Matthias Jakob Schleiden

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden
PSM V22 D156 Matthias Jacob Schleiden.jpg
Matthias Jakob
Born(1804-04-05)5 April 1804
Died23 June 1881(1881-06-23) (aged 77)
NationalityGerman
Alma mater Heidelberg
Known for Cell theory
Coining the term 'cytoblast'
Scientific career
Institutions University of Jena, University of Dorpat
Author abbrev. (botany) Schleid.

Matthias Jakob Schleiden (German: [maˈtiːas ˈjaːkɔp ˈʃlaɪ̯dn̩] ; [1] [2] 1804–1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.

Contents

Career

Matthias Jakob Schleiden was born in Hamburg on 5 April 1804. His father was the municipal physician of Hamburg. Schleiden pursued legal studies graduating in 1827. He then established a legal practice but after a period of emotional depression and an attempted suicide, he changed professions.

He studied natural science at the University of Göttingen in Göttingen, Germany, but transferred to the University of Berlin in 1835 to study plants. Johann Horkel, Schleiden's uncle, encouraged him to study plant embryology. [3]

He soon developed his love for botany into a full-time pursuit. Schleiden preferred to study plant structure under the microscope. As a professor of botany at the University of Jena, he wrote Contributions to our Knowledge of Phytogenesis (1838), in which he stated that all plants are composed of cells. Thus, Schleiden and Schwann became the first to formulate what was then an informal belief as a principle of biology equal in importance to the atomic theory of chemistry. He also recognized the importance of the cell nucleus, discovered in 1831 by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown, [4] and sensed its connection with cell division.

He became professor of botany at the University of Dorpat in 1863. He concluded that all plant parts are made of cells and that an embryonic plant organism arises from the one cell.

He died in Frankfurt am Main on 23 June 1881. [5]

Die Entwickelung der Meduse ("The Development of the Medusae"), in Schleiden's Das Meer Schleiden-meduse.jpg
Die Entwickelung der Meduse ("The Development of the Medusæ"), in Schleiden's Das Meer

Evolution

Schleiden was an early advocate of evolution. In a lecture on the "History of the Vegetable World" published in his book Die Pflanze und ihr Leben ("The Plant: A Biography") (1848) was a passage that embraced the transmutation of species. [6] He was one of the first German biologists to accept Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. He has been described as a leading proponent of Darwinism in Germany. [7]

With Die Pflanze und ihr Leben, reprinted six times by 1864, and his Studien: Populäre Vorträge ("Studies: Popular Lectures"), both written in a way that was accessible to lay readers, Schleiden contributed to creating a momentum for popularizing science in Germany. [8]

Selected publications

The standard author abbreviation Schleid. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. [9]

Related Research Articles

Cell theory

In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction.

Carl Nägeli Swiss botanist

Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli was a Swiss botanist. He studied cell division and pollination but became known as the man who discouraged Gregor Mendel from further work on genetics. He rejected natural selection as a mechanism of evolution, favouring orthogenesis driven by a supposed "inner perfecting principle".

Theodor Schwann

Theodor Schwann was a German physician and physiologist. His most significant contribution to biology is considered to be the extension of cell theory to animals. Other contributions include the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism.

Eduard Strasburger

Eduard Adolf Strasburger was a Polish-German professor and one of the most famous botanists of the 19th century.

Josef (Joseph) August Schultes was an Austrian botanist and professor from Vienna. Together with Johann Jacob Roemer (1763–1819), he published the 16th edition of Linnaeus' Systema Vegetabilium. In 1821, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He was the father of Julius Hermann Schultes (1804-1840).

Wilhelm Pfeffer

Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp Pfeffer was a German botanist and plant physiologist born in Grebenstein.

Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper

Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper was a German botanist and phytogeographer who made major contributions in the fields of histology, ecology and plant geography. He travelled to South East Asia and the Caribbean as part of the 1899 deep-sea expedition. He coined the terms tropical rainforest and sclerophyll and is commemorated in numerous specific names.

Alexander Braun German botanist (1805-1877)

Alexander Carl Heinrich Braun was a German botanist from Regensburg, Bavaria. His research centered on the morphology of plants.

Lorenz Heister

Lorenz Heister was a German anatomist, surgeon and botanist born in Frankfurt am Main.

Christian Ernst Stahl

Christian Ernst Stahl was a German botanist who was a native of Schiltigheim, Alsace.

Heinrich Hlasiwetz

Heinrich Hlasiwetz was an Austrian chemist born in Reichenberg, Bohemia.

Johannes Ludwig Emil Robert von Hanstein was a German botanist who was a native of Potsdam.

Gustav Schübler was a German naturalist, and the founder of applied meteorology in Germany.

Daniel Matthias Heinrich Mohr was a German botanist.

Julius Wiesner

Dr. Julius Ritter von Wiesner was a professor of botany at the University of Vienna, a specialist in the physiology and anatomy of plants.

Robert Caspary

Johann Xaver Robert Caspary was a German botanist.

Ernst Erhard Schmid

Ernst Erhard Friedrich Wilhelm Schmid was a German paleontologist. He was the son of law professor Karl Ernst Schmid (1774–1852).

Franz Joseph Schelver was a German physician and botanist.

Johann Horkel was a German physician and botanist.

Hermann Schacht was a German pharmacist and botanist, who specialized in the fields of plant anatomy and embryology.

References

  1. Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962]. Das Aussprachewörterbuch [The Pronunciation Dictionary] (in German) (7th ed.). Berlin: Dudenverlag. pp. 481, 587, 764. ISBN   978-3-411-04067-4.
  2. Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009-12-23). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (in German). Walter de Gruyter. ISBN   9783110215564.
  3. "Matthias Jacob Schleiden (1804–1881) | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia". embryo.asu.edu. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  4. Trisha Creekmore. "The Science Channel :: 100 Greatest Discoveries: Biology". Discovery Communications. Archived from the original on 2006-10-24. Retrieved 2006-10-17.
  5. Mathias Jacob Schleiden, Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. "Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1804-1881)". The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University.
  7. Glick, Thomas F. (1988). The Comparative Reception of Darwinism. University of Chicago Press. p. 83. ISBN   0-226-29977-5
  8. Andreas W. Daum, Wissenschaftspopularisierung im 19. Jahrhundert: Bürgerliche Kultur, naturwissenschaftliche Bildung und die deutsche Öffentlichkeit, 1848–1914. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1998, pp. 252, 256, 262, 288, 509.
  9. IPNI.  Schleid.