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|5th President of Mexico|
14 August 1832 –24 December 1832
|Preceded by||Anastasio Bustamante|
|Succeeded by||Manuel Gómez Pedraza|
|1st Governor of the State of Mexico|
12 March 1831 –12 March 1834
|Preceded by||Lorenzo de Zavala|
|Succeeded by||Lorenzo de Zavala|
27 September 1824 –8 March 1827
|Preceded by||Manuel Gómez Pedraza|
|Succeeded by||Lorenzo de Zavala|
2 March 1824 –4 March 1824
|Preceded by||office established|
|Succeeded by||Manuel Gómez Pedraza|
|Born||5 January 1790|
Santa Rosa (nowadays Melchor Múzquiz), Coahuila
|Died||14 December 1844 (aged 54)|
Melchor de Eca y Múzquiz (5 January 1790 – 14 December 1844) was a Mexican soldier and politician. From August to December 1832, he was president of Mexico.
Múzquiz was born on 5 January 1790 or sometime in March, depending on the source, in Santa Rosa, Nueva Extremadura, New Spain. He studied at the Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City. While still a student, he enlisted in the forces of General Ignacio López Rayón in 1810 in Coahuila to fight for Mexican independence from Spain. He took part in many engagements. In 1812, he was a lieutenant. In 1813, he led the infantry in the defense of Zacapu. In November 1816, now a colonel, he was taken prisoner at Fort Monteblanco, near Córdoba, Veracruz. He was freed under a general amnesty, even though he refused to give his word that he would not fight again against the viceregal government of New Spain.
In 1821, after Mexican independence, he supported the Plan de Iguala, which resulted in Agustín de Iturbide ascending the throne as Mexico's first emperor. However, as a congressional deputy he did not support this result, since he was a republican. He and other deputies proposed that Iturbide be declared a traitor. During the rebellion against the emperor, he joined the Plan de Casa Mata, but he did not have the confidence of the leaders, who considered him a radical.
In 1823 to 1824, he was supreme political chief of the Province of Mexico. On 2 March 1824, the new Mexican Congress changed his title to governor of the State of Mexico. He returned for a second period as governor of the state from 26 April to 1 October 1830.
He was also general of a division under President Guadalupe Victoria and military commandant of Puebla. In Puebla, together with General Filisola, he rose against President Vicente Guerrero on 10 December 1828 (Plan de Jalapa). Múzquiz was initially defeated by José Joaquín de Herrera, but the rebellion was successful. He was one of the individuals who offered the presidency to Anastasio Bustamante.
In 1832, when Antonio López de Santa Anna revolted, President Bustamante left the capital to fight the rebels, leaving Múzquiz as acting president (14 August 1832 to 26 December 1832). Neither Bustamante nor Santa Anna could prevail. Manuel Gómez Pedraza assumed the presidency on 24 December as the result of an agreement between the warring factions ( Convenios de Zavaleta ) and a congressional resolution, after 11 months of fighting.
Múzquiz was the first president to collect taxes on doors and windows.[ citation needed ]
In 1836, he was president of the Supremo Poder Conservador, an institution of five members established under the Seven Laws with the power to dissolve Congress or the Supreme Court.
He was a candidate for president in 1843, but Santa Anna won the office. He died in December 1844, in poverty, remembered for his scrupulous honesty in the management of public funds.[ citation needed ] He was buried with full honors in the Cemetery of Santa Paula. Múzquiz was officially benemérito de la patria en grado heroico, an honor bestowed by Congress.
Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States.
Pedro Celestino Negrete was a Spanish politician and military man who served as a member of the interim government of México after the abolition of the First Mexican Empire. He fought alongside of Agustín de Iturbide in the royalist army during the Mexican War of Independence. He was a close collaborator of Iturbide during the empire and then pressured him to abdicate to the Mexican crown.
José María Bocanegra was a Mexican lawyer and politician who was briefly interim president of Mexico in 1829.
Félix María Zuloaga Trillo was a Mexican general and a Conservative leader in the War of Reform. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, Zuloaga served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party.
Juan Nepomuceno Álvarez Hurtado de Luna, generally known as Juan Álvarez, was a general, long-time caudillo in southern Mexico, and interim president of Mexico for two months in 1855, following the liberals ouster of Antonio López de Santa Anna. Álvarez had risen to power in the Tierra Caliente, in southern Mexico with the support of indigenous peasants whose lands he protected. He fought along with heroes of the insurgency, José María Morelos and Vicente Guerrero in the War of Independence, and went on to fight in all the major wars of his day, from the "Pastry War", to the Mexican–American War, and the War of the Reform to the war against the French Intervention. A liberal reformer, a republican and a federalist, he was the leader of a revolution in support of the Plan de Ayutla in 1854, which led to the deposition of Santa Anna from power and the beginning of the political era in Mexico's history known as the Liberal Reform. According to historian Peter Guardino: "Álvarez was most important as a champion of the incorporation of Mexico's peasant masses into the polity of [Mexico] ... advocating universal male suffrage and municipal autonomy."
Juan Bautista Ceballos was interim president of Mexico from 6 January to 8 February 1853. He was a moderate Liberal.
José Joaquín Antonio de Herrera, a moderate Mexican politician, served as president of Mexico three times, and as a general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican–American War of 1846-1848.
José Manuel de la Peña y Peña was a Mexican politician and lawyer, interim president of Mexico from 26 September 1847 to 13 November 1847 and president from 8 January 1848 to 3 June 1848.
José Mariano de Salas was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico. He was also a member of the executive triumvirate of the Second Mexican Empire that invited Maximilian of Habsburg to take the throne.
Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was a Conservative Mexican general and president. He took power via a coup d'état in 1846. He was the president at the start of the Mexican–American War.
José Valentín Raimundo Canalizo Bocadillo, known as General Valentín Canalizo, son of Vicente Canalizo and María Josefa Bocadillo and baptized on 16 February 1795 at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Monterrey, was a Mexican President, state governor, city mayor, army general, defense minister and conservative politician. He is as yet the only Mexican President from the city of Monterrey. He was a supporter of a centralist national government, and a confidante of President of Mexico General Antonio López de Santa Anna. Canalizo was President of Mexico two times, for a total of about one year in 1843 and 1844, during the complex Mexican historical times after the one decade-long Mexican War of Independence and before the Mexican–American War. Valentín Canalizo had previously been the Mayor of Mexico City, after being Governor of Puebla state, and years before, Mayor of the city of Cuernavaca.
Miguel Francisco Barragán Andrade was a Mexican general and centralist politician. He served as Minister of War in the government of Antonio López de Santa Anna in 1833 and 1834, then as president of Mexico from 28 January 1835 to 27 February 1836. He remains the youngest president of Mexico to have died of natural causes.
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez was a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.
Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera was president of Mexico three times, from 1830 to 1832, from 1837 to 1839 and from 1839 to 1841. A Conservative, he first came to power by leading a coup against President Vicente Guerrero. Bustamante was deposed twice and exiled to Europe both times.
Múzquiz is a station on Line B of the Mexico City Metro system. The station was opened on 30 November 2000. It is named after Melchor Múzquiz who served as President of Mexico during the second half of 1832.
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then fought for Mexican independence. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, and he was an adept soldier and cunning politician who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny" who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. He was the earliest of the caudillos of modern Mexico, and he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history". Lucas Alamán wrote that "the history of Mexico since 1822 might accurately be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions. His name plays a major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."
The Provisional Government of Mexico, was an organization denominated Supreme Executive Power which served as Executive to govern México between 1823 and 1824, after the fall of the Mexican Empire of Agustín I. The organization was responsible for convening the creation of a Federal Republic, the United Mexican States and was in effect from April 1, 1823 to October 10, 1824.
The 1832 Plan of Veracruz was a statement made on January 2 of that year by Mexican military commander Ciriaco Vazquez. His goal was to remove ministers from the cabinet of Anastasio Bustamante, acting president of the United Mexican States, and remove Bustamante from office. Antonio López de Santa Anna, the plan's instigator and spokesman for the protesters, led an armed uprising five days later. Although the plan and uprising were initially opposed by most of the garrisons and state legislatures, the political and military forces gradually joined the fight against Bustamante's conservative regime.
The Casa Mata Plan Revolution was a contextualized armed conflict between the struggles between Republicans and imperialist during the first half of the 19th century in the First Mexican Empire.
| President of Mexico |
14 August - 24 December 1832
Manuel Gómez Pedraza