe's renowned use of veiled imagery is considered to have reached its height of sophistication and complexity in The Italian; concealment and disguise are central motifs of the novel. In line with late 18th-century sensibility and its parallel fetishisation of the sublime and the sentimentally pastoral, the heightened emotional states of Radcliffe's characters are often reflected through the pathetic fallacy. The novel is noted for its extremely effective antagonist, Father Schedoni.

<i>The Mysteries of Udolpho</i> gothic novel by Ann Radcliffe

The Mysteries of Udolpho, by Ann Radcliffe, was published in four volumes on 8 May 1794 by G. G. and J. Robinson of London. The firm paid her £500 for the manuscript. The contract is housed at the University of Virginia Library. Her fourth and most popular novel, The Mysteries of Udolpho follows the fortunes of Emily St. Aubert, who suffers, among other misadventures, the death of her father, supernatural terrors in a gloomy castle and the machinations of an Italian brigand. Often cited as the archetypal Gothic novel, The Mysteries of Udolpho, along with Radcliffe's novel The Romance of the Forest, plays a prominent role in Jane Austen's novel Northanger Abbey, in which an impressionable young woman, after reading Radcliffe's novel, comes to see her friends and acquaintances as Gothic villains and victims with amusing results.

<i>Zastrozzi</i> novella by Percy Bysshe Shelley

Zastrozzi: A Romance is a Gothic novel by Percy Bysshe Shelley first published in 1810 in London by George Wilkie and John Robinson anonymously, with only the initials of the author's name, as "by P.B.S.". The first of Shelley's two early Gothic novellas, the other being St. Irvyne, outlines his atheistic worldview through the villain Zastrozzi and touches upon his earliest thoughts on irresponsible self-indulgence and violent revenge. An 1810 reviewer wrote that the main character "Zastrozzi is one of the most savage and improbable demons that ever issued from a diseased brain".

The Romance of the Forest is a Gothic novel by Ann Radcliffe that was first published in 1791. It combines an air of mystery and suspense with an examination of the tension between hedonism and morality. The novel was her first major, popular success, going through four editions in its first three years. Furthermore, "this novel also established her reputation as the first among her era's writers of romance. There is surprisingly little essential difference in characterization, Gothic décor, or plot outline to distinguish this novel from its predecessors. Its superior merit lies in the expansive and subtle use which the author makes of these elements so that the characters are relatively well realized, the Gothic décor is blended into the sensibility of the reader rather than imposed upon it, and the plot is an intricate and often dramatic series of congruent incidents and living tableaux, not a congeries of barely related and stillborn scenes and surprises.” Most critics who have given any attention to Mrs. Radcliffe as a novelist have decided that she is important chiefly for her use of the supernatural, and for her emphasis upon landscape. Her use of the supernatural and emphasis upon landscape can clearly be seen throughout this novel. We see the aforementioned when confronted with the principal character in the novel, Adeline. She is a "highly-interesting character, whom the writer conducts through a series of alarming situations, and hair-breadth escapes, in which she has skillfully contrived to hold the reader’s curiosity continually in suspense, and at the same time to keep their feelings in a state of perpetual agitation.”

<i>A Sicilian Romance</i> novel by Ann Radcliffe

A Sicilian Romance is a gothic novel by Ann Radcliffe. It was her second published work, and was first published anonymously in 1790.

<i>The Abbess</i> gothic novel by William Henry

The Abbess: A Romance is a gothic novel by William Henry Ireland first published in 1799. The text was modelled upon Matthew Lewis's The Monk (1796).

The Castle Spectre is a 1797 dramatic romance in five acts by Matthew "Monk" Lewis. It is a Gothic drama set in medieval Conway, Wales.

<i>St. Irvyne</i> novella by Percy Bysshe Shelley

St. Irvyne; or, The Rosicrucian: A Romance is a Gothic horror novel written by Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1810 and published by John Joseph Stockdale in December of that year, dated 1811, in London anonymously as "by a Gentleman of the University of Oxford" while the author was an undergraduate. The main character is Wolfstein, a solitary wanderer, who encounters Ginotti, an alchemist of the Rosicrucian or Rose Cross Order who seeks to impart the secret of immortality. The book was reprinted in 1822 by Stockdale and in 1840 in The Romancist and the Novelist's Library: The Best Works of the Best Authors, Vol. III, edited by William Hazlitt. The novella was a follow-up to Shelley's first prose work, Zastrozzi, published earlier in 1810. St. Irvyne was republished in 1986 by Oxford University Press as part of the World's Classics series along with Zastrozzi and in 2002 by Broadview Press.

The French Revolution influenced the English gothic novel.

Zofloya; or, The Moor: A Romance of the Fifteenth Century is an 1806 English Gothic novel by Charlotte Dacre, writing as Rosa Matilda. It was her second novel. It was published in three parts, and later collected into a single volume. It was highly criticised during its publication, due to its provocative subject matter and racial and religious themes. Zofloya opens with the adulterous actions of the mother, Laurina di Cornari, and continues to portray the repercussions of her sinful actions throughout the novel.

Gothic bluebooks were short forms of gothic fiction popular in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

The most notable novels from the 18th-century Gothic genre were written by British authors in English and translated throughout history into other languages, but other writers throughout continental Europe contemporaneously emerged to write Gothic novels in their own native tongues. While British writers like Horace Walpole and Ann Radcliffe were writing about castles and ghosts, so too was the German author Friedrich Schiller, the French author Marquis de Sade, and the Ukrainian author Jan Potocki. One of the Marquis de Sade's most famous novels The 120 Days of Sodom has been translated from the French to English, German, and most recently Japanese. Beyond continental Europe, it is difficult to find authors anywhere else in the world producing Gothic genre novels in the 18th century.

<i>Wolfstein</i> (book)

Wolfstein; or, The Mysterious Bandit is an 1822 chapbook based on Percy Bysshe Shelley’s 1811 Gothic horror novel St. Irvyne; or, The Rosicrucian.

<i>Wolfstein, the Murderer</i>

Wolfstein, The Murderer; or, The Secrets of a Robber’s Cave is an 1850 chapbook based on Percy Bysshe Shelley’s 1811 Gothic horror novel St. Irvyne; or, The Rosicrucian.


  1. "Matthew Lewis". Wordsworth Wordsworth Editions. 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017. The exact dates of his death are debated, with some believing it to be 14 May and others, 16 May.
  2. Henry, Colburn (1839). Life and Correspondence of M. G. Lewis, Author of "The Monk," "Castle Spectre," &c. With Many Pieces in Prose and Verse, Never Before Published. Great Marlborough. pp. 51, 41.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Peck, Louis F. A Life of Matthew G. Lewis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1961. Hathi Trust Digital Library. Retrieved on 19 March 2010
  4. Lewis, Matthew G. The Monk: A Romance. Ed. David L. Macdonald and Kathleen D. Scherf. Ontario, CA: Broadview, 2004. Retrieved on 16 March 2010.
  5. Cameron, Ed. "Matthew Lewis and the Gothic Horror of Obsessional Neurosis". Studies in the Humanities, 32.2 (2005), pp. 168–200. MLA International Bibliography. Retrieved on 19 March 2010.
  6. Lewis, Matthew. The Monk, ed. Howard Anderson. London: Oxford UP, 1973.
  7. Taylor, George (2000). The French Revolution and the London stage, 1789–1805 (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN   0521630525.
  8. Copies of Jamaican slave registers held by The National Archives are available on Ancestry. They show that in 1817 there were 285 slaves on the Cornwall estate and 282 on Hordley. See Your Archives (The National Archives' wiki) for further information about the slave registers.
  9. Matthew Gregory Lewis. Legacies of British Slave-ownership. University College, London. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  10. Hume, Robert D (1969). "Gothic versus Romantic: A Revaluation of the Gothic Novel". Modern Language Association. 84 (2): 282–90. doi:10.2307/1261285.
  11. Platzner, Robert L.; Hume, Robert D. (1971). ""Gothic versus Romantic": A Rejoinder". Modern Language Association. 86 (2): 266–74. doi:10.2307/460952.
  12. Fitzgerald, Lauren (2005). "The Gothic Villain and the Vilification of the Plagiarist: The Case of The Castle Spectre". Gothic Studies. 7 (1): 5–17. doi:10.7227/gs.7.1.2.


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James Adams
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Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
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Parliament of Great Britain
Member of Parliament for Hindon
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