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| Archduke of Austria |
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
|Archduke of Further Austria|
|Reign||26 June 1612 – 2 November 1618|
| King of Poland |
Grand Duke of Lithuania
|Reign||27 September 1587 – 9 March 1589|
|Successor||Sigismund III Vasa|
|Born||12 October 1558|
Wiener Neustadt, Austria
|Died||2 November 1618 60) (aged|
|Father||Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Maria of Spain|
Maximilian III of Austria, briefly known as Maximilian of Poland during his claim for the Throne (12 October 1558 – 2 November 1618) was the Archduke of Further Austria from 1612 until his death.
Born in Wiener Neustadt, Maximilian was the fourth son of the emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. He was a grandson of Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter and heiress of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, who himself was the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland from the Jagiellonian Dynasty.
From 1585 Maximilian became the Grandmaster of the Teutonic Order; thanks to this he was known by the epithet der Deutschmeister ("the German Master")for much of his later life.
In 1587 Maximilian stood as a candidate for the throne of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, following the death of the previous king, Stefan Batory. A portion of the Polish nobility elected Maximilian king, but, as a result of the rather chaotic nature of the election process, another candidate, Sigismund III Vasa, prince of Sweden, grandson of Sigismund I the Old, was also elected. Maximilian attempted to resolve the dispute by bringing a military force to Poland – thereby starting the war of the Polish Succession. His cause had considerable support in Poland, but fewer Poles flocked to his army than to that of his rival. After a failed attempt to storm Kraków in late 1587, he was defeated in January 1588, at Pitschen in Silesia (Battle of Byczyna) by the supporters of Sigismund III (who had since been formally crowned), under the command of Polish hetman Jan Zamojski. Maximilian was taken captive at the battle and was only released a year and half later after the intervention of Pope Sixtus V in the aftermath of the Treaty of Bytom and Będzin. In 1589, he formally renounced his claim to the Polish crown. [ citation needed ]The inactivity of his brother, the emperor Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor in this matter contributed to Rudolf's poor reputation.
From 1593 to 1595 Maximilian served as regent for his young cousin, Ferdinand, Archduke of Inner Austria. In 1595 he succeeded their uncle Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria in his territories, including Tyrol, where he proved to be a solid proponent of the Counter-Reformation. He also worked to depose Melchior Khlesl, and to ensure that Archduke Ferdinand of Inner Austria, his former charge, succeed as Holy Roman Emperor.
Today, Maximilian is perhaps best remembered for his baroque archducal hat, exhibited in the treasury of the monastery of Klosterneuburg and was used for ceremonial purposes as late as 1835.
He died at Vienna in 1618, and is buried in the canopied tomb in Innsbruck Cathedral.
|Ancestors of Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria|
Maximilian II, a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany on 24 November 1562. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg. On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.
Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria was ruler of Further Austria and since 1564 Imperial count of Tirol. The son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, he was married to Philippine Welser in his first marriage. In his second marriage to Anna Juliana Gonzaga, he was the father of Anna of Tyrol, future Holy Roman Empress.
Leopold V, Archduke of Further Austria was the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, and the younger brother of Emperor Ferdinand II, father of Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria. He was Bishop of Passau and of Strasbourg, until he resigned to get married, and Archduke of Further Austria including Tirol.
Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Further Austria was the ruler of Further Austria including Tyrol from 1662 to 1665.
Anne of Austria was Queen of Poland and Sweden as the first consort of King Sigismund III Vasa.
Constance of Austria was queen of Poland as the second wife of King Sigismund III Vasa and the mother of King John II Casimir.
Archduke Ernest of Austria was an Austrian prince, the son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria of Spain.
Margaret of Austria was Queen of Spain and Portugal by her marriage to King Philip III & II.
Maria Anna of Bavaria was a politically active Archduchess of Austria by marriage to Archduke Charles II of Austria. She played an important role in the counter reformation in Austria.
Elizabeth of Austria was a Queen consort of Poland. She was the eldest of fifteen children of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his wife Anne of Bohemia and Hungary. A member of the House of Habsburg, she was married off to Sigismund II Augustus, who was already crowned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania even though both of his parents were still alive and well. The marriage was short and unhappy. Elizabeth was of frail health, suffering from epileptic seizures, and died at age 18.
Catherine of Austria was one of the fifteen children of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. In 1553, she married Polish King Sigismund II Augustus and became Queen consort of Poland and Grand Duchess consort of Lithuania. Their marriage was not happy and they had no children together. After a likely miscarriage in 1554 and a bout of illness in 1558, Sigismund became increasingly distant. He tried but failed to obtain a divorce from the pope. In 1565, Catherine returned to Austria and lived in Linz until her death. Sigismund died just a few months after her bringing the Jagiellon dynasty to its end.
Charles II Francis of Austria was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg.
Anna of Austria, a member of the Imperial House of Habsburg, was Duchess of Bavaria from 1550 until 1579, by her marriage with Duke Albert V.
Archduchess Eleanor of Austria was a Duchess of Mantua by marriage to William I, Duke of Mantua. She was the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
Maria Christina of Austria, was a Princess of Transylvania by marriage to Sigismund Báthory, and for a period in 1598 elected sovereign Princess regnant of Transylvania.
Archduchess Catherine Renata of Austria was a member of the House of Habsburg.
Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana of Austria was a member of the House of Habsburg.
Eleanor of Austria, was an Austrian archduchess and a member of the House of Habsburg.
Maximilian Ernest of Austria, was an Austrian prince member of the House of Habsburg and by birth Archduke of Austria.
Archduchess Magdalena of Austria was a member of the House of Habsburg, and the founder and first abbess of the convent in Hall in Tirol.
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