Mehrangiz Dowlatshahi

Last updated

Mehrangiz Dowlatshahi
Mehrangiz Dowlatshahi.jpg
Iranian Ambassador to the Denmark
In office
1 March 1975 1 March 1979
Preceded by Parviz Sepahboudi
Succeeded by Abbas Amir-Entezam
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
15 January 1963 14 January 1975
Constituency Kermanshah
Personal details
Born 13 December 1919
Isfahan, Persia
Died 1 October 2008(2008-10-01) (aged 88)
Paris, France
Nationality Iranian
Alma mater Berlin University
Heidelberg University

Mehrangiz Dowlatshahi (13 December 1919 – 11 October 2008) was an Iranian social activist and politician, who held significant positions, including ambassador of Iran to Denmark during the Pahlavi era. She also served as a MP for three terms.

Contents

Early life and education

Dowlatshahi was born in Isfahan on 13 December 1919. [1] However, her family were major land owners based in Kermanshah. [2] She was a daughter of Mohammad Ali Mirza "Meshkout Al Dowleh", majlis member and land owner. [3] [4] She was a member of the Qajar dynasty. [1] Her mother was Akhtar ol-Mulk, daughter of Hidayat Quli Khan. [1] Mehrangiz was the cousin of Esmat Dowlatshahi, fourth wife of Reza Shah. [5]

Isfahan City in Iran

Isfahan is a city in Iran. It is located 406 kilometres south of Tehran, and is the capital of Isfahan Province.

Kermanshah Province Province in 4th Region, Iran

Kermanshah Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. The province was known from 1969 to 1986 as Kermanshahan and from 1986 to 1995 as Bakhtaran. According to a 2014 segmentation by the Ministry of Interior it is center of Region 4, with the region's central secretariat located at the province's capital city, Kermanshah. A majority of people in Kermanshah Province are Shia, and there are Sunni and Yarsanist minority groups.

Qajar dynasty monarchy state of Iran from 1789 until 1925

The Qajar Empire, also referred to as Qajar Iran, officially the Sublime State of Persia, was the state ruled by the Qajar dynasty, an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe, from 1789 to 1925. The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia.

Mehrangiz studied in Germany and held a bachelor's degree from Berlin University. [1] She received a PhD in social and political sciences from Heidelberg University. [3]

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Heidelberg University public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Heidelberg University is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386 on instruction of Pope Urban VI, Heidelberg is Germany's oldest university and one of the world's oldest surviving universities. It was the third university established in the Holy Roman Empire.

Career

Dowlatshahi worked at the social services organization and at the organization for support of prisoners. [6] She established Rah-e No (New Way) society, which later became part of the International Women’s Syndicate. [6] The society offered training to women and advocated equal rights for them. [3] She also launched adult literacy programs in southern Tehran. [6] In 1951, she and woman activist Safeyeh Firouz met Mohammad Reza Shah to discuss the electoral rights of women in Iran. [7] She was the director of the advisory committee on International Affairs of the Women's Organization of Iran (WOI). [8] In 1973, she was appointed president of the International Council of Women and her term ended in 1976. [9]

International Council of Women organization

The International Council of Women (ICW) is a women's organization working across national boundaries for the common cause of advocating human rights for women. In March and April 1888, women leaders came together in Washington D.C. with 80 speakers and 49 delegates representing 53 women's organizations from 9 countries: Canada, the United States, Ireland, India, United Kingdom, Finland, Denmark, France and Norway. Women from professional organizations, trade unions, arts groups and benevolent societies participate. National councils are affiliated to the ICW and thus make themselves heard at the international level. The ICW enjoys consultative status with the United Nations and its Permanent Representatives to ECOSOC, ILO, FAO, WHO, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNCTAD, and UNIDO.

She served as the member of the Majlis from 1963 to 1975, being the first woman in this post. [8] She represented Kermanshah at the Majlis for three terms. [10] She significantly contributed to the “family protection law” in 1967 and to its expansion in 1974. [10] She also served as the first minister of women affairs. [11] She was also the first woman ambassador of Imperial Iran to Denmark. [11] She was appointed to the post in 1975. [12]

Denmark constitutional monarchy in Europe

Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and is bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2 (16,573 sq mi), land area of 42,394 km2 (16,368 sq mi), and the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2 (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.8 million.

Later years and death

Dowlatshahi was the Iranian ambassador in Denmark when the 1979 revolution occurred. She left the country and settled in Paris. [6] In 2002, she published a book entitled Society, Government, and Iran’s Women’s Movement. [6] She died in Paris in October 2008. [6]

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Awards and honors

In 1997, Dowlatshahi was named as the woman of the year by the Iranian Women's Studies Foundation in the United States. [13]

Related Research Articles

Mohammad Mosaddegh Prime Minister of Iran in the 1950s

Mohammad Mosaddegh was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.

Reza Shah Shah of the Imperial State of Iran

Reza Shah Pahlavi, commonly known as Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

Pahlavi dynasty Dynasty that ruled Iran from 1925 until 1979

The Pahlavi dynasty was the last ruling house of the Imperial State of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the Monarchy of Iran was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, a former brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941 when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. According to Reza Shah, He named Agha Ameri the successor to his dynasty if it fell.

Ahmad Shah Qajar Shah of Iran

Ahmad Shah Qajar, was Shah (King) of Persia from 16 July 1909 to 15 December 1925, and the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.

Tadj ol-Molouk Queen consort of Iran

Tadj ol-Molouk was Queen of Iran as the wife of Reza Shah, founder of the Pahlavi dynasty and Shah of Iran between 1925 and 1941. The title she was given after becoming Queen means "Crown of the Kings" in the Persian language. She was the first Queen in Iran after the Muslim conquest in the 7th century to have participated in public royal representation and played a major role in the Kashf-e hijab in 1936.

Prime Minister of Iran former a political post in Iran

The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.

Women in Iran

Women in Iran discusses the history, contribution, aspects, and roles of women in Iran. Women have always played fundamental, crucial, and representative roles in the long history of Iran.

Dowlatshah Iranian writer

Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah was a famous Persian Prince of the Qajar Dynasty. He is also the progenitor of the Dowlatshahi Family of Persia. He was born at Nava, in Mazandaran, a Caspian province in the north of Iran. He was the first son of Fath-Ali Shah, the second Qajar king of Persia, and Ziba Chehr Khanoum, a Georgian slave girl of the Tsikarashvili family. He was also the elder brother of Abbas Mirza. Dowlatshah was the governor of Fars at age 9, Qazvin and Gilan at age 11, Khuzestan and Lorestan at age 16, and Kermanshah at age 19.

Mohammad Ali Foroughi Iranian politician

Mohammad Ali Foroughi also known as Zoka-ol-Molk was a teacher, diplomat, nationalist, writer, politician and Prime Minister of Iran.

Women's rights in Iran have changed according to the form of government ruling the state. With the rise of each regime, a series of mandates for women's rights arose, which affected a broad range of issues from voting rights to dress code.

Womens rights movement in Iran

Between 1962 and 1978, the Iranian Women's Movement gained victories such as the right for women to vote. They were also allowed to take part in public office, and in 1975 the Family Protection Law provided new rights for women, including expanded divorce and custody rights and reduced polygamy. Women's rights have been restricted since the Islamic Revolution. Following the 1979 Revolution, several laws were established such as the introduction of mandatory veiling and public dress code of females. In November 2016, about 6% of Iranian parliament members were women, while the global average was about 23%.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 20th-century Shah of Iran

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution on 11 February 1979. A close ally of the United States, he tried to use vast oil revenues to generate a rapid industrial, cultural and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms. In reaction religious forces revolted and overthrew him.

Gholamreza Pahlavi Persian royal

Shahpur Gholamreza Pahlavi was an Iranian prince and a member of the Pahlavi dynasty, as the son of Reza Shah and half-brother of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.

Abdul Reza Pahlavi Iranian businessperson

Abdul Reza Pahlavi was a member of Iran's Pahlavi dynasty. He was a son of Reza Shah and a half-brother of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Fatimeh Pahlavi Iranian entrepreneur

Fatemeh Pahlavi was Reza Shah Pahlavi's tenth child and half-sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. She was a member of the Pahlavi dynasty.

Hamid Reza Pahlavi

Hamid Reza Pahlavi was Reza Shah's eleventh and last born child, and a half-brother of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last shah of Iran.

Esmat Dowlatshahi

Esmat Dowlatshahi was an Iranian royal and the fourth and last wife of Reza Shah.

Marble Palace (Tehran) Iranian national heritage site

The Marble Palace is one of the historic buildings and royal residences in Tehran, Iran. It is located in the city centre, but the location was a quiet quarter of Tehran when the palace was erected.

The elections for the eighth Majlis were held in the summer of 1930.

Ashraf os-Saltaneh Iranian member of court, journalist and photographer

Ashraf os-Saltaneh was an Iranian photographer of the Qajar period, known as one of the earliest women photographers and journalists in the period. After the death of her first husband, she preserved his daily journal, which she had helped write. It was published in 1966 and provides insight into court life and the personality of the monarch during the 19th century.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "The Qajar Dynasty (Dowlatshahi, Jalali)". Royal Ark. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. "Centers of Power in Iran" (PDF). CIA. May 1972. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 "Sex equality still elusive: feminist". The Age. 6 November 1973. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  4. "Dolatshahi, Mehrangiz". Harvard University. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  5. Camron Michael Amin (1 December 2002). The Making of the Modern Iranian Woman: Gender, State Policy, and Popular Culture, 1865-1946. University Press of Florida. p. 115. ISBN   978-0-8130-3126-2 . Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Nazy Kaviani (28 October 2008). "Mehrangiz Dolatshahi". Iranian. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  7. Ali Akbar Mahdi (October 2004). "The Iranian Women's Movement: A Century Long Struggle" (PDF). The Muslim World. 94. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  8. 1 2 "Oral History interview of Mehrangiz Dowlatshahi". Foundation for Iranian Studies. Bethesda, MD, USA. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  9. "About us". International Council of Women. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  10. 1 2 "Mehrangiz Dolatshahi, who struggled for the ratification of the "Family Support Law" in 1967". The Feminist School. 23 October 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  11. 1 2 Darius Kadivar (6 September 2010). "Mehrangiz Dolatshahi First Woman Ambassador of Imperial Iran (1960)". Iranian. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  12. Official Report of Debates. Volume II. Council of Europe. p. 681. GGKEY:49S8UY2XXFL. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  13. "The Woman of the Year. Past awardees". IWSF. Retrieved 30 July 2013.