Maud of Wales

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Maud of Wales
Maud of Wales.jpg
Maud following her coronation, wearing the Queen's Crown, and holding a sceptre and orb
Queen consort of Norway
Tenure18 November 1905 – 20 November 1938
Coronation 22 June 1906
Born(1869-11-26)26 November 1869
Marlborough House, London, United Kingdom
Died20 November 1938(1938-11-20) (aged 68)
London, United Kingdom
Burial8 December 1938
Spouse
Issue Olav V of Norway
Full name
Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria
House Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Father Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Mother Alexandra of Denmark

Maud of Wales, VA , CI , GCVO , GCStJ (Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria; 26 November 1869 – 20 November 1938) was Queen of Norway as spouse of King Haakon VII. She was the youngest daughter of the British king Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark. Maud of Wales was the first queen of Norway in over five centuries who was not also queen of Denmark or Sweden.

Edward VII King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India 1901-1910

Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

Alexandra of Denmark queen-empress consort as wife of Edward VII

Alexandra of Denmark was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII.

Contents

Early life

Princess Maud of Wales (centre) as a teenager, together with her sisters Victoria (left) and Louise (right) The three daughters of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra by Sydney Prior Hall.jpg
Princess Maud of Wales (centre) as a teenager, together with her sisters Victoria (left) and Louise (right)

Maud was born on 26 November 1869 at Marlborough House, London. She was the third daughter and fifth child of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Victoria, and Alexandra, Princess of Wales, the eldest daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark. She was christened "Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria" at Marlborough House by John Jackson, Bishop of London, on 24 December 1869. Her godparents were her paternal uncle Prince Leopold, for whom the Duke of Cambridge stood proxy; Prince Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel, for whom Prince Francis of Teck stood proxy; Count Gleichen; the Duchess of Nassau, for whom Princess Francis of Teck stood proxy; King Charles XV of Sweden, for whom Baron Hochschild, the Swedish minister, stood proxy; Princess Marie of Leiningen, for whom Princess Claudine of Teck stood proxy; her maternal aunt the Tsarevna of Russia for whom Baroness de Brunnow stood proxy; Crown Princess Louise of Denmark, for whom Madame de Bülow, the Danish Minister's wife, stood proxy; and her great-grand aunt the Duchess of Inverness.

Marlborough House Mansion in the City of Westminster, London, England

Marlborough House, a Grade I listed mansion in St James's, is the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations and the seat of the Commonwealth Secretariat. It was built for Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, the favourite and confidante of Queen Anne. For over a century it served as the London residence of the Dukes of Marlborough. It became a royal residence through the 19th century and first half of the 20th. It was leased by Queen Elizabeth II to the Commonwealth beginning in 1965.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

John Jackson (bishop) British bishop

John Jackson was a British divine and a Church of England bishop for 32 years.

The tomboyish Maud was known as "Harry" to the royal family, after Edward VII's friend Admiral Henry Keppel, whose conduct in the Crimean War was considered particularly courageous at the time. [1] [2] Maud took part in almost all the annual visits to the Princess of Wales's family in Denmark and later accompanied her mother and sisters on cruises to Norway and the Mediterranean. She was a bridesmaid at the 1885 wedding of her paternal aunt Beatrice to Prince Henry of Battenberg, [3] and at the wedding of her brother George to Mary of Teck in 1893. [4]

Henry Keppel Royal Navy admiral

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Keppel was a Royal Navy officer. His first command was largely spent off the coast of Spain, which was then in the midst of the First Carlist War. As commanding officer of the corvette HMS Dido on the East Indies and China Station he was deployed in operations during the First Opium War and in operations against Borneo pirates. He later served as commander of the naval brigade besieging Sebastopol during the Crimean War. After becoming second-in-command of the East Indies and China Station, he commanded the British squadron in the action with Chinese pirates at the Battle of Fatshan Creek when he sank around 100 enemy war-junks. He subsequently took part in the capture of Canton during the Second Opium War.

Crimean War 1850s military conflict

The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. It has widely been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, have never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose", yet they led to a war noted for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery".

Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom Member of the British Royal Family and daughter of Queen Victoria

Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, was the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Beatrice was the last of Queen Victoria's children to die, 66 years after the first, her elder sister Alice.

Maud, along with her sisters, Victoria and Louise, received the Imperial Order of the Crown of India from their grandmother Queen Victoria on 6 August 1887. Like her sisters, she also held the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert (First Class) and was a Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.

Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom British princess

Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom was the fourth child and second daughter of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark, and the younger sister of George V.

Louise, Princess Royal member of the British Royal Family

Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife was the third child and the eldest daughter of the British king Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark; she was a younger sister of George V. She was the eldest granddaughter of Christian IX of Denmark. In 1905, her father gave her the title of Princess Royal, which is usually bestowed on the eldest daughter of the British monarch if there is no living holder.

Royal Order of Victoria and Albert order

The Royal Order of Victoria and Albert was a British Royal Family Order instituted on 10 February 1862 by Queen Victoria, and enlarged on 10 October 1864, 15 November 1865, and 15 March 1880. No award was made after the death of Queen Victoria.

Princess of Denmark

Wedding of Princess Maud of Wales and Prince Carl of Denmark Marriage of Princess Maud.jpg
Wedding of Princess Maud of Wales and Prince Carl of Denmark

Maud married relatively late, waiting until her late twenties to find a husband. [1] She had initially wanted to marry a distant cousin Prince Francis of Teck, younger brother of her sister-in-law Mary. Despite being relatively impoverished from mounting gambling debts and being in a position to possibly benefit from Maud's status, he ignored her advances. [2] On 22 July 1896, Princess Maud married her first cousin, Prince Carl of Denmark, in the private chapel at Buckingham Palace. Prince Carl was the second son of Queen Alexandra's eldest brother, Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark, and Princess Louise of Sweden. The bride's father gave her Appleton House on the Sandringham Estate as a country residence for her frequent visits to England. It was there that the couple's only child, Prince Alexander, was born on 2 July 1903 in Sandringham.

Prince Francis of Teck British prince

Prince Francis of Teck, was the brother of the British queen Mary of Teck, wife of King George V.

Mary of Teck 20th-century queen consort of the United Kingdom and Empress of India

Mary of Teck was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King George V.

Haakon VII of Norway King of Norway

Haakon VII, known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden. He reigned from November 1905 until his death in September 1957.

Prince Carl was an officer in the Danish navy and he and his family lived mainly in Denmark until 1905. In June 1905 the Norwegian parliament, the Storting, dissolved Norway's 91-year-old union with Sweden and voted to offer the throne to Prince Carl. Maud's membership of the British royal house had some part in why Carl was chosen. Following a plebiscite in November, Prince Carl accepted the Norwegian throne, taking the name of Haakon VII, while his young son took the name of Olav. King Haakon VII and Queen Maud were crowned at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 22 June 1906, that being the last coronation in Scandinavia.

Storting supreme legislature of Norway

The Storting is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway. It is located in Oslo. The unicameral parliament has 169 members, and is elected every four years based on party-list proportional representation in nineteen plurinominal constituencies. A member of the Storting is known in Norwegian as a stortingsrepresentant, literally "Storting representative".

Coronations in Norway

Coronations in Norway were held from 1164 to 1906, mostly in the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. Although a crowning ceremony was formerly mandated by the nation's constitution, this requirement was eliminated in 1908. However, Norwegian kings have since chosen voluntarily to take part in a ritual of "benediction" to mark their accession to the throne, during which the crown is present, but not physically bestowed upon the sovereign. The new ceremony retains some of the religious elements of earlier rites, while eliminating other features now considered to be "undemocratic".

Nidaros Cathedral Church in Trøndelag, Norway

Nidaros Cathedral is a cathedral of the Church of Norway located in the city of Trondheim in Trøndelag county. It is built over the burial site of King Olav II, who became the patron saint of the nation, and is the traditional location for the consecration of new kings of Norway. It was built over a long period of 230 years, from 1070 to 1300 when it was substantially completed. But additional work, additions and renovations continued occasionally intermittently for seven more centuries until 2001, and designated as the cathedral for the Diocese of Nidaros in 1152. After going the turmoil and controversies of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, it was taken from the Catholic Church by the newly reformed established state Church of Norway in 1537, which adopted and following the teachings and reforms of Martin Luther, Phillip Melancthon and others, becoming Evangelical Lutheran. Nidaros is the northernmost medieval cathedral in the world.

Queen of Norway

The Queen of Norway, 1906 Maud de galess.jpg
The Queen of Norway, 1906
Queen Maud with her husband and their son Norwegian Royal Family.jpg
Queen Maud with her husband and their son

Queen Maud never lost her love of Britain, but she quickly adapted to her new country and duties as a queen consort. Maud played a strong and dominant role within the court and family, but a discreet role in public. [5]

During her first years in Norway, she and her spouse were photographed in Norwegian folk costumes, and enjoying winter sports such as skiing, to give them a Norwegian appearance in the eyes of the public. [5] She disliked representation but performed her role as a queen with great care, and used clothes and jewellery to make a regal impression. She supported charitable causes, particularly those associated with children and animals, and gave encouragement to musicians and artists. Among her projects was Dronningens Hjelpekomité (the Queen's Relief Committee) during World War I. She supported the feminist Katti Anker Møller's home for unwed mothers (1906), which was regarded as radical, designed furniture for the benefit of the Barnets utstilling (Children's Exhibition) in 1921, and sold photographs for charitable purposes. [5] An avid horseback rider, Maud insisted that the stables of the royal palace in Oslo be upgraded. Queen Maud would supervise much of this project herself and was greatly inspired by the Royal Mews in London when the stables were expanded. [6]

Maud continued to regard Great Britain as her true home even after her arrival in Norway, and visited Great Britain every year. [5] She mostly stayed at her Appleton House, Sandringham, during her visits. [7] She did, however, also appreciate some aspects of Norway, such as the winter sports, and she supported bringing up her son as a Norwegian. She learned to ski and arranged for an English gardens at Kongsseteren, the royal lodge overlooking Oslo, and the summer residence at Bygdøy. She is described as reserved as a public person but energetic and with a taste for practical jokes as a private person. Her influence over her spouse and politics is not much examined, but she is described as a forceful and dominant person within the royal court, though her public role was less visible.

Queen Maud's last public appearance in Britain was at the coronation of her nephew, George VI, in May 1937 at Westminster Abbey. [7] She sat in the royal pew at Westminster Abbey next to her sister-in-law Queen Mary and her niece Mary, Princess Royal, as part of the official royal party. [8]

Maud also acquired a reputation for dressing with fashionable chic. An exhibition of numerous items from her elegant wardrobe was held at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 2005 and published in the catalogue Style and Splendour: Queen Maud of Norway's Wardrobe 1896–1938.

Death

Statue of Maud at the Royal Palace, Oslo La Reine Maud (Oslo) (4856414503).jpg
Statue of Maud at the Royal Palace, Oslo

Maud came to England for a visit in October 1938. Initially she stayed at Sandringham, but then moved into a hotel in London's West End. She became ill and was taken to a nursing home, where an abdominal operation was performed on 16 November 1938. King Haakon immediately travelled from Norway to her bedside. Although she survived the surgery, Maud died unexpectedly of heart failure on 20 November 1938 at the age of 68, [7] six days before her 69th birthday (and on the 13th anniversary of her mother's death). [9] [10] Norwegian newspapers were allowed to break the law forbidding publication on Sundays in order to notify the Norwegian public of her death. [11]

Her body was returned to Norway on board HMS Royal Oak, the flagship of the Second Battle Squadron of the Royal Navy's Home Fleet. [12] Her body was moved to a small church in Oslo before the burial. [12] Queen Maud was buried in the royal mausoleum at Akershus Castle in Oslo. [7] [13] At her death, Queen Maud was the last surviving child of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Maud's coat of arms (granted 1896) until 1917 Coat of Arms of Maud of Wales.svg
Maud's coat of arms (granted 1896) until 1917
Royal monogram as Queen of Norway Royal Monogram of Queen Maud of Norway.svg
Royal monogram as Queen of Norway

Titles and styles

Honours

Arms

Upon her marriage, Maud was granted the use of a personal coat of arms, being those of the kingdom, with an inescutcheon of the shield of Saxony, differenced with a label argent of five points, the outer pair and centre bearing hearts gules, the inner pair crosses gules. [17] The inescutcheon was dropped by royal warrant in 1917.

Ancestors

Legacy

Maud's great-granddaughter, Princess Märtha Louise, named her eldest daughter after the queen.

Queen Maud Land and Queen Maud Mountains in Antarctica; Queen Maud Secondary School in Hong Kong; and Queen Maud Gulf in Nunavut, Canada, are named after Maud.

The ship Maud , designed to the specifications of Roald Amundsen for service in the Arctic Ocean and launched in 1916 to traverse and explore the Northeast Passage, was christened in honor of Maud of Wales. The replenishment ship HNoMS Maud of the Royal Norwegian Navy has also been named for her. [18]

The Queen Maud fromage is named after her.

Citations and references

Citations

  1. 1 2 Hibbert, p. 182
  2. 1 2 King, p. 144
  3. "Prince and Princess Henry of Battenberg with their bridesmaids and others on their wedding day". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  4. "The Duke and Duchess of York and Bridesmaids". National Portrait Gallery, London.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria – utdypning
  6. "The Queen Sonja Art Stable". www.kongehuset.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  7. 1 2 3 4 "Statue of Queen Maud unveiled by HM King Harald". Norway. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  8. "The Queen Mother in pictures". Telegraph. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  9. "Queen Maud Undergoes Operation". The Courier-Mail . Brisbane: National Library of Australia. 17 November 1938. p. 7. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  10. "Death of Queen". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane: National Library of Australia. 21 November 1938. p. 1. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  11. "Death of Queen Maud". The Sydney Morning Herald . National Library of Australia. 22 November 1938. p. 11. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  12. 1 2 Sandelson, Michael (28 October 2011). "Norway's Queen Maud in euthanasia speculations". The Foreigner. Retrieved 20 March 2017.(subscription required)
  13. Dahlmann, L. A. "The secret journey of Queen Maud's coffin | norwegianhistory.no" . Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  14. "Supplement to the London Gazette" (PDF). The London Gazette. 22 May 1902.
  15. "The Glasgow Herald". The Glasgow Herald. 27 July 1896.
  16. "Princess Charles has a son". The Times. 3 July 1903. Princess Charles of Denmark, daughter of King Edward, gave birth to a son to-day at Appleton cottage
  17. Heraldica – British Royal Cadency
  18. "Norwegian Navy train at Raleigh". royalnavy.mod.uk. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2018.

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References

Maud of Wales
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 26 November 1869 Died: 20 November 1938
Norwegian royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Sophia of Nassau
Queen consort of Norway
1905–1938
Vacant
Title next held by
Sonja Haraldsen