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Coordinates: 25°43′N32°39′E / 25.717°N 32.650°E / 25.717; 32.650

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

View of the ruins of the Temple of Montu at Medamud dating to the Ptolemaic and Roman period. Medmoud vue generale.JPG
View of the ruins of the Temple of Montu at Medamud dating to the Ptolemaic and Roman period.
Relief of the wall of Trajan representing a procession of singers and musicians in the honor of the Monthu at Medamoud. Medamoud procession.JPG
Relief of the wall of Trajan representing a procession of singers and musicians in the honor of the Monthu at Medamoud.

Medamud (from the Ancient Egyptian Madu) was a settlement in Ancient Egypt. Its present-day territory is located about 8 km east-north from Luxor.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Luxor City in Egypt

Luxor is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate. The population numbers 506,588, with an area of approximately 417 square kilometres (161 sq mi).

A temple of Montu was located here . It was excavated by Fernand Bisson de la Roque in 1925, who identified several structures dedicated to the war-god Montu.

Fernand Bisson de la Roque French egyptologist and archaeologist

Fernand Bisson de La Roque was a French Egyptologist and archaeologist. His notable excavations include 1921 to 1924 at Djédefrê pyramid at Abu Rawash, 1925 to 1932 at the Temple of Monthu at Medamud, northeast of Thebes and 1933 to 1950 at the Temple of Monthu at Tod southeast of Thebes.

Montu was a falcon-god of war in ancient Egyptian religion, an embodiment of the conquering vitality of the Pharaoh. He was particularly worshipped in Upper Egypt and in the district of Thebes, despite being a Delta-native, astral deity.

[Ramesses II] whom victory was foretold as he came from the womb,
Whom valor was given while in the egg,
Bull firm of heart as he treads the arena,
Godly king going forth like Montu on victory day.


A simple temple of Montu existed here already towards the end of the Old Kingdom, or during the First Intermediate period. It was surrounded by a wall. It is now located below the present temple.

There were two pylons, one behind the other and, beyond them, there was a double cave sanctuary, the underground chambers of which were marked with mounds on the surface. These mounds of earth probably functioned as 'primeval mounds'.

During the Middle Kingdom's 12th dynasty, the old temple was completely rebuilt on a bigger scale.

Further building and renovation continued well into the time of the Roman Empire.

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Elephantine Island in the Nile

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Edfu Place in Aswan Governorate, Egypt

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Mentuhotep III Egyptian pharaoh

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The Precinct of Montu, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main temple enclosures that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. It is dedicated to the Egyptian god Montu. The area covers about 20,000 m². Most monuments are poorly preserved.

New Kalabsha is a promontory located near Aswan in Egypt. It houses several important temples, structures, and other remains that have been relocated here from the site of Old Kalabsha and other sites in Lower Nubia, to avoid the rising waters of Lake Nasser caused by the construction of the Aswan High Dam. The major remains are described below:

El-Tarif village in Egypt

El-Tarif is a necropolis on the West Bank of the Nile, at the site of ancient Thebes (Luxor), Egypt. It is located in the northwestern outskirts of Luxor and southeast of the Valley of the Kings, opposite Karnak, just to the southwest of the modern village of At-Tarif. It is the oldest of West Thebes' necropolises. It is a small mortuary temple, and the farthest north of the Tombs of the Nobles, and contains tombs of the late First Intermediate Period, Second Intermediate Period and early Middle Kingdom. Old Kingdom mastabas are possibly attributed to local rulers of the Fourth or Fifth Dynasty. Eleventh Dynasty tombs of local rulers have also been noted in the form of a series of rock-cut tombs dated to 2061-2010 B.C.E, the largest of which are Intef I to Intef III, who were kings of this dynasty.

Armant, Egypt Place in Luxor Governorate, Egypt

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Ancient Egyptian architecture

Spanning over two thousand years in total, what is called ancient Egypt was not one stable civilization, but instead a civilization in constant change and upheaval commonly split into periods by historians. Likewise, ancient Egyptian architecture is not one style, but a set of styles with commonalities used during each period of ancient Egyptian history.

The history of the Karnak Temple complex is largely the history of Thebes. The city does not appear to have been of any significance before the Eleventh Dynasty, and any temple building here would have been relatively small and unimportant, with any shrines being dedicated to the early god of Thebes, Montu. The earliest artifact found in the area of the temple is a small, eight-sided column from the Eleventh Dynasty, which mentions Amun-Re. The tomb of Intef II mentions a 'house of Amun', which implies some structure, whether a shrine or a small temple is unknown. The ancient name for Karnak, Ipet-Isut only really refers to the central core structures of the Precinct of Amun-Re, and was in use as early as the 11th Dynasty, again implying the presence of some form of temple before the Middle Kingdom expansion.

Temple of Edfu Ancient Egyptian temple, located on the west bank of the Nile in Edfu, Upper Egypt

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The Theban Tomb TT31 is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. It is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian official, Khonsu who was First Prophet of Menkheperre, during the 19th Dynasty or 20th Dynasty.


Theban Tomb TT51 is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. It is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian official, Userhat who was First Prophet of Sethi I, during the 19th Dynasty.

Temple of Montu (Medamud) building in Egypt

The Temple of Montu is an Egyptian temple dedicated to the worship of Monthu. The site is located 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) northeast of Karnak, which is located within Luxor. Medamud was excavated by French archaeologist Fernand Bisson de la Roque from 1925 to the post-war, and revealed many buildings including a temple dedicated to Montu. This temple replaced an ancient sanctuary and consists of an open forum with a tower and enclosing two mounds that housed the chapels of worship. It is thought that original sanctuary dates to the Old Kingdom. The ruins of the last structure date to the Ptolemy VIII period of the 2nd century BC, although decorations and additions continued to be added centuries later by the Romans. Because of Montu's strong association with raging bulls, the temple was a major centre of worship for bulls, containing many statues of bulls for worship and reliefs. Most of these statues are now located in various museums around the world.

Temple of Hibis Building in Africa

The Temple of Hibis is the largest and best preserved ancient Egyptian temple in the Kharga Oasis, as well as the only structure in Egypt dating to the Saite-Persian period which has come down to modern times in relatively good condition. Located about 2 km north of Kharga, it was devoted to a syncretism of two local forms of the deity Amun: "Amun of Hibis" and "Amun-Ra of Karnak who dwells in Hibis".

Aniba (Nubia) Building in Egypt

Aniba was a village in Nubia, about 230 km south of Aswan. The place is today flooded by the Lake Nasser. In ancient times it was an important town and called Miam. The region around the town was one of the most fertile in Lower Nubia.