Maurice Chevalier

Last updated

Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier-publicity.jpg
Chevalier, early 1930s
Born
Maurice Auguste Chevalier

(1888-09-12)12 September 1888
Died1 January 1972(1972-01-01) (aged 83)
Paris, France
Occupations
  • Singer
  • actor
  • composer
  • lyricist
  • writer [1]
Years active1900–1970
Spouses
  • (m. 1927;div. 1932)
  • Nita Raya
    (m. 1937;div. 1946)
Musical career
Genres
Instrument(s)
  • Vocals
  • piano [2]
Labels

Maurice Auguste Chevalier (French:  [moʁis ʃəvalje] ; 12 September 1888 – 1 January 1972) was a French singer, actor and entertainer. [3] He is perhaps best known for his signature songs, including "Livin' In The Sunlight", "Valentine", "Louise", "Mimi", and "Thank Heaven for Little Girls" and for his films, including The Love Parade , The Big Pond , The Smiling Lieutenant , One Hour with You and Love Me Tonight . His trademark attire was a boater hat and tuxedo.

Contents

Chevalier was born in Paris. He made his name as a star of musical comedy, appearing in public as a singer and dancer at an early age before working in menial jobs as a teenager. In 1909, he became the partner of the biggest female star in France at the time, Fréhel. Although their relationship was brief, she secured him his first major engagement, as a mimic and a singer in l'Alcazar in Marseille, for which he received critical acclaim by French theatre critics. In 1917, he discovered jazz and ragtime and went to London, where he found new success at the Palace Theatre.

After this, he toured the United States, where he met the American composers George Gershwin and Irving Berlin and brought the operetta Dédé to Broadway in 1922. He developed an interest in acting and had success in Dédé. When talkies arrived, he went to Hollywood in 1928, where he played his first American role in Innocents of Paris . In 1930, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his roles in The Love Parade (1929) and The Big Pond (1930), which secured his first big American hits, "You Brought a New Kind of Love to Me" and "Livin' in the Sunlight, Lovin' in the Moonlight".

In 1957, he appeared in Love in the Afternoon , which was his first Hollywood film in more than 20 years. In 1958, he starred with Leslie Caron and Louis Jourdan in Gigi . In the early 1960s, he made eight films, including Can-Can in 1960 and Fanny the following year. In 1970, he made his final contribution to the film industry where he sang the title song of the Disney film The Aristocats . He died in Paris, on 1 January 1972, from complications of a suicide attempt.

Early life

Chevalier was born on September 12, 1888 in Paris to Victor Charles Chevalier (1854-), a French house painter, and Joséphine (née Van Den Bossche, 1852-1929) a lace-maker of Belgian (Flemish) descent. [4] He had two brothers, Charles (1877-1938) and Paul (1884-1969). [5] [6] Victor, an alcoholic, deserted the family in 1896, leaving Joséphine to feed and take care of the children on her own; forced to work much longer hours, she was hospitalized for overwork in 1898. Charles, the eldest, took over some responsibilities but was married in 1900, leaving his mother to take care of Maurice and Paul on her own.

Paul was forced to find work, and eventually secured a job at a metal-engraving factory; the brothers became very close with their mother during this time, nicknaming her "La Louque", which Maurice would later name his Marnes-la-Coquette estate after. Determined to be an acrobat, Maurice left school aged ten but was convinced to abandon this after a severe injury. He tried a number of other jobs: a carpenter's apprentice, an electrician, a printer, and even as a doll painter. Chevalier was eventually able to hold down a job at a mattress factory, and became interested in performing; while daydreaming his finger was crushed in a machine and he was forced to stop working. [7]

While recovering, in 1900, he offered his services as a performer to the skeptical owner of a nearby cafe. Chevalier performed his first song there, V'la Les Croquants, although his performance was met with laughter as he had sung three octaves too high. Discouraged, Maurice returned home, where his mother and brother Paul encouraged him to continue practicing. He continued singing, unpaid, at the café until a member of the theatre saw him and suggested he try for a local musical. Chevalier got the part, and began to make a name as a mimic and a singer. His act in l'Alcazar in Marseille was so successful, on his return to Paris he was met by an admiring crowd.

In 1909, he became the partner of the biggest female star in France, Fréhel. However, due to her alcoholism and drug addiction, their liaison ended in 1911. Chevalier later said that he became addicted to cocaine during this time, a habit he was able to quit because he had no access to the drug as a prisoner of war in World War I. [8] After splitting with Fréhel, he then started a relationship with 36-year-old Mistinguett at the Folies Bergère, [3] where he was her younger dance partner; they eventually played out a public romance.

World War I

When World War I broke out, Chevalier was in the middle of his national service, already in the front line, where he was wounded by shrapnel in the back in the first weeks of combat and was taken as a prisoner of war in Germany for two years, where he learned English. [3] In 1916, he was released through the secret intervention of Mistinguett's admirer, King Alfonso XIII of Spain, the only king of a neutral country who was related to both the British and German royal families.

In 1917, Chevalier became a star in le Casino de Paris and played before British soldiers and Americans. [3] He discovered jazz and ragtime and started thinking about touring the United States. In the prison camp, he had studied English and had an advantage over other French artists. He went to London, where he found new success at the Palace Theatre, even though he still sang in French.

Paris and Hollywood

Chevalier in 1920 Maurice chevalier001.JPG
Chevalier in 1920

After the war, Chevalier went back to Paris and created several songs still known today, such as "Valentine" (1924). He played in a few pictures, including Chaplin's A Woman of Paris (1923), [3] a rare drama for Chaplin, in which his character of The Tramp does not appear, and made an impression in the operetta Dédé . He met the American composers George Gershwin and Irving Berlin and brought Dédé to Broadway in 1922. The same year he met Yvonne Vallée, a young dancer, who became his wife in 1927.

When Douglas Fairbanks was on honeymoon in Paris in 1920, he offered him star billing with his new wife Mary Pickford, but Chevalier doubted his own talent for silent movies (his previous ones had largely failed). [9] When sound arrived, he made his Hollywood debut in 1928. He signed a contract with Paramount Pictures and played his first American role in Innocents of Paris . [3] In 1930, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his roles in The Love Parade (1929) [3] and The Big Pond (1930). The Big Pond gave Chevalier his first big American hit songs: "Livin' in the Sunlight, Lovin' in the Moonlight" with words and music by Al Lewis and Al Sherman, plus "A New Kind of Love" (or "The Nightingales"). [10] He collaborated with film director Ernst Lubitsch. He appeared in Paramount's all-star revue film Paramount on Parade (1930).

With Jeanette MacDonald in Love Me Tonight (1932) Jeanette MacDonald and Maurice Chevalier in Love Me Tonight.jpg
With Jeanette MacDonald in Love Me Tonight (1932)

While Chevalier was under contract with Paramount, his name was so recognized that his passport was featured in the Marx Brothers film Monkey Business (1931). In this sequence, each brother uses Chevalier's passport, and tries to sneak off the ocean liner where they were stowaways by claiming to be the singer—with unique renditions of "You Brought a New Kind of Love to Me" with its line "If the nightingales could sing like you". In 1931, Chevalier starred in a musical called The Smiling Lieutenant with Claudette Colbert and Miriam Hopkins. [3] Despite the disdain audiences held for musicals in 1931, [11] it proved a successful film. [12]

In 1932, he starred with Jeanette MacDonald in Paramount's film musical One Hour With You , [3] which became a success and one of the films instrumental in making musicals popular again. Due to its popularity, Paramount starred Maurice Chevalier in another musical called Love Me Tonight (also 1932), and again co-starring Jeanette MacDonald. [3] It is about a tailor who falls in love with a princess when he goes to a castle to collect a debt and is mistaken for a baron. Featuring songs by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, it was directed by Rouben Mamoulian, [3] who, with the help of the songwriters, was able to put into the score his ideas of the integrated musical (a musical which blends songs and dialogue so the songs advance the plot). [3] It is considered one of the greatest film musicals of all time. [11]

In The Merry Widow (1934) Maurice Chevalier 1934.JPG
In The Merry Widow (1934)

In 1934, he starred in the first sound film of the Franz Lehár operetta The Merry Widow , one of his best-known films, [3] though he felt his role was too narrow and repetitive. He then signed with MGM for The Man from the Folies Bergère , his own favourite of his films. After a disagreement over his star-billing, he returned to France in 1935 to resume his music-hall career.

Even when he was the highest-paid star in Hollywood, Chevalier had a reputation as a penny-pincher. He later admitted that he was hesitant to spend money on things such as changing the blade of his razor as he had grown up in poverty, remarking that "poverty is a disease that can never be cured." [13] When not playing around with young chorus-girls, he actually felt quite lonely, and sought the company of Adolphe Menjou and Charles Boyer, also French, but both much better educated than Chevalier. Boyer in particular introduced him to art galleries and good literature, and Chevalier would try to copy him as the man of taste. But at other times, he would 'revert to type' as the bitter and impoverished street-kid he was at heart. When performing in English, he always put on a heavy French accent, although his normal spoken English was quite fluent and sounded more American. [14]

In 1937, Chevalier married the dancer Nita Raya. He had several successes, such as his revue Paris en Joie in the Casino de Paris. A year later, he performed in Amours de Paris. His songs remained big hits, such as "Prosper" (1935), "Ma Pomme" (1936) and "Ça fait d'excellents français" (1939).

World War II

Chevalier continued performing for as long as he could freely, retreating to the free zone in the south of France with his Jewish wife and her parents as well as some friends following the 1940 invasion by German Nazi troops. During this time, patriotic songs such as "Ça sent si bon la France" and "Paris sera Toujours Paris" became popular, and he held charity balls and performed to raise money for resistance efforts. Chevalier consistently refused to perform for the Vichy France collaborators, and feigned illness, but eventually, out of fear for the safety of his wife and her parents, he reluctantly agreed to a deal. [15] He refused to perform on the collaborating station Radio Paris, but agreed to perform for prisoners of war at the very camp in which he had been incarcerated during World War I. The performance was given in exchange for the release of ten French prisoners. [16]

In 1942, Chevalier was named on a list of French collaborators with Germany to be killed during the war, or tried after it. [17] That year he moved to La Bocca, near Cannes, but returned to the capital city in September. In 1944 when Allied forces freed France, Chevalier was accused of collaboration. [3] The August 28, 1944, issue of Stars and Stripes , the daily newspaper of U.S. armed forces in the European Theater of Operations, reported in error that "Maurice Chevalier Slain By Maquis, Patriots Say". Even though he was acquitted by a French convened court, the English-speaking press remained hostile and he was refused a visa for several years. [18] In a review of the 1969 Oscar-nominated documentary film about French collaboration Le chagrin et la pitié (The Sorrow and the Pity), Simon Heffer draws attention to “a clip of Maurice Chevalier explaining, entirely dishonestly, to an anglophone audience how he had not collaborated.” [19]

Drinks after golf in 1948 in Montreal News. Chevalier BAnQ P48S1P16790.jpg
Drinks after golf in 1948 in Montreal
Desi Arnaz, Richard Keith, and Maurice Chevalier in "Lucy Goes to Mexico", an episode of The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour (1958) Desi Arnaz Richard Keith Maurice Chevalier Lucy Goes To Mexico 1958.jpg
Desi Arnaz, Richard Keith, and Maurice Chevalier in "Lucy Goes to Mexico", an episode of The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour (1958)
Chevalier in 1959 Maurice Chevalier 1959.JPG
Chevalier in 1959

In his own country, however, he was still popular. In 1946, he split from Nita Raya and, at the age of 58, began writing his memoirs, which took many years to complete.

Playing golf (in plaid) in 1948 in Montreal News. Chevalier BAnQ P48S1P16787.jpg
Playing golf (in plaid) in 1948 in Montreal

He started to collect and paint art, and acted in Le silence est d'or (Man About Town) (1946) by René Clair. [3] He toured throughout the United States and other parts of the world, then returned to France in 1948.

In 1944, he had participated in a Communist demonstration in Paris. He was therefore even less popular in the U.S. during the McCarthyism period; in 1951, he was refused re-entry into the U.S. because he had signed the Stockholm Appeal.

In 1949, he performed in Stockholm in a Communist benefit against nuclear arms. Also in 1949, Chevalier was the subject of the first official roast at the New York Friars' Club, although celebrities had been informally "roasted" at banquets since 1910. [20]

In 1952, he bought a large property in Marnes-la-Coquette, near Paris, and named it La Louque, [21] as a homage to his mother's nickname. He started a relationship in 1952 with Janie Michels, a young divorcee with three children.

In 1954, after the McCarthy era abated, Chevalier was welcomed back in the United States. His first full American tour was in 1955, with Vic Schoen as arranger and musical director. The Billy Wilder film Love in the Afternoon (1957) with Audrey Hepburn and Gary Cooper, [3] was his first Hollywood film in more than 20 years. [22]

In 1957, Chevalier was awarded The George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film.

Chevalier appeared in the movie musical Gigi (1958) with Leslie Caron and Hermione Gingold, with whom he shared the song "I Remember It Well", and several Walt Disney films. [3] The success of Gigi prompted Hollywood to give him an Academy Honorary Award that year for achievements in entertainment. [3] In 1957, he appeared as himself in an episode of The Jack Benny Program titled "Jack in Paris". He also appeared as himself in an episode of The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour , titled "Lucy Goes to Mexico".

Final years

Maurice Chevalier, 1968 Maurice Chevalier 1968.jpg
Maurice Chevalier, 1968

In the early 1960s, he toured the United States and between 1960 and 1963 made eight films, including Can-Can (1960) with Frank Sinatra. [3] In 1961, he starred in the drama Fanny with Leslie Caron and Charles Boyer, an updated version of Marcel Pagnol's "Marseilles Trilogy". [3] In 1962, he filmed Panic Button (not released until 1964), playing opposite Jayne Mansfield. In 1965, at age 77, he made another world tour. [3] In 1967 he toured in Latin America, again, the US, Europe and Canada, where he appeared as a special guest at Expo 67. [23] The following year, on October 1, 1968, he announced his farewell tour.

Historical newsreel footage of Chevalier appeared in the 1969 Marcel Ophüls documentary The Sorrow and the Pity . In a wartime short film near the end of the film's second part, he explained his disappearance during World War II, as rumors of his death lingered at that time, and he emphatically denied any collaboration with the Nazis. His theme song, "Sweepin' the Clouds Away", from the film Paramount on Parade (1930), was one of the film's theme songs and was played in the end credits of the second part.

In 1970, two years after his retirement, songwriters Richard M. and Robert B. Sherman convinced him to sing the title song of the Disney film The Aristocats , which ended up being his final contribution to the film industry.

Death and burial

Chevalier suffered from bouts of depression throughout his adult life. On March 7, 1971, he attempted suicide by overdosing on barbiturates. Rushed to the hospital, Chevalier was saved but suffered liver and kidney damage as a result of the drug. In the following months, he suffered memory lapses, chronic tiredness, and spent much of his time alone. On December 12, he fell ill and was taken to Paris's Necker Hospital and placed on dialysis. By December 30, doctors announced his kidneys were no longer responding to dialysis. Too frail for a transplant, he underwent surgery as a last-ditch effort to save his life. It was unsuccessful; Chevalier died from a cardiac arrest following kidney surgery on New Year's Day 1972, aged 83.

He is interred in the cemetery of Marnes-la-Coquette in Hauts-de-Seine, outside Paris, France with his mother, "La Louque". [24]

Chevalier has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1651 Vine Street. [25]

Author Michael Freedland later claimed in his 1981 biography of Chevalier that the actor Felix Paquet, who became close to Chevalier during the 1960s, cut off contact with all of his friends and family in hopes of securing access to his fortune. Freedland alleges that Paquet, eighteen years Chevalier's junior, intercepted mail and withheld information about Maurice's health in the months before his death. [26]

Notable songs

Selected filmography

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>The Love Parade</i> 1929 film by Ernst Lubitsch

The Love Parade is a 1929 American pre-Code musical comedy film, directed by Ernst Lubitsch and starring Maurice Chevalier and Jeanette MacDonald, involving the marital difficulties of Queen Louise of Sylvania (MacDonald) and her consort, Count Alfred Renard (Chevalier). Despite his love for Louise and his promise to be an obedient husband, Count Alfred finds his role as a figurehead unbearable. The supporting cast features Lupino Lane, Lillian Roth and Eugene Pallette.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Édith Piaf</span> French singer (1915-1963)

Édith Piaf was a French singer, lyricist and actress. Noted as France's national chanteuse, she was one of the country's most widely known international stars.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Boyer</span> French-American actor (1899–1978)

Charles Boyer was a French-American actor who appeared in more than 80 films between 1920 and 1976. After receiving an education in drama, Boyer started on the stage, but he found his success in American films during the 1930s. His memorable performances were among the era's most highly praised, in romantic dramas such as The Garden of Allah (1936), Algiers (1938), and Love Affair (1939), as well as the mystery-thriller Gaslight (1944). He received four Oscar nominations for Best Actor. He also appeared as himself on the CBS sitcom I Love Lucy.

Robert Florey was a French-American director, screenwriter, film journalist and actor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gilbert Bécaud</span> French singer, composer, pianist and actor

Gilbert Bécaud was a French singer, composer, pianist and actor, known as "Monsieur 100,000 Volts" for his energetic performances. His best-known hits are "Nathalie" and "Et maintenant", a 1961 release that became an English language hit as "What Now My Love". He remained a popular artist for nearly fifty years, identifiable in his dark blue suits, with a white shirt and "lucky tie"; blue with white polka dots. When asked to explain his gift he said, "A flower doesn't understand botany." His favourite venue was the Paris Olympia under the management of Bruno Coquatrix. He debuted there in 1954 and headlined in 1955, attracting 6,000 on his first night, three times the capacity. On 13 November 1997, Bécaud was present for the re-opening of the venue after its reconstruction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jean Sablon</span> French singer, songwriter, composer and actor

Jean Sablon was a French singer, songwriter, composer and actor. He was one of the first French singers to immerse himself in jazz. The man behind several songs by big French and American names, he was the first to use a microphone on a French stage in 1936. Star of vinyl and the radio, he left France in 1937 to take up a contract with NBC in the United States. His radio and later televised shows made him a huge star in America. Henceforth the most international of French singers among his contemporaries, he became an ambassador of French songwriting and dedicated his career to touring internationally, occasionally returning to France to appear on stage. His sixty-one year career came to an end in 1984.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jacques Ibert</span> French composer (1890–1962)

Jacques François Antoine Marie Ibert was a French composer of classical music. Having studied music from an early age, he studied at the Paris Conservatoire and won its top prize, the Prix de Rome at his first attempt, despite studies interrupted by his service in World War I.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Françoise Rosay</span> French actress and singer

Françoise Rosay was a French opera singer, diseuse, and actress who enjoyed a film career of over sixty years and who became a legendary figure in French cinema. She went on to appear in over 100 movies in her career.

Albert Willemetz was a French librettist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fernand Gravey</span> Belgian actor

Fernand Gravey, also known as Fernand Gravet in the United States, was the son of actors Georges Mertens and Fernande Depernay, who appeared in silent films produced by pioneer Belge Cinéma Film.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Claude Dauphin (actor)</span> French actor

Claude Dauphin was a French actor. He appeared in more than 130 films between 1930 and 1978.

René Lefèvre, born René Paul Louis Lefèvre, was a French actor and writer. Throughout his career, he worked with several notable directors, like Jean Renoir, Jean-Pierre Melville, Jules Dassin, and René Clair.

<i>Paramount on Parade</i> 1930 pre-Code revue film

Paramount on Parade is a 1930 all-star American pre-Code revue released by Paramount Pictures, directed by several directors including Edmund Goulding, Dorothy Arzner, Ernst Lubitsch, Rowland V. Lee, A. Edward Sutherland, Lothar Mendes, Otto Brower, Edwin H. Knopf, Frank Tuttle, and Victor Schertzinger—all supervised by the production supervisor, singer, actress, and songwriter Elsie Janis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paul Armont</span> French playwright and screenwriter

Paul Armont (1874–1943) was a Russian-born French playwright and screenwriter. He also collaborated with the Swiss writer Marcel Gerbidon. He was born Dimitri Petrococchino in Rostov in the Russian Empire.

Jean Lenoir pseudonym for Jean Bernard Daniel Neuburger was a French songwriter, whose work included chansons and romantic light film songs.

Henri Betti, born Ange Betti, was a French composer and a pianist.

<i>Playboy of Paris</i> 1930 film

Playboy of Paris is a 1930 American pre-Code musical comedy film directed by Ludwig Berger and starring Maurice Chevalier, Frances Dee, and O.P. Heggie. It was based on a 1911 play The Little Cafe by Tristan Bernard which had previously been adapted into a 1919 French silent film. Paramount produced a separate French-language version Le Petit Café, also starring Chevalier, which broke records for an opening-day attendance in Paris.

<i>The Little Cafe</i> (play)

The Little Cafe is a French comedy play written by Tristan Bernard which was first performed in 1911. An English-language musical version The Little Cafe was successfully staged in the United States in 1913.

Maurice Yvain was a French composer noted for his operettas of the 1920s and 1930s. Some of which were written for Mistinguett, at one time the best-paid female entertainer in the world. In the 1930s and 1940s, he became a major success in the United States and several of his pieces appeared in the famous Ziegfeld Follies on Broadway. He also composed music for several films of notable directors such as Anatole Litvak, Julien Duvivier, and Henri-Georges Clouzot. Yvain's music blended with the then "spirit of Paris".

Milly Mathis was a French actress who appeared in more than 100 films during her career. Born on September 8, 1901 as Emilienne Pauline Tomasini in Marseilles, France, she made her film debut with a small, uncredited role in the 1927 German film, Die Liebe der Jeanne Ney. Most of her parts would be in featured or supporting roles. Her final performance would be in a featured role in French film, Business (1960). She was also an occasional performer on France's legitimate stage. She died on March 30, 1965 in Salon-de-Provence, France, and was buried in the Cimetière Saint-Pierre in Marseilles.

References

  1. "Maurice Chevalier (1888-1972)".
  2. "Gaveau, Paris, ca. 1935 - Maurice Chevalier". December 8, 2016.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Colin Larkin, ed. (2002). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Fifties Music (Third ed.). Virgin Books. pp. 69/70. ISBN   1-85227-937-0.
  4. "Solo". The New Yorker . February 9, 1963.
  5. "Généalogie de Maurice Auguste CHEVALIER".
  6. "Artiste". Musique.rfi.fr. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  7. Chevalier, Maurice (2012). Dans La Vie Faut Pas S'en Faire. OMNIBUS. ISBN   978-2258091443.
  8. Chevalier, Maurice (1970). Les Pensées de Momo. Paris: Presses de La Cite.
  9. The Romantic Life of Maurice Chevalier, 1937, William Boyer, Chapter 9.
  10. Sherman, Robert B. (1998). Walt's Time: from before to beyond . Santa Clarita: Camphor Tree Publishers.
  11. 1 2 "Film 1930s I: Hip, Hooray & Ballyhoo". Musicals101.com. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  12. Pace, Eric (July 31, 1996). "Claudette Colbert, Unflappable Heroine of Screwball Comedies, is Dead at 92". The New York Times .
  13. "Pas de fromage après les pâtes". January 2012.
  14. "Lucette Chevalier, nièce de Maurice Chevalier " le gavroche de Ménilmontant " aux soixante-dix ans de carrière !". November 2, 2016.
  15. "Maurice Chevalier".
  16. With Love, the Autobiography of Maurice Chevalier, (Cassell, 1960), Chapter 22.
  17. deRochemont, Richard (August 24, 1942). "The French Underground". LIFE.
  18. "Music and the Holocaust: Chevalier, Maurice". Holocaustmusic.ort.org. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  19. "This Second World War film is the greatest documentary ever made". Daily Telegraph. November 24, 2019. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  20. "Friars Club". October 25, 2008. Archived from the original on October 25, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  21. "Street view, 4 Rue Maurice Chevalier, Marnes-la-Coquette, France". Google Maps.
  22. Introduction by Robert Osborne, Turner Classic Movies, 11 August 2009
  23. Canadian Culture Online Program. "Expo 67 Man and His World Special Guests: Maurice Chevalier". Library and Archives Canada . Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  24. "Maurice Chevalier Dead; Singer and Actor Was 83". The New York Times . February 14, 1972.
  25. "Maurice Chevalier". October 25, 2019.
  26. Freedland, Michael (1981). Maurice Chevalier (1st ed.). New York: Morrow. ISBN   0688006523.

Bibliography

  • Chevalier, Maurice (1949). The Man in the Straw Hat, My Story. New York: Crowell.
  • Bret, David (1992). Maurice Chevalier: Up on Top of a Rainbow . Robson Books. ISBN   9780860517894. Authorised by René and Lucette Chevalier
  • Chevalier, Maurice; Eileen and Robert Pollock (1960). With Love . Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Chevalier, Maurice (1970). Schoffie met wit haar. Utrecht/Antwerpen: A.W. Bruna & Zoon. ISBN   90-229-7116-3.
  • Chevalier, Maurice (1970). I Remember It Well . New York: Macmillan.
  • Gene Ringgold and DeWitt Bodeen (1973). Chevalier. The Films and Career of Maurice Chevalier. Secaucus, New Jersey: The Citadel Press. ISBN   0-8065-0354-8.