Medma

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Medma
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Location Rosarno, Province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, Italy
Region Magna Graecia
Coordinates 38°29′16″N15°59′0″E / 38.48778°N 15.98333°E / 38.48778; 15.98333 Coordinates: 38°29′16″N15°59′0″E / 38.48778°N 15.98333°E / 38.48778; 15.98333
Type Settlement

Medma or Mesma (Greek: Μέδμη, Steph. B.; Μέδμα, Strabo, Scymn. Ch.; but Μέσμα on coins, and so Apollodorus of Damascus, cited by Steph. B.; Scylax has Μέσα, evidently a corruption for Μέσμα), was an ancient Greek city of Southern Italy (Magna Graecia), on the west coast of the Bruttian (now Calabrian) peninsula, between Hipponium and the mouth of the Metaurus [1] (probably today's River Petrace). The site is located at Rosarno, Province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria.

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Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

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Strabo Greek geographer, philosopher and historian

Strabo was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

It was a colony founded by the Epizephyrian Locrians, and is said to have derived its name from an adjoining fountain. [2] But though it is repeatedly noticed among the Greek cities in this part of Italy, it does not appear ever to have attained to any great power or importance. It is probable, however, that the Medimnaeans (Μεδιμναῖοι), who are noticed by Diodorus as contributing a body of colonists to the repeopling of Messana (modern Messina) by Dionysius in 396 BCE, are no other than the Medmaeans, and that we should read Μεδμαῖοι in the passage in question. [3] Though never a very conspicuous place, Medma seems to have survived the fall of many other more important cities of Magna Graecia, and it is noticed as a still existing town both by Strabo and Pliny the Elder. [4] But the name is not found in Ptolemy, and all subsequent trace of it disappears. It appears from Strabo that the town itself was situated a little inland, and that it had a port or emporium on the seashore.

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Messina Comune in Sicily, Italy

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Dionysius I of Syracuse Sicilian tyrant

Dionysius I or Dionysius the Elder was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse, in Sicily. He conquered several cities in Sicily and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in Sicily and made Syracuse the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot—cruel, suspicious and vindictive.

The name of Mesima is still borne by a river which flows into the sea a little below Nicotera, in the neighbourhood. Nicotera, the name of which is already found in the Antonine Itinerary, [5] probably arose after the decline of Mesma.

Nicotera Comune in Calabria, Italy

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Antonine Itinerary

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Cibyra also referred to as Cibyra Mikra to distinguish it from Cibyra Magna, was a town in ancient Pamphylia. Strabo, after mentioning Side, says, "...and near it is the coast of the little Cibyratae, and then the river Melas, and a station for ships". The site of Side is well known. The Melas is the Manavgat, 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Side. But there could have been no city between Side and the Melas, and it is conjectured that in Strabo's text, the coast ("Paralia") of the Cibyratae should come after the Melas. The vestiges of Cibyra are probably those observed by Captain Beaufort upon a height which rises from the right bank of a considerable river about 8 miles (13 km) to the eastward of the Melas, about 4 miles (6.4 km) to the west of Cape Karáburun, and nearly 2 miles (3.2 km) from the shore. Ptolemy mentions this Cibyra among the inland towns of Cilicia Trachea; but Scylax places it on the coast. There is a place, Cyberna (Κυβέρνη), mentioned in the Stadiasmus, which is placed 59 stadia east of the Melas. If the conjecture as to Strabo's text is correct, we may identify Cyberna with this Cibyra of Pamphylia.

References

  1. Strabo vi. p. 256; Scyl. p. 4. § 12.
  2. Strab. l. c.; Scymn. Ch. 308; Steph. B. s. v.
  3. Diod. xiv. 78.
  4. Strab. l. c.; Plin. iii. 5. s. 10.
  5. pp. 106, 111

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William Smith (lexicographer) English lexicographer

Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.

<i>Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography</i> classical dictionary

The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, first published in 1854, was the last of a series of classical dictionaries edited by the English scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. As declared by Smith in the Preface: "The Dictionary of Geography ... is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner". The book stays up to the description: in two massive volumes the dictionary provides detailed coverage of all the important countries, regions, towns, cities, geographical features that occur in Greek and Roman literature, without forgetting those mentioned solely in the Bible. The work was last reissued in 2005.