Mazurkas (Chopin)

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Over the years 1825–1849, Frédéric Chopin wrote at least 59 mazurkas for piano, based on the traditional Polish dance:

Contents

The serial numbering of the 58 published mazurkas normally goes only up to 51. The remaining 7 are referred to by their key or catalogue number.

Chopin's composition of these mazurkas signaled new ideas of nationalism.

Origins

Chopin based his mazurkas on the traditional Polish folk dance, also called the mazurka (or "mazur" in Polish). However, while he used the traditional mazurka as his model, he was able to transform his mazurkas into an entirely new genre, one that became known as a "Chopin genre". [1]

Compositions

Chopin started composing his mazurkas in 1825, and continued composing them until 1849, the year of his death. The number of mazurkas composed in each year varies, but he was steadily writing them throughout this time period.

Musical style

Since Chopin's mazurkas connect to the already established traditional Polish mazurka, some of the characteristics of the genre remain the same in his interpretation. For example, both the traditional mazurka and Chopin's version contain a great deal of repetition. This can mean repetition of a single measure or small group of measures, repetition of a theme, or even repetition of an entire section. [2] This repetition makes sense in the traditional dance for the repeat of a certain section of the actual dance; even though Chopin did not compose his mazurkas so they could be danced to, [3] it is clear Chopin kept the original form in mind. Furthermore, many of the rhythmic patterns of the traditional mazurka also appear in Chopin's compositions so they still convey the idea of a dance, but a more "self-contained, stylized dance piece." [4] In keeping with this idea, Chopin did try to make his mazurkas more technically interesting by furthering their chromaticism and harmony, [3] along with using classical techniques, such as counterpoint and fugues. [5] In fact, Chopin used more classical techniques in his mazurkas than in any of his other genres. [5] One of these techniques is four part harmony in the manner of a chorale.

Influences

While it is known that Chopin's mazurkas are connected to the traditional dance, throughout the years there has been much scholarly debate as to how exactly they are connected. The main subject of this debate is whether Chopin had an actual direct connection to Polish folk music, or whether he heard Polish national music in urban areas and was inspired by that to compose his mazurkas.

In 1852, three years after Chopin's death, Franz Liszt published a piece about Chopin's mazurkas, saying that Chopin had been directly influenced by Polish national music to compose his mazurkas. Liszt also provided descriptions of specific dance scenes, which were not completely accurate, but were "a way to raise the status of these works [mazurkas]." [6] While Liszt's claim was inaccurate, the actions of scholars who read his writing proved to be more disastrous. When reading Liszt's work, scholars interpreted the word "national" as "folk," creating the "longest standing myth in Chopin criticism—the myth that Chopin's mazurkas are national works rooted in an authentic Polish-folk music tradition." [6] In fact, the most likely explanation for Chopin's influence is the national music he was hearing as a young man in urban areas of Poland, such as Warsaw. [7]

After scholars created this myth, they furthered it through their own writings in different ways. Some picked specific mazurkas that they could apply to a point they were trying to make in support of Chopin's direct connection with folk music. Others simply made generalizations so that their claims of this connection would make sense. In all cases, since these writers were well-respected and carried weight in the scholarly community, people accepted their suggestions as truth, which allowed the myth to grow. However, in 1921, Béla Bartók published an essay in which he said that Chopin "had not known authentic Polish folk music." [8] By the time of his death in 1945, Bartók was a very well known and respected composer, as well as a prominent expert on folk music, so his opinion and his writing carried a great deal of weight. Bartók suggested that Chopin instead had been influenced by national, and not folk music.

Arrangements

The soprano and composer Pauline Viardot was a close friend of Chopin and his lover George Sand, and she made a number of arrangements of his mazurkas as songs, with his full agreement. He gave Viardot expert advice on these arrangements, as well as on her piano playing and her other vocal compositions. Chopin in turn derived from her some firsthand knowledge about Spanish music. [9]

Several arrangements were made for piano and cello by Auguste Franchomme, a friend of Chopin who collaborated with him to compose Grand Duo concertant, and was also the dedicatee of his Cello Sonata.

List of mazurkas

Series
number
KeyComposedPublishedOpus No.BrownKobylańskaChominskiDedicationNotes
G, B18261826B. 16KK IIa/2-3S 1/2Revised versions (original versions were published in 1875)
1–4Fm, Cm, E, Em18301832 Op. 6 B. 60C. 51–54Countess Pauline Plater
5–9B, Am, Fm, A, C1830–311832 Op. 7 B. 61C. 55–59M. Johns de la Nouvelle-OrléansNos. 2 and 4 are revised versions; the original version of No. 4 was published in 1902
10–13B, Em, A, Am1832–331834 Op. 17 B. 77C. 60–63Mlle. Lina Freppa
14–17Gm, C, A, Bm1834–351836 Op. 24 B. 89C. 64–67Comte de Perthuis
18–21Cm, Bm, D, Cm1836–371837 Op. 30 B. 105C. 65–71 Princess Maria Czartoryska de Württemberg No. 4 from Four Mazurkas; in Guildhall School of Music and Drama Piano Exam Pieces Grade 8 (2003 & 2004 syllabus)
22–25Gm, D, C, Bm1837–381838 Op. 33 B. 115C. 72–75Countess Roza MostowskaNo. 3 from Four Mazurkas; in ABRSM Piano Exam Pieces Grade 6 (2015 & 2016 syllabus)
27Em1838 (28 November)1840 Op. 41/2 B. 122C. 77Étienne Witwicki
26, 28, 29Cm, B, A1839 (July)1840 Op. 41/1, 3, 4 B. 126C. 76, 78, 79
50Am1840 (summer)1841B. 134KK IIb/4S 2/4Notre temps; in "Six Morceaux de salon"
51Am18401841B. 140KK IIb/5S 2/5Émile GaillardIn "Album de pianistes polonais"
30–32G, A, Cm1841–421842 Op. 50 B. 145C. 80–82Leon Szmitkowski
33–35B, C, Cm18431844 Op. 56 B. 153C. 83–85Catherine Maberly
36–38Am, A, Fm1845 (June–July)1846 Op. 59 B. 157C. 86–88
39–41B, Fm, Cm1846 (early autumn)1847 Op. 63 B. 162C. 89–91Countess Laura Czosnowska
42, 44G, C18351855 Op. posth. 67/1, 3 B. 93C. 92, 94Anna Mlokosiewicz
45Am18461855 Op. posth. 67/4 B. 163C. 95
43Gm1849 (summer)1855 Op. posth. 67/2 B. 167C. 93
47Am18271855 Op. posth. 68/2 B. 18C. 97
48F18291855 Op. posth. 68/3 B. 34C. 98Quotes the folk tune "Oj, Magdalino"
46C18291855 Op. posth. 68/1 B. 38C. 96
49Fm1849 (summer)1855 Op. posth. 68/4 B. 168C. 99"Chopin's last composition"; first published in an incomplete form 1855
C18331870B. 82KK IVb/3P 2/3
D18291875B. 31KK IVa/7P 1/7Heavily revised 1832 (see B. 71, KK IVb/2; rev. vers. pub. 1880)
D18321880B. 71KK IVb/2P 1/7A heavily revised version of B.31, KK IVa/7
B1832 (24 June)1909B. 73KK IVb/1P 2/1Alexandrine Wolowska
D1820 (?)1910 (20 February)B. 4KK Anh. Ia/1A 1/1"Mazurek"; doubtful
A1834 (July)1930B. 85KK IVb/4Found in the album of Maria Szymanowska
 ?"early"KK Vf"Several mazurkas"; lost
D1826 (?)KK Ve/5Mentioned in literature; MS unknown
G1829 (22 August) ?Setting of a poem by Ignac Maciejowski
 ?1832KK Vc/2Mentioned in a letter from Chopin dated 10 September 1832
 ?1832 (14 September)KK Ve/7Listed in an auction party, Paris, 1906
B1835KK Ve/4MS sold in Paris, 20 June 1977
 ?1846 (by December)KK Vc/4Mentioned in a letter from Chopin
A, Dm ?KK VIIb/7-8Allegretto and Mazurka; MS sold Paris 21 November 1974
Bm ?KK Anh. IbDoubtful
 ? ?KK Ve/8Mentioned in 1878 correspondence between Breitkopf & Hartel and Izabela Barczinska
 ? ?KK Ve/6Mme NicolaiMentioned in a note from Augener to C.A. Spina 21 May 1884

Notes

  1. Michałowski, Kornel and Jim Samson. "Chopin, Fryderyk Franciszek". Grove Music Online , edited by L. Macy (accessed October 31, 2006) (subscription access)
  2. Kallberg, Jeffrey. "The Problem of Repeat and Repetition in Chopin's Mazurkas (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
  3. 1 2 Samson, Jim, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Chopin (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.)
  4. Samson, Jim. The Music of Chopin (Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985).
  5. 1 2 Rosen, Charles. The Romantic Generation (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
  6. 1 2 Barbara Milewski, "Chopin's Mazurkas and the Myth of Folk," 19th Century Music 23.2 (1999): 114.
  7. Milewski 1999
  8. Milewski 1999 117.
  9. Rachel Harris, The Music Salon of Pauline Viardot Archived 2007-03-07 at the Wayback Machine

Sources

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