Melchor Múzquiz

Last updated
Melchor Múzquiz
Melchor Muzquiz (Joaquin Ramirez).jpg
5th President of Mexico
In office
14 August 1832 24 December 1832
Preceded by Anastasio Bustamante
Succeeded by Manuel Gómez Pedraza
1st Governor of the State of Mexico
In office
12 March 1831 12 March 1834
Preceded by Lorenzo de Zavala
Succeeded by Lorenzo de Zavala
In office
27 September 1824 8 March 1827
Preceded by Manuel Gómez Pedraza
Succeeded by Lorenzo de Zavala
In office
2 March 1824 4 March 1824
Preceded byoffice established
Succeeded by Manuel Gómez Pedraza
Personal details
Born5 January 1790
Santa Rosa (nowadays Melchor Múzquiz), Coahuila
Died14 December 1844 (aged 54)
Mexico City
NationalityBandera del Primer Imperio Mexicano.svg Mexican
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg New Spanish (prior to 1821)
Spouse(s)Joaquina Bezares

Melchor de Eca y Múzquiz (5 January 1790 14 December 1844) was a Mexican soldier and politician. From August to December 1832, he was president of Mexico.



War of Independence and First Empire

Múzquiz was born on 5 January 1790 or sometime in March, depending on the source, in Santa Rosa, Nueva Extremadura, New Spain. He studied at the Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City. While still a student, he enlisted in the forces of General Ignacio López Rayón in 1810 in Coahuila to fight for Mexican independence from Spain. He took part in many engagements. In 1812, he was a lieutenant. In 1813, he led the infantry in the defense of Zacapu. In November 1816, now a colonel, he was taken prisoner at Fort Monteblanco, near Córdoba, Veracruz. He was freed under a general amnesty, even though he refused to give his word that he would not fight again against the viceregal government of New Spain.

In 1821, after Mexican independence, he supported the Plan de Iguala, which resulted in Agustín de Iturbide ascending the throne as Mexico's first emperor. However, as a congressional deputy he did not support this result, since he was a republican. He and other deputies proposed that Iturbide be declared a traitor. During the rebellion against the emperor, he joined the Plan de Casa Mata, but he did not have the confidence of the leaders, who considered him a radical.

Republic of Mexico

In 1823 to 1824, he was supreme political chief of the Province of Mexico. On 2 March 1824, the new Mexican Congress changed his title to governor of the State of Mexico. He returned for a second period as governor of the state from 26 April to 1 October 1830.

He was also general of a division under President Guadalupe Victoria and military commandant of Puebla. In Puebla, together with General Filisola, he rose against President Vicente Guerrero on 10 December 1828 (Plan de Jalapa). Múzquiz was initially defeated by José Joaquín de Herrera, but the rebellion was successful. He was one of the individuals who offered the presidency to Anastasio Bustamante.

Acting president

In 1832, when Antonio López de Santa Anna revolted, President Bustamante left the capital to fight the rebels, leaving Múzquiz as acting president (14 August 1832 to 26 December 1832). Neither Bustamante nor Santa Anna could prevail. Manuel Gómez Pedraza assumed the presidency on 24 December as the result of an agreement between the warring factions ( Convenios de Zavaleta ) and a congressional resolution, after 11 months of fighting.

Múzquiz was the first president to collect taxes on doors and windows.[ citation needed ]

Later career and death

In 1836, he was president of the Supremo Poder Conservador, an institution of five members established under the Seven Laws with the power to dissolve Congress or the Supreme Court. [1]

He was a candidate for president in 1843, but Santa Anna won the office. He died in December 1844, in poverty, remembered for his scrupulous honesty in the management of public funds.[ citation needed ] He was buried with full honors in the Cemetery of Santa Paula. Múzquiz was officially benemérito de la patria en grado heroico, an honor bestowed by Congress.

See also

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  1. "El Supremo Poder Conservador" (PDF). Retrieved July 8, 2011.


Political offices
Preceded by
Anastasio Bustamante
President of Mexico
14 August - 24 December 1832
Succeeded by
Manuel Gómez Pedraza