The McLaren Report (Russian : Доклад Макларена) is the name given to an independent report released in two parts by professor Richard McLaren into allegations and evidence of state-sponsored doping in Russia. It was commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in May 2016. In July 2016, McLaren presented Part 1 of the report, indicating systematic state-sponsored subversion of the drug testing processes by the government of Russia during and subsequent to the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. In December 2016, he published the second part of the report on doping in Russia.
On 18 July 2016, Richard McLaren, a Canadian attorney retained by WADA to investigate Grigory Rodchenkov's allegations, published a 97-page report covering significant state-sponsored doping in Russia.Although limited by a 57-day time frame, the investigation found corroborating evidence after conducting witness interviews, reviewing thousands of documents, cyber analysis of hard drives, forensic analysis of urine sample collection bottles, and laboratory analysis of individual athlete samples, with "more evidence becoming available by the day."
The report concluded that it was shown "beyond a reasonable doubt" that Russia's Ministry of Sport, the Centre of Sports Preparation of the National Teams of Russia, the Federal Security Service (FSB), and the WADA-accredited laboratory in Moscow had "operated for the protection of doped Russian athletes" within a "state-directed failsafe system" using "the disappearing positive [test] methodology."McLaren stated that urine samples were opened in Sochi in order to swap them "without any evidence to the untrained eye".
At the Olympics, urine samples are stored in security bottles named the "BEREG-KIT", which must be broken open after being closed; the investigation, however, found that using a specific tool, the bottles were possible to open, and found scratch marks on the inside normally invisible to the naked eye.The official producer of BEREG-KIT security bottles used for anti-doping tests, Berlinger Group, stated, "We have no knowledge of the specifications, the methods or the procedures involved in the tests and experiments conducted by the McLaren Commission."
According to the McLaren report, the Disappearing Positive Methodology (DPM) operated from "at least late 2011 to August 2015."It was used on 643 positive samples, a number that the authors consider "only a minimum" due to limited access to Russian records.
Part 1 of the Report is available publicly on WADA's website: https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/20160718_ip_report_newfinal.pdf
On 9 December 2016, McLaren published the second part of his independent report. The investigation found that from 2011 to 2015, more than 1,000 Russian competitors in various sports (including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports) benefited from the cover-up.Emails indicate that they included five blind powerlifters, who may have been given drugs without their knowledge, and a fifteen-year-old.
Part 2 of the Report is available publicly on WADA's website: https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/mclaren_report_part_ii_2.pdf
The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Founded by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games.
The World Anti-Doping Agency is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports. The agency's key activities include scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code, whose provisions are enforced by the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport. The aims of the Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention and the United States Anti-Doping Agency are also closely aligned with those of WADA.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.
The 2016 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. These were the first Olympic Games ever to be held in South America and the fourth to be held in a developing country, after the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico, the 1980 Summer Olympics in the Soviet Union, and the 2008 Summer Olympics in China.
The 2014 Winter Paralympics, the 11th Paralympic Winter Games, and also more generally known as the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games, were an international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), held in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia from 7 to 16 March 2014. 45 National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) participated in the Games, which marked the first time Russia ever hosted the Paralympics. The Games featured 72 medal events in five sports, and saw the debut of snowboarding at the Winter Paralympics.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event held in Sochi, Russia, from 7 to 23 February. A total of 2,873 athletes from 88 nations participated in 98 events in 7 sports across 15 different disciplines.
Yuliya Igorevna Stepanova is a Russian runner who specializes in the 800 metres track event. She and her husband, Vitaly Stepanov, exposed widespread doping fraud in Russian sports.
The Russian Federation competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. This was the nation's fifth consecutive appearance at the Summer Olympics as an independent nation. The Russian Olympic Committee sent a total of 436 athletes to the Games, 208 men and 228 women, to compete in 24 sports. For the first time in its Olympic history, Russia was represented by more female than male athletes.
Olga Gennadyevna Vilukhina is a former Russian biathlete, who was competing on the World Cup circuit since the 2008–09 season.
Russia competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, from 7 to 23 February 2014 as the host nation. As host, Russia participated in all 15 sports, with a team consisting of 232 athletes. It is Russia's largest Winter Olympics team to date.
Russia competed as the host nation at the 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi, held between 7–16 March 2014. Russia's 80 medals count is the highest medals ever recorded. The previous record was held by Austria with 70 medals in 1984.
The Russian Federation competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 5 to 21 August 2016. This was Russia's sixth consecutive appearance at the Summer Olympics as an independent nation.
The Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA), established in January 2008, is the Russian National Anti-Doping Organisation (NADO), affiliated with the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
Richard Henry McLaren is a law professor at Western University in Ontario, Canada, specializing in sports law. In 2015, he was one of the three members of the WADA Commission, an independent panel commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency to investigate allegations of state-sponsored doping in Russian sports. He was awarded the Order of Canada with the grade of officer in 2015.
Russia was originally scheduled to compete during the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in what would have been its sixth consecutive appearance at the Summer Paralympics as an independent nation. Russia had qualified athletes in ten sports.
Grigory Mikhailovich Rodchenkov is the former head of Russia's national anti-doping laboratory, the Anti-Doping Center. In November 2015, the Independent Commission of World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) found out that Rodchenkov was “at the heart of the positive drug test coverup”, in particular, he requested money from athletes for concealing positive tests and violated WADA directives by destroying 1,417 urine samples. Rodchenkov made headlines in 2016 after an interview to The New York Times exposing a state-run doping program in Russia. Rodchenkov said he developed a three-drug cocktail of banned substances that he mixed with liquor and provided to dozens of athletes at Sochi Olympics. Rodchenkov’s allegations were confirmed by the independent McLaren Report, leading to Russia's partial ban from the 2016 Summer Olympics and total ban from the 2018 Winter Olympics.
Olympic Athlete from Russia (OAR) is the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) designation of select Russian athletes permitted to participate in the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea. The designation was instigated following the suspension of the Russian Olympic Committee after the Olympic doping controversy. This was the first time since the Unified Team of 1992 that Russian athletes had participated under the neutral Olympic flag.
The Authorised Neutral Athletes are Russian athletes who are permitted to compete in the 2017 World Championships in Athletics by special permission, despite the IAAF's suspension of the Russian Athletic Federation. In order to compete, Russian athletes must demonstrate that they were not involved in the doping scandal that precipitated Russia's suspension from international athletics.
The Oswald Commission was a disciplinary commission of the International Olympic Committee ("IOC"), chaired by IOC member Denis Oswald. It was responsible for investigating and ruling on doping violations by individual Russian athletes at the 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi.
Systematic doping in Russian sports has resulted in 43 Olympic medals being stripped from Russian athletes—the most of any country, more than four times the number of the runner-up, and more than 30% of the global total.