Maurice Bishop

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Maurice Bishop
Maurice Bishop 1982-06-11.jpg
Bishop in Saxony, East Germany
11 June 1982
2nd Prime Minister of Grenada
Under People's Revolutionary Government
In office
13 March 1979 16 October 1983
Monarch Elizabeth II (nominal)
Governor General Sir Paul Scoon (powers limited)
Deputy Bernard Coard
Preceded by Sir Eric Gairy
Succeeded by Bernard Coard
Personal details
Born
Maurice Rupert Bishop

(1944-05-29)29 May 1944
Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
Died19 October 1983
Fort Rupert, St. George's, Grenada
Cause of death Execution by firing squad
Political party New Jewel Movement
Spouse(s)Angela Bishop (1966–81)
Domestic partner Jacqueline Creft
ChildrenNadia (born 1969)
John (born 1967)
Vladimir Lenin (born 1978, died 1994)
Education London School of Economics
King's College London

Maurice Rupert Bishop (29 May 1944 – 19 October 1983) was a Grenadian revolutionary and the leader of New Jewel Movement – popular efforts in the areas of socio-economic development, education, and Black liberation – that came to power during the 13 March 1979 revolution that removed Eric Gairy from office. Bishop headed the People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada from 1979 to 1983, when he was dismissed from his post and shot during the coup by Bernard Coard, a staunch militaristic element in the government, leading to upheaval. [1]

Grenada country in the Caribbean

Grenada is a country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself plus six smaller islands which lie to the north of the main island. It is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres (134.6 sq mi), and it had an estimated population of 107,317 in 2016. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is also known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the world's largest exporters. The national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove.

Revolutionary person who either actively participates in, or advocates revolution

A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor.

New Jewel Movement political party in Grenada

The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement (NJM) was a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party in the Caribbean island nation of Grenada that was led by Maurice Bishop. Established in 1973, the NJM issued its manifesto prior to the granting of Independence to Grenada in 1974. The movement took control of the country with a successful revolution in 1979 and ruled by decree as the People's Revolutionary Government until 1983. In 1983, its leader Maurice Bishop was killed by paramilitaries affiliated with hard-liners in his own party. This led to a military government, which was deposed by the US military in a 1983 invasion.

Contents

Biography

Maurice Rupert Bishop was born on 29 May 1944 off the coast of Venezuela on the island of Aruba, then a colony of the Netherlands as part of the Netherlands Antilles. His parents, Rupert and Elment Bishop, came from the northeast of the British island of Grenada, where his father earned only 5 British pence per day. At the end of 1930, to improve his financial position, he moved to the oil fields of the island of Aruba with his wife Elment. [2]

Venezuela Republic in northern South America

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

Aruba Island country in the Caribbean, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Aruba is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of the coast of Venezuela. It measures 32 kilometres (20 mi) long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres (6 mi) across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao, Aruba forms a group referred to as the ABC islands. Collectively, Aruba and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean are often called the Dutch Caribbean.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Childhood and adolescence

Until the age of six, Maurice was raised in Aruba with two older sisters Anne and Moran. In 1950 his father took the family back to Grenada and opened a small retail shop in the capital, St. George's. [2] Maurice was sent to study at the Wesleyan elementary school, but after a year transferred to the Roman Catholic St George primary and high school. [3] At the age of nine Maurice was teased because of his height which made him look much older. As an only son, his father pushed his education and expected much of him. He expected perfect grades from him, not 95 but 100%, and when the family purchased a car his mother expected him to walk to school like the others. [2]

St. Georges, Grenada Town in Saint George, Grenada

St. George's is the capital of Grenada. The town is surrounded by a hillside of an old volcano crater and is on a horseshoe-shaped harbor.

Wesleyanism Protestant Christian denomination

Wesleyanism, or Wesleyan theology, is a movement of Protestant Christians who seek to follow the "methods" or theology of the eighteenth-century evangelical reformers John Wesley and his brother Charles Wesley. More broadly, it refers to the theological system inferred from the various sermons, theological treatises, letters, journals, diaries, hymns, and other spiritual writings of the Wesleys and their contemporary coadjutors such as John William Fletcher.

For his secondary education, Bishop received one of the four government scholarships for study at the Roman Catholic Presentation Brothers' College. [3] He was elected president of the Student Council, of the Discussion Club, and of the History Study Group, along with editing the newspaper Student Voice and participating in sports. He later recalled: "Here I had much interest in politics, history and sociology." He also established contacts with students from the Anglican Grenada Boys' Secondary School, his own school's competitors. [2] He was an ardent supporter of the West Indies Federation established in 1958 and the ideas of Caribbean nationalism. He also recalled the great interest the 1959 Cuban Revolution aroused in him. Bishop recalled: "In fact, for us it did not matter what we heard on the radio or read in the colonial press. For us, it comes down to the courage and legendary heroism of Fidel Castro, Che Guevara. ...Nothing could overshadow this aspect of the Cuban Revolution."

Presentation Brothers' College is a prominent Roman Catholic secondary school for boys in St. George's, Grenada. It was founded by the Presentation Brothers in 1947.

Grenada Boys' Secondary School (GBSS) is a secondary school in Grenada. It is one of the oldest secondary schools on the island.

West Indies Federation former federation of british colonies

The West Indies Federation, also known as the West Indies, the Federation of the West Indies or the West Indian Federation, was a short-lived political union that existed from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962. Various islands in the Caribbean that were colonies of the United Kingdom, including Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Jamaica, and those on the Leeward and Windward Islands, came together to form the Federation, with its capital in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. The expressed intention of the Federation was to create a political unit that would become independent from Britain as a single state—possibly similar to the Canadian Confederation, Australian Commonwealth, or Central African Federation; however, before that could happen, the Federation collapsed due to internal political conflicts over how the Federation itself would be governed or how it would viably function. The territories that would have become part of the Federation eventually became the nine contemporary sovereign states of Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago; with Anguilla, Montserrat, the Cayman Islands, and Turks and Caicos Islands becoming British overseas territories. British Guiana (Guyana) and British Honduras (Belize) held observer status within the West Indies Federation.

In those same years Bishop and his colleagues became interested in reading the works of Julius Nyerere and Frantz Fanon. [2] In 1962 Bishop graduated with a gold medal for his outstanding ability. [3]

Julius Nyerere Tanzanian politician and writer, first Prime Minister and President of Tanzania

Julius Kambarage Nyerere was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician, and political theorist. He governed Tanganyika as Prime Minister from 1961 to 1962 and then as President from 1963 to 1964, after which he led its successor state, Tanzania, as President from 1964 to 1985. A founding member of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) party—which in 1977 became the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party—he chaired it until 1990. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he promoted a political philosophy known as Ujamaa.

Frantz Fanon Martiniquais writer, psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary

Frantz Fanon, also known as Ibrahim Frantz Fanon, was a French West Indian psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer from the French colony of Martinique, whose works are influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism. As well as being an intellectual, Fanon was a political radical, Pan-Africanist, and Marxist humanist concerned with the psychopathology of colonization, and the human, social, and cultural consequences of decolonization.

Shortly before graduation, in early 1962, Bishop and youth leader from Grenada Boys' Secondary School Bernard Coard, created the Grenada Assembly of Youth Fighting for Truth, designed to bring the island youth to political life in a debate over pressing issues. Members gathered on Friday in St. George's main square and arranged open political debates among the people. Both friends and enemies celebrated his charisma and good oratory skills, including his skilful use of humor in his speeches. [3]

Winston Bernard Coard is a Grenadian politician who was Deputy Prime Minister in the People's Revolutionary Government of the New Jewel Movement. Coard launched a coup within the revolutionary government and took power for three days until he was himself deposed by General Hudson Austin.

The term charisma has two senses:

  1. compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others
  2. a divinely conferred power or talent

Education in England

But in nine months Bishop and the other Assembly leaders had left to study at universities in Europe and the United States, ending the group's activities. In December 1963 the 19-year-old Maurice Bishop arrived in London to study law at the University of London, and Coard travelled to the US to study economics at Brandeis University. In London, Bishop received his Bachelori of Law at Gray's Inn in 1966. [3] He often worked in London as a postman or vegetable packer. In 1963–66, Bishop was president of the Students Association of Holborn College and in 1967 headed the association of students of the Royal College. While studying Grenada history Bishop focused on the head of the uprising in 1795, Julien Fédon, and other anti-British speeches. In 1964 he participated the UK's West Indian Standing Conference (WISC) and Campaign Against Racial Discrimination (CARD). He travelled from the UK to socialist Czechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic. During this period he studied the works of Marx, Lenin, Stalin, and Mao Zedong, but was particularly impressed by Julius Nyerere's Ujamaa: Essays on Socialism (published by Oxford University Press in 1968) and the Arusha Declaration of 1967. [3]

In 1967–69 years Bishop worked on his thesis "Constitutional development of Grenada", but left the job because of disagreements with the supervisor in assessing the disturbances in 1951. In 1969 he received a law degree and also became one of the founders of the legal aid office of the West Indies community in London's Notting Hill Gate, a volunteer work. His main source of income became as auditor of additional taxes on the British civil service. During this period he corresponded with friends and developed a two-year plan of activities upon his return to Grenada. The plan called for temporary withdrawal from participation in political activities and his work as a lawyer to create with others an organization capable of taking power on the island. [2]

Returning to Grenada, in December 1970 Bishop gave legal defense to striking nurses at St. George's General Hospital, who hoped to improve the living conditions of patients. He was arrested along with 30 others while protesting alongside them. All were acquitted after a seven-month trial. [3] In 1972 he helped organize a conference in Martinique that discussed and strategized actions for liberation movements. The philosophy of Julius Nyerere and Tanzanian socialism would be guiding elements for the Movement for Assemblies of the People (MAP) which Bishop helped organize after the elections of 1972. He. along with Kenrick Radix and Jacqueline Creft, were interested in steering MAP toward construction of popular institutions centered in villages, to facilitate broad participation in the country’s affairs. [2]

In January 1973 MAP merged with the Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation (JEWEL) to form the New Jewel Movement (NJM). Bishop shared the leadership as Joint Coordinating Secretary with Unison Whiteman. [2]

Grenada "Bloody Sunday"

On 18 November 1973, Bishop and other leaders of the New Jewel Movement were driving in two cars from St George's to Grenville, where they were to meet with businessmen of the city. Security forces under Assistant Chief Constable Aynesent Belmar overtook Bishop's motorcade. Nine persons were captured, arrested, and beaten by the government. In prison they shaved their beards, revealing Bishop's broken jaw. These events became known in Grenada as "Bloody Sunday." [3]

"Bloody Monday"

Bishop joined a mass demonstration against Gairy on 21 January 1974. As his group returned to their hotel, they were pelted with stones and bottles by Gairy's supporters, and the security forces used tear gas. Rupert Bishop, Maurice's father, was leading women and children away from the danger, and was himself shot and killed at the door of the hotel. This became known in Grenada as "Bloody Monday." Bishop said that after this "we realized that we were unable to lead the working class" since the party had no influence in city workers unions or among the rural folk loyal to Gairy. With his colleagues he developed a new strategy, focusing not on propaganda and mobilization for anti-government demonstrations but on organization of party groups and cells. [2]

Strange conspiracy Independence Day

On 6 February 1974, the day before the proclamation of the independent state of Grenada, Bishop was arrested on charges of plotting an armed anti-government conspiracy and taken to the Fort George prison. Police said that while searching his house they found weapons, ammunition, equipment, and uniforms, along with a plan to assassinate Eric Gairy in a night club, and a scheme for guerrilla camps. But following Independence day, on 8 February 1974, Bishop was released on bail and soon after went to the United States.[ citation needed ] On 29 March 1974 he participated in a meeting of the Regional Steering Committee of the Pan-African Congress in Guyana. He also continued in his law practice, in October 1974 defending Desmond "Ras Kabinda" Trotter and Roy Mason who were accused of murdering an American tourist.[ citation needed ]

In October 1975 he would speak at a seminar on "Fascism: A Caribbean Reality?", organized by the Oilfields Workers' Trade Union in Trinidad, and he represented the Nutmeg Board as solicitor in High Court. In November 1975 the NJM Political Bureau formed a Grenada-Cuba Friendship Association, with Bishop one of the initial leaders. [3] In 1976, he was elected to represent St. George's South-East in Parliament. For several years he held the position of leader of the opposition in the Grenadian House of Representatives, opposing the government of Prime Minister Eric Gairy and his Grenada United Labour Party (GULP), which maintained power by terrorism and fraudulent elections. In May 1977 Bishop made his first visit to Cuba, along with Unison Whiteman, as leaders of the NJM and as guests of the Cuban Institute of Friendship with People (ICAP). [3]

Premiership

Bishop in Bautzen, East Germany, 1982 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1982-0611-034, LPG Niederkaina, Besuch durch Maurice Bishop.jpg
Bishop in Bautzen, East Germany, 1982
In East Berlin, 1982 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1982-0610-101, Berlin, Besuch Regierungsdelegation Grenada, Bootsfahrt.jpg
In East Berlin, 1982

In 1979 Bishop's party staged a revolution and deposed Gairy, who was out of the country addressing the United Nations at the time. Bishop became Prime Minister of Grenada and suspended the constitution.

Maurice Bishop has been styled a “brilliant communicator” with an empathy for the masses that was the driving force of the “Grenadian Revolution of 1979 that overthrew the corrupt and pro-imperialist administration of Eric Gairy.” [4]

Bishop established a relationship with Cuba after he took power. He initiated a number of projects, most significantly, the building of a new international airport on the island's southern tip (that in May 2009 was renamed in his memory). Financing and labour for the construction of the airport came from Cuba, although most of the airport’s infrastructure was designed by European and North American consultants. American President Ronald Reagan accused Grenada of intending to use the new airport’s long “airstrip” as a waypoint for Soviet military aircraft. Fearful of the spread of socialism, Reagan, who had spurned Bishop's overtures for friendship, [5] planned an invasion of Grenada, but this took place only after Bishop's execution. [6]

Among Bishop's core principles were workers' rights, women's rights, and the struggle against racism and apartheid. [7] Under Bishop's leadership, the National Women’s Organization was formed which participated in policy decisions along with other social groups. Women were given equal pay and paid maternity leave, and sex discrimination was made illegal. Organisations for education (Center for Popular Education), health care, and youth affairs (National Youth Organization) were also established. Despite its achievements, Bishop's government would not hold elections and stifled a free press and the opposition. perhaps due to fear of outside interference. [2]

The People's Revolutionary Army (PRA) was also formed during Bishop's administration. Critics claimed that the army was a waste of resources, and there were complaints that the PRA was used as a tool to commit human rights abuses, such as torture and detention of political dissidents without trial. [8] The establishment of voluntary mass organizations of women, farmers, youth, workers, and militia were presumed to make the holding of elections unnecessary, and elections could be manipulated by the input of large sums of money from foreign interests. [9] [10]

Bishop has been quoted at length on the dynamics of "democracy":

There are those ... who believe that you cannot have a democracy unless there is a situation where every five years ... people are allowed to put an "X" next to some candidate’s name, and ... they return to being non-people without the right to say anything to their government, without any right to be involved in running their country. ...Elections could be important, but for us the question is one of timing. ...We would much rather see elections come when the economy is more stable, when the Revolution is more consolidated. When more people have in fact had benefits brought to them. When more people are literate ...The right of freedom of expression can really only be relevant if people are not too hungry, or too tired to be able to express themselves. It can only be relevant if appropriate grassroots mechanisms rooted in the people exist, through which the people can effectively participate. ...We talk about the human rights that the majority has never been able to enjoy, ... to a job, to decent housing, to a good meal. ...These human rights have been the human rights for a small minority over the years in the Caribbean and the time has come for the majority of the people to begin to receive those human rights for the first time.” [11]

Bishop introduced free public health; illiteracy dropped from 35% to 5% and unemployment from 50% to 14%. But its weak point was tourism. He unpacked the old project of an international airport and asked his friend Fidel Castro for help.

When Bernard Coard arrested Bishop, protestors numbering 30,000 on an island of 100,000 gathered, and even the guards joined the protest, resulting in the release of Bishop. But Bishop, knowing the determination of the Coard faction, confided in a journalist: "I am a dead man." [12]

Arrest and execution

In 1983, disputes among the party leadership occurred. A military junta group within the party tried to make Bishop either step down or agree to a power-sharing agreement with Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard. [12] Bishop rejected these proposals and was eventually deposed and placed under house arrest during the first week of October 1983 by Coard. Large public demonstrations in various parts of the island demanded Bishop's freedom and restoration. During one demonstration, the crowd freed Bishop from house arrest. First in a truck but then by car, Bishop made his way to the army headquarters at Fort Rupert (known today as Fort George). After he arrived, a military force was dispatched from Fort Frederick to Fort Rupert. Fighting broke out at Fort Rupert, and many civilians were killed. Bishop and seven others, including cabinet ministers, were captured. Then a four-man Peoples Revolutionary Army firing squad executed him with three members of his Cabinet plus four others by machine-gunning them. After he was dead, a gunman slit his throat and cut off his finger to steal his ring. The bodies were then transported to a military camp and partially burned in a pit. The location of the remains is still unknown. [13]

Partly as a result of Bishop's murder, the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and the nations of Barbados and Jamaica appealed to the United States for assistance, as did Grenada's governor-general Paul Scoon, and then U.S. President Ronald Reagan launched an invasion.

Family

Maurice Bishop married nurse Angela Redhead in 1966. They had two children, Nadia (born 1969) and John (born 1971). Angela emigrated to Toronto, Ontario, Canada, with both children in 1981, while Bishop was still prime minister. He also fathered a son, Vladimir Lenin (1978–94), with his longtime partner Jacqueline Creft (1947–83), who was Grenada's Minister of Education. [14] Creft was killed alongside Bishop at the confrontation at Fort Rupert on 19 October 1983. After his parents' deaths, Vladimir joined his half-siblings in Canada, but was stabbed to death in a Toronto nightclub at the age of 16. [15]

Legacy

On 29 May 2009, Grenada's international airport (formerly Point Salines International Airport) was renamed Maurice Bishop International Airport. [16] [17] [18] Speaking at the ceremony, St. Vincent and the Grenadines Prime Minister Dr Ralph Gonsalves said: "This belated honour to an outstanding Caribbean son will bring closure to a chapter of denial in Grenada’s history." [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

The recorded history of the Caribbean island of Grenada begins in the early 17th century. First settled by indigenous peoples, by the time of European contact it was inhabited by the Caribs. French colonists drove most of the Caribs off the island and established plantations on the island, eventually importing African slaves to work on the sugar plantations.

The politics of Grenada takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Grenada is an independent Commonwealth realm. It is governed under a multi-party parliamentary system whose political and legal traditions closely follow those of the United Kingdom; it has a prime minister and a cabinet, and a bicameral Parliament with an elected House of Representatives and an appointed Senate. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Constitutional safeguards include freedom of speech, press, worship, motion, and association. Grenada is a member of the eastern Caribbean court system. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Jurisprudence is based on English common law.

United States invasion of Grenada conflict in Grenada involving US and Cuban led forces

The United States invasion of Grenada began on the 25 October 1983. The invasion, led by the United States, of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, which has a population of about 91,000 and is located 160 kilometres (99 mi) north of Venezuela, resulted in a U.S. victory within a matter of days. Codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, it was triggered by the internal strife within the People's Revolutionary Government that resulted in the house arrest and the execution of the previous leader and second Prime Minister of Grenada Maurice Bishop, and the establishment of a preliminary government, the Revolutionary Military Council with Hudson Austin as Chairman. The invasion resulted in the appointment of an interim government, followed by democratic elections in 1984. The country has remained a democratic nation since then.

Eric Gairy Prime Minister of Grenada

Sir Eric Matthew Gairy PC was the first Prime Minister of Grenada, serving from his country's independence in 1974 until his overthrow in a coup by Maurice Bishop in 1979. Gairy also served as head of government in pre-independence Grenada as Chief Minister from 1961 to 1962, and as Premier from 1967 to 1974.

Herbert Augustus Blaize PC was a Grenadian politician and leader of the Grenada National Party. When Grenada was still a British Crown Colony he served as the first Chief Minister from 1960 to 1961, and again from 1962 to 1967. He became the first Premier of the autonomous Associated State of Grenada briefly in 1967. In the first free elections following the 1983 coups and the American-led invasion of Grenada, he served as Prime Minister from 1984 until his death in 1989.

Paul Scoon Governor-General of Grenada

Sir Paul Godwin Scoon was Governor-General of Grenada from 1978 to 1992. His tenure is notable for its hectic events related to the rise and fall of the People's Revolutionary Government, as well as his personal involvement and support of the Invasion of Grenada.

Peoples Revolutionary Government (Grenada)

The People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 after the New Jewel Movement overthrew the government of Grenada in a revolution. The government suspended the constitution and ruled by decree until a factional conflict broke out, culminating in an invasion by the United States on 25 October 1983.

Maurice Bishop International Airport airport

Maurice Bishop Airport, formerly known as Point Salines Airport, is an international airport located in the parish of St. George's. The town of St. George's is about 5 mi (8.0 km) north of the airport and is the capital of the island nation of Grenada. The airport is located on Point Salines, the most southwestern point of the island.

Hudson Austin is a former general in the People's Revolutionary Army of Grenada. After the killing of Maurice Bishop, he formed a military government with himself as chairman to rule Grenada.

The Grenada 17 are the seventeen political, military and civilian figures who were convicted of various crimes associated with the overthrow of the Maurice Bishop's government of Grenada in 1983 and his subsequent murder.

Afro-Grenadians are Grenadian people of largely African descent. This term is not generally recognised by Grenadians or indeed Caribbeans. They usually refer to themselves simply as Black or possibly Black Caribbean. The term was first coined by a Black American history professor, John Henrik Clarke (1915–1998), in his piece entitled A Note on Racism in History. The term may also refer to a Grenadian of African ancestry. Social interpretations of race are mutable rather than deterministic and neither physical appearance nor ancestry are used straightforwardly to determine whether a person is considered a Black Grenadian. According to the 2012 Census, 82% of Grenada's population is Black, 13% is mixed European and black (Mulatto) and 2% is of Indian origin.

Peoples Revolutionary Army (Grenada)

The People’s Revolutionary Army (PRA) was the military of Grenada between 1979 and 1983.

The Mongoose Gang was a private army or militia which operated from 1970 to 1979 under the control of Sir Eric Gairy, the Premier and later Prime Minister of Grenada, and head of the Grenada United Labour Party.

Sir John Augustus Fitzroy Watts KCMG CBE was a Grenadian dentist, politician and co-founder of the Grenada National Party.

Franklyn Harvey

Franklyn Harvey was a Grenadian academic, activist and professional, a founder of the New Jewel Movement and principal author of their manifesto. He had a significant influence on the development of the Caribbean new left throughout the 1960s and 1970s and later, in the animation of hundreds of municipal and community projects all around the world. When the NJM took over the government of Grenada on March 13, 1979, Harvey's contributions to their manifesto began to take concrete form across the island.

Jacqueline Creft was a Grenadian politician, one of the leaders of the revolutionary New Jewel Movement and Minister of Education in the People's Revolutionary Government from 1980 to 1983. She was executed in October 1983 along with Maurice Bishop, prime minister of the country and father of her son Vladimir (1977–1994).

Grenada Has not had a standing army since 1983, after the American-led invasion but it has a small force of police and paramilitary forces.

References

  1. "Biography: Maurice Bishop". Grenada Government. 2009-09-23. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mendoza, Jorge L. (1982). Granada, La Nueva Joya del Caribe [Grenada: The New Jewel of the Caribbean] (in Spanish). Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales. pp. 72–192. OCLC   8726920.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Maurice Bishop Biography". www.thegrenadarevolutiononline.com. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  4. Searle, Chris, ed. In Nobody’s Backyard, a volume of Bishop’s speeches. Zed Books, ISBN   0862322480. Hugh O’Shaughnessy, Grenada – Revolution, Invasion and Aftermath. Sphere Books, ISBN   0722165617
  5. "Bishop, Maurice (1944–1983) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". www.blackpast.org. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  6. Ceja, Lucho Granados. "Remembering Maurice Bishop and Grenada's Revolution" . Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  7. "Maurice Bishop Speech to the 34th General Assembly of the United Nations, New York". Quoted on Assata Shakur website.
  8. Adkin, Mark. Urgent Fury, p. 9, 1989, ISBN   0-669-20717-9
  9. "Answers – The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions". Answers.com. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  10. Tharoor, Ishaan. "Analysis | The long history of the U.S. interfering with elections elsewhere". Washington Post. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  11. "Forward Ever, Backward Never: Remembering Maurice Bishop – Invent the Future". Invent the Future. 19 October 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  12. 1 2 País, Ediciones El (19 August 1994). "Reportaje | 'Apocalypso now'". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  13. "Grenada trying to find remains of slain Marxist PM", Fox News, 8 June 2012.
  14. "Jacqueline Creft (1947–1983)", The Grenada Revolution Online.
  15. The Grenada Revolution Online – Maurice Bishop biography.
  16. Stephen Millies, "Welcome to Maurice Bishop International Airport", Workers World, 14 June 2009.
  17. "What About the Airport?" The Grenada Revolution Online.
  18. "Grenada names airport in honour of fomer PM Maurice Bishop" Archived 26 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine , Jamaica Gleaner , 31 May 2009.
  19. "Welcome to Maurice Bishop International Airport", Grenada Herald, 31 May 2009.
Political offices
Preceded by
Eric Gairy
Prime Minister of the People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada
13 March 1979 – 16 October 1983
Succeeded by
Bernard Coard