Medal of Nakhimov

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Medal of Nakhimov
Medal of Nakhimov.png
Medal of Nakhimov (obverse)
Awarded by Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
TypeMilitary decoration
EligibilitySoldiers and sailors of the Navy and Border Guards
Awarded forBravery and courage in naval theatres
StatusNo longer awarded
Statistics
EstablishedMarch 3, 1944
Total awarded~14,020
MedalNakhimovRib.png
Ribbon of the Medal of Nakhimov

The Medal of Nakhimov (Russian : Медаль Нахимова) was a military decoration of the Soviet Union.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal sovereign state in northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

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Award history

The Medal of Nakhimov was a Soviet military award created on March 3, 1944 by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR [1] to reward distinction in the defence of the socialist homeland and to actively recognise successful combat missions on ships, in units of the Navy or of Border Guards. It was named in honour of Russian admiral Pavel Nakhimov, one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the award was potentially and only temporarily retained by Decree No 2424-1 of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation of March 2, 1992. [2] It was never awarded under the Russian Federation and finally removed from the list of state awards by decree of the President of the Russian Federation of March 2, 1994. [3]

Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". The rank is generally thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر‎, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis ("admirable") or admiratus ("admired"), although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin.

Pavel Nakhimov Russian fleet commander

Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov was one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, best remembered as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union Process leading to the late-1991 breakup of the USSR

The dissolution of the Soviet Union was the process of internal disintegration within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) which began in second half of the 1980s with growing unrest in the national republics and ended on 26 December 1991, when the USSR itself was voted out of existence by the Supreme Soviet, following the Belavezha Accords. Declaration number 142-Н by the Supreme Soviet resulted in self-governing independence to the Republics of the USSR, formally dissolving the USSR. The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32 p.m., the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.

Award statute

The Medal of Nakhimov was awarded to sailors and soldiers, petty officers and sergeants, ensigns and warrant officers of the Soviet Navy, Naval Infantry and naval units of the Soviet Border Troops for courage and bravery displayed during the defence of the Soviet Union in naval theatres, while protecting the maritime borders of the USSR, during military duties with a risk to life.

A petty officer (PO) is a non-commissioned officer in many navies and is given the NATO rank denotion OR-5. In many nations, they are typically equal to a corporal or sergeant in comparison to other military branches. Often they may be superior to a seaman, generally the lowest ranks in a navy, and subordinate to a more senior non-commissioned officer, such as a chief petty officer.

Ensign is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank acquired the name. This rank has generally been replaced in army ranks by second lieutenant. Ensigns were generally the lowest ranking commissioned officer, except where the rank of subaltern existed. In contrast, the Arab rank of ensign, لواء, liwa', derives from the command of units with an ensign, not the carrier of such a unit's ensign, and is today the equivalent of a major general.

Warrant officer Military rank

A warrant officer (WO) is an officer in a military organisation who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, and a non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer, often by virtue of seniority.

14,020 people were awarded the Medal of Nakhimov from its creation in 1944 to its abolishment in 1994.

The Medal of Nakhimov was worn on the left side of the chest and when in the presence of other orders and medals of the Soviet Union, it was situated immediately after the Medal "For Battle Merit". [4] If worn in the presence of orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence. [5]

Medal "For Battle Merit" military decoration of the Soviet Union

The Medal "For Battle Merit" was a Soviet military medal awarded for "combat action resulting in a military success", "courageous defense of the state borders", or "successful military and political training and preparation".

Award description

The Medal of Nakhimov was a 36mm in diameter circular bronze medal with a raised rim. The obverse had at its center the relief left profile bust of admiral Nakhimov, surrounded by small beading along the entire medal circumference, also along the circumference, in the upper half on either side of the bust, the relief inscription "ADMIRAL NAKHIMOV" (Russian: «АДМИРАЛ НАХИМОВ»), in the lower half, a relief five pointed star over laurel branches. The reverse bore the same small beading along the entire circumference. At the center a medallion bearing a sailing ship surrounded by a ring of rope over crossed naval anchors connected together by a circular chain surrounding the medallion and passing below the lower tips of the anchors. [1]

The Medal of Ushakov was suspended from a standard Soviet pentagonal mount by a ring through the suspension loop. The mount was covered by an overlapping 24mm wide silk moiré blue ribbon with three central 3mm wide white stripes situated 2mm apart. [1]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 3, 1944" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 1944-03-03. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  2. "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation of March 2, 1992" (in Russian). Commission under the President of the Russian Federation on state awards (FAPSI). 1992-03-02. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  3. "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of March 2, 1994" (in Russian). Commission under the President of the Russian Federation on state awards (FAPSI). 1994-03-02. Archived from the original on March 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  4. "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 25, 1980" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 1980-03-28. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  5. "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of September 7, 2010 No 1099". Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2012-03-03.