Mazo de la Roche

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Mazo de la Roche
Mazo de la Roche.jpg
Mazo de la Roche, December 18, 1927
Mazo Louise Roche

(1879-01-15)January 15, 1879
DiedJuly 12, 1961(1961-07-12) (aged 82)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nationality Canadian
Partner(s)Caroline Clement
  • William Richmond Roche
  • Alberta Louise Lundy

Mazo de la Roche (January 15, 1879 July 12, 1961), born Mazo Louise Roche in Newmarket, Ontario, Canada, was the author of the Jalna novels, one of the most popular series of books of her time.

Newmarket, Ontario Town in Ontario, Canada

Newmarket is a town and regional seat of the Regional Municipality of York in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is part of Greater Toronto in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario.

Jalna is a 16 book series of novels by the Canadian writer Mazo de la Roche.



Early life

Mazo de la Roche, in Clarkson 1928 Mazo garden 1928.jpg
Mazo de la Roche, in Clarkson 1928

de la Roche was the only child of William Roche, a salesman, and Alberta (Lundy) Roche, who was a great-great-niece of David Willson, founder of the Children of Peace, through the latter's elder half-brother Hugh L. Willson. [1] On her father's side of the family, her uncle Francis signed himself as "Francis J. de la Roche", claiming a descendancy from Sir Richard de la Roche (1199-1283) of Strongbow's army; [2] Mazo eventually adopted the "de la Roche" surname as her own as well.

Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Leinster, Justiciar of Ireland was an Anglo-Norman nobleman notable for his leading role in the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. Like his father, Richard fitz Gilbert has since become commonly known by his nickname Strongbow which may be a mistranscription or mistranslation of Striguil.

de la Roche was born in Newmarket, Ontario, north of Toronto. The family moved frequently throughout Southern Ontario during her childhood because of her mother's ill health and her father's many jobs. She lived successively in Newmarket (1879–85), at least two separate addresses in Toronto (1885–88), several dwellings in Orillia (1888–91), Galt (1891-92), Orillia (again, 1892–94) and Toronto (again, 1894-1900). [3] [2] She was a lonely child who became an avid reader and developed her own fictional world, "The Play," in which she created imaginary scenes and characters. One of the family's moves meant some years on a farm owned by a wealthy man who farmed as a hobby. There de la Roche began to develop her fictional world of rural aristocracy that would—years later—become Jalna.

Toronto Provincial capital city in Ontario, Canada

Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area (CMA), of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the fastest growing city in North America, and is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. Toronto is an international centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world.

Galt is a community in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada, in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario on the Grand River. Prior to 1973 it was an independent city, incorporated in 1915, but amalgamation with the town of Hespeler, Ontario, the town of Preston, Ontario and the village of Blair formed the new municipality of Cambridge. Parts of the surrounding townships were also included. The first mayor of Cambridge was Claudette Millar.

When de la Roche was seven, her parents adopted her orphaned eight-year-old cousin Caroline Clement, who joined in Mazo's fantasy world game and would become her lifelong companion. De la Roche wrote her first short story at age 9. She attended high school at Jameson Collegiate (now Parkdale Collegiate Institute) in west end Toronto, and later studied at the Metropolitan School of Music, the University of Toronto, and the Ontario School of Art, all in Toronto. [3]

Parkdale Collegiate Institute

Parkdale Collegiate Institute is a public high school located on Jameson Avenue in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1888 in the community of Parkdale.

University of Toronto university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. As a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Scarborough and Mississauga.

Early writing career

De la Roche, then 23, had her first story published in 1902 in Munsey's Magazine , but very shortly thereafter (in February 1903) she suffered a mental breakdown. For the next several years, she suffered from depression and insomnia, and did not write.

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1902.

<i>Munseys Magazine</i>

Munsey's Weekly, later known as Munsey's Magazine, was a 36-page quarto American magazine founded by Frank A. Munsey in 1889 and edited by John Kendrick Bangs. Frank Munsey aimed to publish "a magazine of the people and for the people, with pictures and art and good cheer and human interest throughout". Soon after its inception, the magazine was selling 40,000 copies a week. In 1891, Munsey's Weekly adopted a monthly schedule and was renamed Munsey's Magazine.

In 1905, Roche and Caroline moved with Mazo's parents to Acton, Ontario to operate the Acton House hotel. [4] She was known locally as "Maisie Roach", [5] and lived there until 1908, selling one of her stories while she was there. [6] Her novel Delight was based on her time there, [4] and Acton's geography figures notably in Possession. [5] A few years later in 1911, by now in her early thirties, de la Roche moved with Caroline and the Roches to Sovereign House in Bronte, Ontario, to try life as farm owners. By now, de la Roche had resumed writing and was placing stories in American magazines on an occasional basis.

Acton, Ontario Rural area in Ontario, Canada

Acton is a community located in the town of Halton Hills, in Halton Region, Ontario, Canada. At the northern end of the Region, it is on the outer edge of the Greater Toronto Area and is one of two of the primary population centres of the Town; the other is Georgetown. From 1842 until 1986, the town was a major centre for the tanning and leather goods industry. In the early years, it was often referred to as "Leathertown".

Bronte, Ontario Unincorporated community in Ontario, Canada

Bronte is the community that makes up much of the west end of Oakville, in Ontario, Canada. Twelve Mile Creek flows through the middle of town and empties into Lake Ontario. Main roads include Bronte Road (north-south), Lakeshore Road West and Rebecca Street (east-west). Streets in the business section include Lakeshore, Jones, Marine, and Ontario Street. Bronte is also accessed via a superhighway located to the north of the former village. Riggs Road was planned but never opened. Other main roads include Third Line, Speers Road and Burloak Drive to the west

William Roche, Mazo's father, died in 1915 [7] of cirrhosis of the liver brought on by alcoholism. de la Roche, her mother Alberta and Caroline moved back to Toronto.

de la Roche continued to write, but at this juncture Caroline Clement was the main breadwinner of the household, working as a civil service clerk. (She would eventually rise to become the province of Ontario's chief statistician.) During the summers, Clement lived in a Toronto boarding house while de la Roche and her mother would stay in a cottage near Lake Simcoe, several hours north of the city.

Alberta Roche died in 1920. After this, de la Roche's writing career began in earnest, and Clement and de la Roche were never again separated for any significant length of time. During most of the 1920s, they split their time between Toronto and a cottage they had built in Clarkson, Ontario.

Her first published book, Explorers of the Dawn, appeared in 1922, and was a fix-up of some previously published sketches, vignettes and stories rewritten to work within an overarching narrative framework. Her first two proper novels, Possession (1923) and Delight (1926), were romantic novels which were mild successes, but nevertheless earned her little in income or recognition. de la Roche also wrote plays and short stories through this period.

Her third novel, Jalna , was submitted to the American magazine Atlantic Monthly , winning a $10,000 award. Its victory and subsequent publication in 1927 brought de la Roche fame and fortune at the age of 48.

Benares Historic House and Bianca de la Roche. Mazo De La Roche & Caroline Clement, ca. 1930s Mazo De La Roche & Caroline Clement, ca. 1930s.jpg
Benares Historic House and Bianca de la Roche. Mazo De La Roche & Caroline Clement, ca. 1930s

Jalna series

Jalna was an immediate sensation, with the public demanding sequels and prequels for the rest of de la Roche's life. Though she would continue to write other works, the series known as the Jalna series or the Whiteoak Chronicles would dominate the rest of her writing career. The series tells the story of one hundred years of the Whiteoak family covering from 1854 to 1954. The 16 "Jalna" novels were not written in sequential order, however, and each can be read as an independent story.

There are similarities and differences in the experiences of the Whiteoak family and that of de la Roche. While the lives and successes of the Whiteoaks rise and fall, there remained for them the steadiness of the family manor, known as Jalna. de la Roche's family endured the illness of her mother, the perpetual job searches of her father, and the adoption of her orphaned cousin while being moved 17 times. Several critics believe that Finch Whiteoak who majors in Finch's Fortune (1932) is a reflection of de la Roche herself. He was a somewhat tortured concert pianist with overtones of gayness. [8] The names of many of the characters were taken from gravestones in a Newmarket, Ontario cemetery.

Bestselling author

The sudden bout of fame was not an immediate blessing for de la Roche, as the stress of the attendant publicity caused her to experience another breakdown in early 1928. [9] She eventually recovered, and began writing a sequel to Jalna, which was published in 1929.

The income from Jalna and its sequels allowed de la Roche to become the main breadwinner of the household, after years of having been supported by Clement. The two would make an extended trip to Europe beginning in 1929, living first in Italy, then in the United Kingdom. In 1931 they adopted the two orphaned children of friends of theirs. [10] This was extremely unusual for the time, as adoptions by single women were technically not allowed in the UK during this era; the machinations by which de la Roche and Clement were able to do this are unknown.

The family returned to Toronto for a time in 1934-35, heading back to England again in 1936 before returning to Toronto for good in 1939. During this era, de la Roche reliably published at least one book a year, sometimes more. However, although her early work had received positive critical notices, critical reaction to her newer works was often decidedly cool, in both North America and Europe. [2] Nevertheless, the Jalna books were still strong sellers, with a wide and appreciative readership.

de la Roche's productivity slowed somewhat once she was in her sixties and seventies. Partly due to arthritis in her hands, much of her later work was dictated to Clement. She still published regularly right up to her death, with her final novel Morning at Jalna appearing in 1960 when she was 81.

Mazo and Caroline Clement

Overall, de la Roche and Caroline Clement lived a fairly reclusive life, and their relationship was not discussed widely in the press. In her infrequent interviews, de la Roche often expressed a need for privacy. Though there has been much speculation in recent years as to the exact nature of the relationship between de la Roche and Clement, de la Roche's autobiography makes no mention of them being anything other than close companions.

Not long after de la Roche's death in 1961, in accordance with her wishes Clement burned almost all of the author's personal diaries. Clement died in 1972.

Most recently, de la Roche was the subject of a Red Queen Productions and National Film Board of Canada co-production, The Mystery of Mazo de la Roche , which premiered on March 17, 2012 at the Festival international du film sur l'art in Montreal, then had its Toronto Premiere at Hot Docs April 29/12. The film is directed by Maya Gallus, produced by Justine Pimlott & Anita Lee, and combines archival material with dramatic reenactments featuring Severn Thompson as Mazo de la Roche. [11] The film "lend(s) credence to the theory that its subject was a closeted lesbian", [12] although several people in the film who knew de la Roche and Clement, including their adopted daughter Esmée, state on-camera that they believe the relationship between the two was close but ultimately platonic.

Death and legacy

de la Roche is buried near the grave of Stephen Leacock at St. George's Anglican Church, at Sibbald Point, near Sutton, Ontario. Later, Caroline Clement was buried alongside her.

December, 1927 Mazo de la Roche2.jpg
December, 1927

The Jalna series has sold more than eleven million copies in 193 English and 92 foreign editions. In 1935, the film Jalna, based on the novel, was released by RKO Radio Pictures and, in 1972, a CBC television series was produced based on the series.

Benares in Clarkson, Ontario is believed to be the inspiration for Jalna [13] (Benares and Jalna are in fact both names of Indian cities) and is now maintained by the Museums of Mississauga. [14] A nearby park is named Whiteoaks in honour of the series, as is a nearby elementary school. Streets in the area also bear names such as "Mazo Crescent," "Jalna Avenue," "Roche Court," and "Whiteoaks Avenue."

Her house at 3590 Bayview Avenue in Toronto, Ontario, bought by The Zoroastrian Society of Ontario in 1975, serves as its community centre (as of May 2019). It is listed as a City of Toronto Heritage Property. [15]

In the 1970s, a land developer in London, Ontario used the characters from de la Roche's Jalna series to name streets for a new subdivision named White Oaks. Streetnames used from the Jalna series include: Jalna Boulevard, Ernest Avenue, Renny Crescent, Finch Crescent, Nicholas Crescent, Alayne Crescent, Archer Crescent, Piers Crescent, Meg Drive. [16]

In 1990, a French-immersion public school in de la Roche's birthplace of Newmarket, Ontario was named in her honour. [17]

Responding to an enquiry on the pronunciation of her name, her secretary told The Literary Digest : "Her Christian name is pronounced may'zo, and Roche is pronounced rosh, to rhyme with Foch." [18]



The following table can be sorted to show Mazo de la Roche's novels in chronological order,
or arranged alphabetically by title, or by publisher, or by series.
1922Explorers Of The Dawn Knopf
1923Possession Macmillan Reprinted, C. Chivers, 1973.
1926DelightMacmillanReprinted with introduction by Desmond Pacey, McClelland and Stewart, 1961
1927Jalna Little, Brown Jalna7 ISBN   0-316-18000-9
1929Whiteoaks of JalnaLittle, BrownJalna8Also published as Whiteoaks, Macmillan, 1929; ISBN   0-316-18014-9
1930Portrait of a DogLittle, BrownImmortalizes the author’s beloved Scottish Terrier
1932Finch's FortuneLittle, BrownJalna9 ISBN   0-333-09966-4
1932Lark AscendingLittle, Brown
1932The Thunder of the New WingsLittle, Brown
1933The Master of JalnaLittle, BrownJalna10 ISBN   0-316-18002-5
1934Beside a Norman TowerLittle, Brown
1935Young RennyLittle, BrownJalna4 ISBN   0-333-01371-9
1936Whiteoak HarvestLittle, BrownJalna11 ISBN   0-333-07404-1
1937The Very Little HouseLittle, Brown
1938Growth of a ManLittle, Brown
1940Whiteoak HeritageLittle, BrownJalna5 ISBN   0-333-05090-8
1941Wakefield's CourseLittle, BrownJalna12 ISBN   0-316-18010-6
1942The Two SaplingsMacmillan
1944Building of JalnaLittle, BrownJalna1 ISBN   0-316-17996-5
1946Return to JalnaLittle, BrownJalna13 ISBN   0-333-04842-3
1949Mary WakefieldLittle, BrownJalna3 ISBN   0-333-07652-4
1951Renny's DaughterLittle, BrownJalna14 ISBN   0-333-08561-2
1953Whiteoak BrothersLittle, BrownJalna6 ISBN   0-333-08809-3
1954Variable Winds at JalnaLittle, BrownJalna15 ISBN   0-333-02280-7
1955The Song of LambertMacmillanJuvenile
1958Centenary at JalnaLittle, BrownJalna16 ISBN   0-316-17997-3
1958Bill and CooMacmillanJuvenile
1960Morning at JalnaLittle, BrownJalna2 ISBN   0-333-03933-5


Bain News Service/LOC ggbain.24645. Mazo De La Roche Mazo De La Roche (LOC) (18711150853).jpg
Bain News Service/LOC ggbain.24645. Mazo De La Roche

Short story collections


See also

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  1. "The Willson Family" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 11, 2013. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 de la Roche, Mazo (1957). Ringing the Changes. Dundurn Press.
  3. 1 2 "Mazo de la Roche". Simon Fraser University. 2014.
  4. 1 2 Coles, Hartley (January 8, 1997). "Why the omission?". Acton Tanner. p. 6.
  5. 1 2 Coles, Hartley (July 19, 2007). "Acton knew her as plain Maisie Roach; worldwide she was Mazo de la Roche". New Tanner. Acton.
  6. "Mazo de la Roche Here a Year; Father Ran Main St. Hotel". The Acton Free Press. July 20, 1961. p. 1.
  7. "Died: Roche". The Acton Free Press. July 8, 1915. p. 2.
  8. p. 37, Not in Front of the Audience by Nicholas de Jongh
  9. Plummer, Kevin (June 28, 2014). "Historicist: Revealing Fictions". Torontoist.
  10. "Mazo de la Roche". Archived from the original ( Scholar search ) on October 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
  11. Weldon, Carolyne (16 March 2012). "Feature film on Canada's most famous unknown author premieres at FIFA". Blog. National Film Board of Canada . Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  12. Carrington, Julian (April 23, 2012). "The Mystery of Mazo de la Roche". Torontoist.
  13. Benares Historic House
  14. Museums of Mississauga
  15. "City of Toronto's Inventory of Heritage Properties". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
  16. "Google Map of White Oaks".
  17. "Mazo de la Roche P.S." York Region District School Board . Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  18. Charles Earle Funk, What's the Name, Please?, Funk & Wagnalls, 1936.

Further reading

Electronic editions