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Syllabic and melismatic text setting: "Jesus Christ Is Ris'n Today" (Methodist Hymn Book, 1933, No. 204).
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Syllabic and melismatic text setting: "Jesus Christ Is Ris'n Today" (Methodist Hymn Book, 1933, No. 204). Loudspeaker.svg Play  

Melisma (Greek: μέλισμα , melisma, song, air, melody; from μέλος , melos, song, melody, plural: melismata) is the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession. Music sung in this style is referred to as melismatic, as opposed to syllabic, in which each syllable of text is matched to a single note. An informal term for melisma is a vocal run. [2]




Music of ancient cultures used melismatic techniques to induce a hypnotic trance in the listener,[ citation needed ] useful for early mystical initiation rites (such as Eleusinian Mysteries [ citation needed ]) and religious worship. This quality is still found in Arabic music where the scale consists of "quarter tones". Orthodox Christian chanting also bears a slight resemblance to this. Middle Eastern melismatic music was developed further in the Torah chanting, as well as by the Masoretes in the seventh or eighth centuries. It then appeared in some genres of Gregorian chant, where it was used in certain sections of the Mass, with the earliest written appearance around AD 900. The gradual and the alleluia, in particular, were characteristically melismatic, for example, while the tract is not, and repetitive melodic patterns were deliberately avoided in the style. The Byzantine Rite also used melismatic elements in its music, which developed roughly concurrently with the Gregorian chant.

In Western music, the term "melisma" typically refers to Gregorian chant. (The first definition of melisma by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary is "a group of notes or tones sung on one syllable in plainsong".) [3] However, the term melisma may be used to describe music of any genre, including baroque singing, opera, and later gospel. Within the tradition of Religious Jewish music, melisma is still commonly used in the chanting of Torah, readings from the Prophets, and in the body of a service. [4]

Today, melisma is commonly used in Middle Eastern, African, Balkan, and African American music, Fado (Portuguese), Flamenco (Spanish), and some Asian and Celtic folk music. Melisma is also commonly featured in Western popular music. Early in their careers, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin, and Stevie Wonder used it sparingly. [5] Melisma is used by countless pop artists such as Michael Jackson, although this form usually involves improvising melismata (and melismatic vocalise) over a simpler melody. During the fadeout of the Beatles' 1966 track "I Want to Tell You", bassist Paul McCartney can be heard singing a high-pitched melisma in the style of classical Indian music.

The use of melisma is a common feature of artists such as Deniece Williams, Stevie Wonder, Luther Vandross, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey, Beyoncé, Christina Aguilera, among others. [6] [7] The use of melismatic vocals in pop music slowly grew in the 1980s. Deniece Williams topped the Billboard Hot 100 chart in May 1984, with "Let's Hear It for the Boy" with her melismatic vocals. Although other artists used melisma before, Houston's rendition of Dolly Parton's ballad "I Will Always Love You" pushed the technique into the mainstream in the 1990s. [6] The trend in R&B singers is considered to have been popularized by Mariah Carey's song "Vision of Love", which was released and topped the charts in 1990, and went on to be certified gold. [8] [9] [10]

Recent backlash (late 2000s – early 2010s)

As late as 2007, melismatic singers such as Leona Lewis were still scoring big hits, but around 2008–2009, this trend reverted to how it was prior to Carey and Houston's success – singers with less showy styles such as Kesha and Cheryl Cole began to outsell new releases by Carey and Christina Aguilera, ending nearly two decades of the style's dominance of pop-music vocals. [5]


The traditional French carol tune "Gloria", to which the hymn "Angels We Have Heard on High" is usually sung (and "Angels from the Realms of Glory" in Great Britain), contains one of the most melismatic sequences in popular Christian hymn music. Twice in its refrain, the "o" of the word "Gloria" is held through 16 different notes. "Ding Dong Merrily on High", arranged by George Ratcliffe Woodward, contains an even longer melisma of 31 notes, also on the "o" of "Gloria".

George Frideric Handel's Messiah contains numerous examples of melisma, as in the following excerpt from the chorus "For Unto Us a Child Is Born" (Part I, No. 12). The soprano and alto lines engage in a 57-note melisma on the word "born".

Handel Messiah - For Unto Us a Child is Born excerpt.png

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Melisma is also used, though rarely and briefly, in the music of Jethro Tull: examples include the eponymous track of the album Songs From the Wood and the song "Skating Away (On the Thin Ice of the New Day)". One of the most striking instances in recent pop music occurs in Bruce Springsteen's "The Ties that Bind", in which the "I" in "bind" is iterated 13 times. A striking example is found in Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen, in which melisma on the syllables '-co' (of 'magnifico') and 'go' (of 'let me go') forms part of the dramatic structure of the song.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart also uses melisma in his Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) in the Kyrie sequence, with the "e" in "eleison" being elaborately sung in various notes.

See also

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Mariah Carey is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, actress, entrepreneur, and philanthropist. Renowned for her five-octave vocal range, melismatic singing style, and signature use of the whistle register, Carey is referred to as the "Songbird Supreme" by Guinness World Records. She rose to fame in 1990 after signing to Columbia Records and releasing her eponymous debut album, which topped the U.S. Billboard 200 for eleven consecutive weeks. Carey became the only artist ever to have their first five singles reach number one on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 chart, from "Vision of Love" to "Emotions".

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Monophony Musical texture

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Organum is, in general, a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance the harmony, developed in the Middle Ages. Depending on the mode and form of the chant, a supporting bass line may be sung on the same text, the melody may be followed in parallel motion, or a combination of both of these techniques may be employed. As no real independent second voice exists, this is a form of heterophony. In its earliest stages, organum involved two musical voices: a Gregorian chant melody, and the same melody transposed by a consonant interval, usually a perfect fifth or fourth. In these cases the composition often began and ended on a unison, the added voice keeping to the initial tone until the first part has reached a fifth or fourth, from where both voices proceeded in parallel harmony, with the reverse process at the end. Organum was originally improvised; while one singer performed a notated melody, another singer—singing "by ear"—provided the unnotated second melody. Over time, composers began to write added parts that were not just simple transpositions, thus creating true polyphony.

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  4. Idelsohn, Abraham Zevi (1929). Jewish Music: Its Historical Development. ISBN   978-0-486-27147-7.[ page needed ]
  5. 1 2 Browne, David (December 26, 2010). "Trilling Songbirds Clip Their Wings". The New York Times . Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  6. 1 2 Everitt, Lauren (February 15, 2012). "Whitney Houston and the art of melisma". BBC News. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  7. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "'Whoa, Nelly!' review". AllMusic. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  8. "'Vision of Love' sets off melisma trend". The Village Voice . February 4, 2003. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  9. Frere-Jones, Sasha (April 3, 2006). "On Top: Mariah Carey's record-breaking career". The New Yorker . Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  10. "100 Greatest Singers of All Time: #79. Mariah Carey". Rolling Stone . November 27, 2008. Retrieved October 7, 2019.