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|Mazda L engine|
|Valvetrain||DOHC 4 valves x cyl. with VVT (some versions)|
|Compression ratio||9.7:1, 10.0:1, 10.8:1, 12.1:1|
|Turbocharger||On some versions since 2010|
|Oil system||Wet sump|
|Power output||92–209 kW (125–284 PS; 123–280 hp)|
|Torque output||122–280 lb⋅ft (165–380 N⋅m)|
|Predecessor||Mazda F engine|
|Successor||Mazda SKYACTIV-G engine|
The Mazda L-series is a mid-sized inline 4-cylinder gasoline engine designed by Mazda as part of their MZR family, ranging in displacement from 1.8L to 2.5L. Introduced in 2001, it is the evolution of the cast-iron block F-engine. The L-series is used by Ford as their 1.8L to 2.5L Duratec world engine.
The L-engine uses a chain-driven DOHC, 16-valve valvetrain with an all-aluminum block construction and cast-iron cylinder liners. Other features include fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast crankshaft.
Other features are intake cam-phasing VVT, VTCS, VICS, a stainless steel 4:1 exhaust manifold and a lower main bearing cage for increased block rigidity. Direct-injection is available on the 2.0 L LF-VD and the award-winning (DISI) turbocharged L3-VDT engine introduced in 2006 for the Mazdaspeed lineup of vehicles.
In 2010, Ford introduced a GDI turbo variant of the Mazda LF engine design as the EcoBoost 2.0L, using Ford's own manifold and engine control systems. Ford plans to use the L-engine well into the future for their EcoBoost and Duratec 4-cylinder generations. In 2011, Mazda ceased to develop the L-engine and replaced it with the SkyActiv-G engine - an extensively revised evolution of the Mazda L-engine. At this time, Ford will be the only manufacturer still using the Mazda L-engine design.
The 1.8 L (1,798 cc (109.7 cu in)) version has a nearly-square 83 mm (3.27 in) bore and a 83.1 mm (3.3 in) stroke. Output is 125 hp (93 kW) at 6000 rpm with 122 lb⋅ft (165 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm.
In 2001, Ford introduced its first European Ford engine to use gasoline direct injection technology, badged SCi (Smart Charge injection) for Direct-Injection-Spark-Ignition (DISI). L was the first European Ford engine to use direct injection technology, badged SCi for Smart Charge Injection. This appeared in the Mondeo in 2003 and is today available on the 2.0 L engine as well.The range will include some turbocharged derivatives, including the 1.1-litre, three-cylinder turbocharged unit showcased at the 2002 Geneva Show. The 1.8
The SCi engines were designed at Ford's Cologne facility and assembled in Valencia, Spain. The SCi engine is paired with a specially designed six-speed manual transmission.
European 1.8 L and 2.0 L Duratec HE engines are built at the Valencia Engine Plant in Spain. Duratec FFV is a flex fuel version of the 1.8 L Duratec-HE modified to run on E85 fuel. 1.8L Focus C-Max and Focus Mk II versions use a drive-by-wire throttle to improve responsiveness.
Ford's versions are rated at 92 kW (123 hp; 125 PS) at 6000 rpm and 165 N⋅m (122 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4500 rpm with a 10.8:1 compression ratio.
The 2.0 L (1,999 cc (122.0 cu in)) version has 10.0:1 compression ratio, an 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore and it shares the 83.1 mm (3.27 in) stroke of the 1.8 L. Changes to the engine include switching from a cast aluminum to a reinforced plastic intake manifold and from Sequential multi-port fuel injection to gasoline direct injection.
Ford's version is rated at 107 kW (143 hp; 145 PS) of power at 6000 rpm and 185 N⋅m (136 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4500 rpm with a 10.8:1 compression ratio. This engine is also used by Volvo, called B4204S3 (or B4204S4 as Flexifuel engine capable of running on E85).
On the 2007 Focus, output is 136 hp (101 kW; 138 PS) at 6000 rpm with 136 lb⋅ft (184 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2007 Focus with the PZEV emissions package produces 130 hp (97 kW; 132 PS) at 6000 rpm with 129 lb⋅ft (175 N⋅m) of torque at 4000 rpm. On the 2008 Focus, output is 140 hp (104 kW; 142 PS) at 6000 ;rpm with 136 lb⋅ft (184 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2009 Focus had 143 hp (107 kW; 145 PS) when equipped with manual transmission due to a higher flowing exhaust system. The 2008 Focus with the PZEV emissions package produces 132 hp (98 kW; 134 PS) at 6000 rpm and 133 lb⋅ft (180 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm.
Mazda's LF-VD version was equipped with Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) and a higher compression ratio for improved efficiency in the JDM and EDM markets. It produces 148 hp (110 kW; 150 PS) at 6500 rpm and 187 N⋅m (138 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4000 rpm.
In 2011 Ford started selling the third generation Ford Focus in North America which comes with an updated version that utilizes direct injection and Ti-VCT. These features, along with an increased compression ratio of 12.1:1 allow the engine to generate 160 hp (119 kW; 162 PS) at 6000 rpm and 146 lb⋅ft (198 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm. This version is referred to as the "Duratec 20."
The Ford Duratec 20 engines are built in Dearborn, Michigan, United States, and Chihuahua, Mexico, with some being built by Mazda in Hiroshima, Japan.
The plastic intake manifold on early versions of the 1.8 and 2.0 has a major fault due to poor-quality materials. [ citation needed ] The manifold has swirlplates mounted on a square shaft at the aperture where it mounts to the cylinder head. Early four-cylinder Duratec engines can be ruined when the swirlplates break off and enter a cylinder. [ citation needed ] Most cases are of single swirlplates but also the shaft can wear and break. Early signs of this fault are evidenced by a ticking noise emanating from the front of the engine. This can occur as early as 25K miles, with failure typically occurring after about 90,000 miles. [ original research? ]
A turbocharged Ford EcoBoost version was introduced in 2010.
The 2.3 L; 138.0 cu in (2,261 cc) version uses the same 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore as the 2.0 L but with a long 94 mm (3.70 in) stroke. It produces around 122 kW (164 hp; 166 PS) at 6000 rpm and 195 N⋅m (144 lb⋅ft) between 4000 and 4500 rpm
The 23EW was built in Chihuahua, Mexico for transverse installation in several front-drive Ford/Mercury/Mazda vehicles through the 2009 model year. "EW" in the Ford designation code denotes East-West configuration, or transverse mounting. Three versions of the 23EW have been produced. A standard DOHC 16V version was used in the North American Focus producing 151 hp (113 kW; 153 PS) at 5750 rpm with 154 lb⋅ft (209 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm. An iVCT (intake variable cam timing)-equipped DOHC 16V version was used in the 2006–2009 Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan, and several generations of CD2-based crossovers.
The 23NS was built in Dearborn, Michigan, for the Ford Ranger and North American market Mazda B-Series from the 2001 model year to the 2011 model year. "NS" denotes North-South configuration, or longitudinal mounting. These engines are tuned for torque-bias making them suitable for light-truck use and are not equipped with iVCT or VICS. There are two versions of the 23NS with slight differences:
2001-2003 Ranger 2.3L Duratec 135 hp (101 kW; 137 PS) at 5050 rpm 153 lb⋅ft (207 N⋅m) at 3750 rpm intake manifold runner control / swirl control MAF housing a separate piece from the air box lid (with older style MAF sensor) electrically heated thermostat J1850PWM OBD-II protocol rated 24 city 28 hwy (old EPA calcs) for the manual trans
2004+ Ranger 2.3L Duratec 143 hp (107 kW; 145 PS) at 5250 rpm 154 lb⋅ft (209 N⋅m) at 3750 rpm no IMRC / swirl control MAF housing integrated into the air box lid (with newer style MAF sensor) regular t-stat CAN OBD-II protocol for 2007-2011 trucks rated 24 city 29 hwy (old EPA calcs) for the manual trans
The Duratec 23E is a version of the Duratec 23 with California PZEV emissions.
In some Eastern and Middle Eastern models, the Mazda6 had a tuned version of the 2.3L producing 178 hp (133 kW; 180 PS) at 6500 rpm and 159 lb⋅ft (215 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm.
A high-efficiency Atkinson cycle version was used in the Ford Escape, Mercury Mariner, and Mazda Tribute Hybrids.
A Cosworth tuned version of this engine is found in the BAC Mono producing 280 bhp (209 kW; 284 PS) and 207 lb⋅ft (280 N⋅m) of torque, making it the most powerful version of this engine.
An award-winning turbocharged version of the 2.3 with direct injection spark ignition, or "DISI" is also pronounced. It develops 263 hp (196 kW; 267 PS) at 5,500 rpm and 280 lb⋅ft (380 N⋅m) at 3,000 rpm and is capable of propelling the Mazdaspeed3 from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 5.6 seconds.
While the 2.0 Ford EcoBoost engine and its later 2.3 variant share a cylinder block with the L3-VDT and are derived from the Mazda L architecture, little else is shared between the EcoBoost and L3-VDT and they should not be confused with one another. The EcoBoost engines have different turbochargers, Ford-designed heads, different direct injection systems along with featuring Ford's Ti-VCT variable valve timing system instead of Mazda's S-VT.
Introduced in non-North American markets for the MY2008 and North American markets for MY2009, the 2.5L L5-VE is an updated, bored and stroked version of the L3-VE 2.3L. The 2.5 L; 151.8 cu in (2,488 cc)L5 4-cylinder engine has an 89 mm (3.50 in) bore and a 100 mm (3.94 in) stroke, with a compression ratio of 9.7:1. The standard crankshaft is cast iron with eight counterweights. To increase durability of the bore, Mazda uses cast iron for the cylinder liners. This offers enhanced high-heat tolerance as well as reduced friction. The increased stroke of 100 mm (3.94 in), up from 94 mm (3.70 in) of the L3, allows a taller (numerically lower) final-drive ratio resulting in lower-rpm while cruising to increase fuel economy. It also uses iVCT. It produces 170 bhp (127 kW; 172 PS) at its 6000 rpm redline (168 hp (125 kW; 170 PS) in PZEV trim) and 167 lb⋅ft (226 N⋅m) of torque at 4000 rpm (166 lb⋅ft (225 N⋅m) in PZEV trim). Certain versions are rated at 175 hp (130 kW; 177 PS) at 6000 rpm with 172 lb⋅ft (233 N⋅m) of torque at 4500 rpm.
Ford has developed an Atkinson cycle variant of the Mazda L5 engine for use in the Ford Fusion Hybrid vehicle. This engine was named one of Ward's 10 Best Engines for 2010. Fuel saving features include adaptive knock control and aggressive deceleration fuel cutoff.This and the 2.3 L competed with Toyota's 2.4 L 2AZ-FE engine, sharing similar technology.
In late 2006, Mazda announced an agreement with Advanced Engine Research (AER) to develop the MZR-R motor for sports car racing. The engine is a 2.0 L turbocharged I4 based on the production MZR block. The engine will initially be used by the Mazda factory team in the American Le Mans Series as a replacement for their R20B rotary, then later sold to customer teams.
The Ford Duratorq engine, commonly referred to as Duratorq, is the marketing name of a range of Ford diesel engines first introduced in 2000 for the Ford Mondeo range of cars. The larger capacity 5-cylinder units use the Power Stroke branding when installed in North American-market vehicles.
The Jaguar AJ-8 is a compact DOHC V8 piston engine used in many Jaguar vehicles. It was the fourth new engine type in the history of the company. In 1997 it replaced both designs previously available on Jaguar cars: the straight-6 Jaguar AJ6 engine, and the Jaguar V12 engine. It remained the only engine type available on Jaguar until 1999 with the launch of the S-Type, when the Jaguar AJ-V6 engine was added to the list. The AJ-V8 is available in displacements ranging from 3.2L to 5.0L, and a supercharged version is also produced. Ford Motor Company also used this engine in other cars, including the Lincoln LS and the 2002-2005 Ford Thunderbird, as well as in several Land Rovers, and the Aston Martin V8 Vantage.
The Jaguar AJ-V6 engine is a specialized version of Ford's Duratec V6 engine. One notable addition is the use of variable valve timing, a feature also shared with Mazda's version of the engine. It is available in 2.1 L (2,099 cc), 2.5 L (2,495 cc) and 3.0 L (2,967 cc) displacements.
The original Ford Cologne V6 is a series of 60° cast iron block V6 engines produced continuously by the Ford Motor Company in Cologne, Germany, since 1965. Along with the British Ford Essex V6 engine and the U.S. Buick V6 and GMC Truck V6, these were among the first mass-produced V6 engines in the world.
The Mazda B-series engine - not to be confused with the Mazda B-Series truck - is a small-sized, iron-block, inline four-cylinder with belt-driven SOHC and DOHC valvetrain ranging in displacement from 1.1 to 1.8 litres. It was used from front-wheel drive economy applications to the turbocharged full-time 4WD 323 GTX and rear-wheel drive Miata as well as numerous other models. The Mazda B-series is a "non-interference" design, meaning that breakage of its timing belt does not result in damage to valves or pistons, because the opening of the valves, the depth of the combustion chamber and the shaping of the piston crown allow sufficient clearance for the open valves in any possible piston position.
Mazda has a long history of building its own Diesel engines, with the exception of a few units that were built under license.
The QG engine is a 1.3 L (1,295 cc), 1.5 L (1,497 cc), 1.6 L (1,597 cc) and 1.8 L (1,769 cc) straight-4 piston engine from Nissan. It is a lean-burn aluminum DOHC 4-valve design with variable valve timing and optional NEO Di direct injection.
In 1906–1907, Ford's first straight-6 engine was introduced in the Model K. Henry Ford did not like the car because the engine could overpower its transmission.
The Ford Sigma is a small straight-4 automobile engine introduced in 1995 by Ford Motor Company. Its first evolution was sold as the Zetec-S, then Zetec-SE and finally, in later years, renamed Duratec. The last upgrade of the engine is named Duratec Ti-VCT. Conceived for Ford's smaller models, the motor was intended to replace the older HCS and smaller capacity CVH units.
The M110 engine family is a DOHC crossflow cylinder head design with 2 valves per cylinder straight-6 automobile engine made by Mercedes-Benz in the 1970s and 1980s.
The Cyclone engine, also branded Duratec, is Ford Motor Company's latest DOHC family of gasoline V6 engines introduced in 2006. The Cyclone succeeds Ford's previous V6 engine families, including the Canadian built Ford Essex engine introduced in 1981, the Ford Vulcan engine introduced in 1985, the original Duratec V6 introduced in 1993, and the Ford Cologne V6 engine, whose design dates back to 1962. The first version of the Cyclone engine, a 3.5 L V6, appeared in the 2007 Ford Edge and the Lincoln-badged luxury variant, the Lincoln MKX, as well as the Lincoln MKZ. Mazda badges its versions of the Cyclone MZI as it did with its versions of the Duratec V6.
The Ford Duratec V6, also known as the Mondeo V6, is an aluminum DOHC V6 engine with a 60° bank angle introduced in 1993 with the Ford Mondeo. The primary engineering input came from Porsche, who was developing a similar V6 before selling the engineering to Ford, and Cosworth, who helped with cylinder head manufacturing. The Jaguar AJ-V6 engine is similar but adds variable valve timing.
Prince is the codename for a family of automobile straight-4 engines developed by PSA Peugeot Citroën and BMW. It is a compact engine family of 1.4–1.6 L in displacement and includes most modern features such as gasoline direct injection, turbocharging, and BMW VANOS variable valve timing.
The Barra is an inline-6 engine that was used by Ford Australia between 2002 and 2016. The inline-6 engines are unique to the Australian manufactured Falcon and Territory and were developed and manufactured in Geelong, Victoria. The Barra was first introduced in the BA Falcon, named after the "Barramundi" code name used during the development of the BA update engine. The V8 engine, from Essex, Ontario, were discontinued with the FG model, whereas the I6 engines continued production until 26 September 2016, coinciding with the end of production of the Falcon and Territory on 7 October.
EcoBoost is a series of turbocharged, direct-injection gasoline engines produced by Ford and originally co-developed by FEV Inc. EcoBoost engines are designed to deliver power and torque consistent with those of larger-displacement, naturally aspirated engines, while achieving about 30% better fuel efficiency and 15% fewer greenhouse emissions, according to Ford. The manufacturer sees the EcoBoost technology as less costly and more versatile than further developing or expanding the use of hybrid and diesel engine technologies. EcoBoost engines are broadly available across the Ford vehicle lineup.
The Ford Focus , also known as the Focus Mk III, debuted at the 2010 North American International Auto Show as a 2012 model. The cars shown were a 4-door sedan and 5-door hatchback, also debuting a new 2.0-litre direct injection I4 engine. A 5-door estate (wagon) was previewed at the Geneva auto show a month later.
Medium Gasoline Engine (MGE) is a medium-displacement 4-cylinder gasoline engine developed by Opel Automobile GmbH and marketed as 'SIDI Ecotec'.
The Suzuki K engine family is a series of all aluminium inline-three or four cylinder automobile engines from Suzuki, introduced in 1994. The displacement is ranging from 0.7 L to 1.5 L. This is a timing chain head driven DOHC 4-valve per cylinder engine with VVT and using multipoint fuel injection or direct injection fuel system.
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