Menton

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Menton
Menton february 13.jpg
The harbour of Menton, with the basilica of Saint-Michel-Archange beyond, viewed from the Quai Napoléon III
Blason ville fr Menton (Alpes-Maritimes).svg
Location of Menton
Menton
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
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Menton
Provence-Alpes-Cotes d'Azur region location map.svg
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Menton
Coordinates: 43°46′30″N7°30′00″E / 43.775000°N 07.50°E / 43.775000; 07.50 Coordinates: 43°46′30″N7°30′00″E / 43.775000°N 07.50°E / 43.775000; 07.50
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Alpes-Maritimes
Arrondissement Nice
Canton Menton
Intercommunality CA Riviera Française
Government
  Mayor (20222026) Yves Juhel [1] (LR)
Area
1
14.05 km2 (5.42 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019) [2]
30,525
  Density2,200/km2 (5,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
06083 /06500
Elevation0–774 m (0–2,539 ft)
(avg. 16 m or 52 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Menton (French:  [mɑ̃tɔ̃] ; Occitan:  [menˈta] , written Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Italian : Mentone [menˈtoːne] ) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region on the French Riviera, close to the Italian border.

Contents

Menton has always been a frontier town. Since the end of the 14th century, it was on the border between County of Nice, held by the Duke of Savoy, and Republic of Genoa. It was an exclave of the Principality of Monaco until the disputed French plebiscite of 1860, when it was added to France. It had been always a fashionable tourist centre with grand mansions and gardens. Its temperate Mediterranean climate is especially favourable to the citrus industry, with which it is strongly identified.

Etymology

Although the name's spelling and pronunciation in French are identical to those for the word that means "chin", there does not seem to be any link with this French word. According to the French geographer Ernest Nègre, the name Menton comes from the Roman name Mento. [3] However, it is possible that the name of the city comes from Mons Ottonis (reconstituted) from the name of Otton II, the count of Ventimiglia from 1162-1200. [4] In Mentonasc, the city's name is Mentan (pronounced  [mẽˈtã] ), and in Italian Mentone ( [menˈtoːne] ).

An inhabitant of Menton, un mentonnais or un mentonasque in French, would be O mentonasc in the local dialect.

History

The Menton area has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era, and is the site of the original "Grimaldi Man" find of early modern humans, as well as remains of Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons. [5] In Roman times, the Via Julia Augusta, a road connecting Placentia (now Piacenza) with Arelates (now Arles) passed through Menton, running along the Rue Longue in the old town. [6] The first major settlement occurred during the 11th century CE, when the count of Ventimiglia constructed the Château de Puypin (Podium Pinum) on the Pépin hill, north and west of the modern town centre. During the 13th century, the seigneury of Puypin fell to the Vento family of Genoa who built a new castle along the Roman road, now the site of the Vieux-Château cemetery, providing the core around which the current town grew. Menton was thus incorporated into the Republic of Genoa. The first mention of Menton dates from 21 July 1262, in the peace treaty between Charles of Anjou and Genoa. Its position on the border between the Angevin-ruled Provence and the Republic of Genoa, which at the time claimed Monaco as its western limit, made it a coveted location.

Menton, as part of Monaco, in 1664. Le comte de Nice et Oneille.jpg
Menton, as part of Monaco, in 1664.

Acquired in 1346 by Charles Grimaldi, Lord of Monaco, Menton was ruled by the princes of Monaco until the French Revolution.[ citation needed ] Annexed during the Revolution, Menton remained part of France through the First Empire. It belonged to the district of Sanremo in the department of Alpes-Maritimes, which at the time included Monaco and Sanremo.

In 1814, Menton was included in a reconstituted principality of Monaco which, after Napoleon's Hundred Days in 1815, became a protectorate of the king of Sardinia. The princes of Monaco were obliged to do homage to the king for Menton, although not for Monaco itself.[ citation needed ]

Map of the territory of the free cities of Menton and Roquebrune in 1848. Frontiere Monaco.gif
Map of the territory of the free cities of Menton and Roquebrune in 1848.

In 1848, Menton, along with its neighbour Roquebrune, seceded from Monaco, due at least in part to a tax imposed on lemon exports. [8] They proclaimed themselves a "free city" during the 1848 revolutions related to the Italian Risorgimento, then two years later placed themselves under the protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia where they were administered by the House of Savoy for ten years. [9]

The Treaty of Turin concluded on 24 March 1860 between the Kingdom of Mauricio and Napoleon III's France called for the annexation of the County of Nice to France, subject to a plebiscite, as a reward for French assistance in Italy's war against Austria. The plebiscite, with universal adult male suffrage, was held on 15 and 16 April 1860, and resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of annexation (833 for versus 54 against in Menton and Roquebrune), [10] despite complaints of rigged elections from, among others, Nice-born Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi.[ citation needed ] The County of Nice was thus annexed to France that June, and Napoleon III paid 4 million francs in compensation to the prince of Monaco, who renounced his rights in perpetuity on 2 February 1861. [10]

The publication of Winter and Spring on the Shores of the Mediterranean (1861) by the English doctor James Henry Bennett had a profound effect on Menton, making it a destination for sufferers of tuberculosis. [11] By the end of the 19th century, tourism was an important factor in Menton's growth. The town was popular with British and Russian aristocrats who built many of the hotels, villas, and palaces which still grace Menton today. Many of these hotels and palaces were pressed into service as hospitals during World War I to allow injured troops to recuperate in a pleasant climate.

Sailing ships in Menton harbour, photograph by Jean Gilletta, early 1900s Menton et voilier (1900s).jpg
Sailing ships in Menton harbour, photograph by Jean Gilletta, early 1900s

Menton was the only sizable settlement captured by Italy during its invasion of France in June 1940. Following the armistice of 22 June 1940, two-thirds of the territory of the commune was annexed by Italy as terra irredenta . The annexation lasted until 8 September 1943.

Although officially returned to Vichy France, Menton was in fact occupied by Nazi Germany until its liberation by American and Canadian troops of the First Special Service Force on 8 September 1944. [12]

Geography

The port and the old part of town Menton BW 0.JPG
The port and the old part of town
View of the port of Menton Menton bay.jpg
View of the port of Menton

Menton, nicknamed the Pearl of France, is located on the Mediterranean Sea at the Franco-Italian border, just across from the Ligurian town of Ventimiglia. [13] Menton station has rail connections to Paris, Marseille, Cannes, Antibes, Nice and Ventimiglia. The smaller Menton-Garavan station is situated between Menton and Ventimiglia.

The fishing industry was devastated in the 1980s and 1990s due to a combination of overfishing and hypoxia in the bay. At the time, the devastation was erroneously attributed to the dubiously nicknamed "killer algae" Caulerpa taxifolia (a non-native Asian tropical green alga first discovered in the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco in 1984) spread throughout the coastal sea floor. Later, sound scientific findings revealed that the seaweed was adept at absorbing pollutants and excess nutrients, actually aiding the recovery of native Posidonia sea grass [14] and enhancing local fish populations and overall biodiversity. [15]

Climate

Menton has a very mild subtropical microclimate with an average of 316 clear or partially cloudy days annually. Under the Köppen system, Menton features a hot-summer mediterranean climate (Csa). However, the milder winters (on average) and the warmer nights in summer (on average), compared to the rest of the French Mediterranean coastal area, provide Menton with a particular micro-climate, with significant warm-summer mediterranean climate (Csb) influences and characteristics, like coastal Southern California (usually experienced between Nice through Monaco and Menton, toward the Italian border town of Ventimiglia and up to San Remo) that is favourable to hardy clementines, mandarin oranges, satsuma orange, tangerines, oranges and lemons (SRA 625 is protected Citron de Menton variety) groves, hence one of the town's symbols, the lemon. Winter frosts are extremely rare but may occasionally occur every few years at the ground level and snow falls on average once every 10 years. Likewise, summer temperatures are relatively moderate with day temperatures of 28-32, but rarely rising above 33 °C. [16]

Climate data for Menton (Alpes-Maritimes department, France), 2009-2016 temperature data only [lower-alpha 1]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)64.9
(18.3)
68.9
(20.5)
74.1
(23.4)
81.0
(27.2)
88.5
(31.4)
92.7
(33.7)
95.7
(35.4)
97.7
(36.5)
92.8
(33.8)
83.4
(28.6)
76.7
(24.8)
68.0
(20.0)
97.7
(36.5)
Mean maximum °F (°C)62.1
(16.7)
64.2
(17.9)
69.3
(20.7)
76.3
(24.6)
81.3
(27.4)
89.2
(31.8)
91.2
(32.9)
93.2
(34.0)
88.0
(31.1)
79.2
(26.2)
72.0
(22.2)
65.5
(18.6)
94.6
(34.8)
Average high °F (°C)58.1
(14.5)
60.5
(15.8)
62.6
(17.0)
68.1
(20.1)
71.2
(21.8)
78.8
(26.0)
86.2
(30.1)
86.4
(30.2)
80.7
(27.1)
71.2
(21.8)
64.5
(18.1)
59.3
(15.2)
68.9
(20.5)
Average low °F (°C)45.3
(7.4)
44.1
(6.7)
48.7
(9.3)
53.2
(11.8)
58.1
(14.5)
64.8
(18.2)
70.0
(21.1)
70.7
(21.5)
66.4
(19.1)
59.5
(15.3)
53.1
(11.7)
48.0
(8.9)
56.8
(13.8)
Mean minimum °F (°C)37.9
(3.3)
36.5
(2.5)
40.3
(4.6)
46.6
(8.1)
50.4
(10.2)
57.4
(14.1)
64.0
(17.8)
63.5
(17.5)
59.0
(15.0)
48.7
(9.3)
44.4
(6.9)
40.5
(4.7)
35.1
(1.7)
Record low °F (°C)32.2
(0.1)
30.0
(−1.1)
36.9
(2.7)
43.0
(6.1)
46.6
(8.1)
52.5
(11.4)
58.3
(14.6)
56.7
(13.7)
54.1
(12.3)
39.2
(4.0)
39.9
(4.4)
30.9
(−0.6)
30.0
(−1.1)
Source: Météo Climat BZH [17]
  1. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 2009 to 2016. Extremes from 2009 to 2016 as well.

Townscape

Menton is known for its gardens, including the Jardin Serre de la Madone, the Jardin botanique exotique de Menton ('Le Val Rahmeh'), the Fontana Rosa, the Maria Serena garden, and the modernist gardens of Les Colombières. [18] Le Val Rahmeh was established in 1905 by Englishman Sir Percy Radcliffe, the first owner of the gardens, and named for his wife. Villa Fontana Rosa was built in 1922 by Blasco Ibáñez, a Spanish novelist, and the gardens of the villa are now open to the public.

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 3,060    
1800 3,289+1.04%
1806 3,336+0.24%
1858 4,837+0.72%
1861 4,904+0.46%
1866 5,699+3.05%
1872 6,644+2.59%
1876 7,819+4.16%
1881 11,000+7.07%
1886 9,387−3.12%
1891 9,050−0.73%
1896 9,044−0.01%
1901 9,944+1.92%
1906 13,029+5.55%
1911 18,001+6.68%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1921 18,645+0.35%
1926 22,604+3.93%
1931 23,417+0.71%
1936 21,703−1.51%
1946 13,864−4.38%
1954 17,109+2.66%
1962 19,904+1.91%
1968 25,040+3.90%
1975 25,143+0.06%
1982 25,086−0.03%
1990 29,141+1.89%
1999 28,812−0.13%
2007 28,683−0.06%
2012 29,073+0.27%
2017 28,958−0.08%
Source: EHESS [23] and INSEE (1968-2017) [24]

Education

Primary and secondary schools

Public nurseries/Preschools include: [25]

Public primary schools include: [26]

There are two public junior high schools, Guillaume Vento and André Maurois. [27] The two public sixth-form colleges/senior high schools are Lycée Pierre et Marie Curie and Lycée Professionnel Hôtelier Paul Valéry. [28]

The private Institution Notre Dame du Sacré Cœur has the Villa Blanche preschool, primary, and junior high school in the Centre-ville area. [25] [26] [27]

Colleges and universities

Mentonasc language

The Mentonasc dialect is currently spoken by about 10% of the population in Menton, Roquebrune, and the surrounding villages.[ citation needed ] It is taught within the French educational system, as a variety of Niçard (i.e. Provençal and Occitan). However, in nineteenth-century linguistic descriptions, [30] as well as in contemporary linguistic scholarship, [31] [32] [33] Mentonasc is described as an intermediate between Niçard and the Intemelio dialect of Ligurian. Some scholars insist that Mentonasc is, at its base, a Ligurian dialect, with French influences coming only later,. [34]

Annual town events

The Fête du Citron (Lemon Festival) takes place every February. The event follows a given theme each decade; past themes include Viva España, Disney, Neverland, and India. The carnival lasts a few days, with different bands passing through Menton's streets on foot or on truck trailers. The Casino Gardens in the centre of town are decorated in the theme of the festival, using lemons and oranges to cover the exhibits, and huge temporary statues are built and covered with citrus fruit.

The Casino Gardens are also the location for Menton's Christmas Festival.

The Menton Classical Musical Festival is also held every year in the centre of the old town.

Sport and recreation

Menton has a football team, Rapid de Menton, who play at the stadium Stade Lucien Rhein. Menton also has a rugby team, Le rugby Club Webb Ellis de Menton. [35]

There is a municipal swimming pool, Piscine Alex Jany. [36]

The town is famous in the cycling world as being the start of the climb of the Col de la Madone de Gorbio (generally shortened to Col de la Madone), [37] which rises to 925 metres and was (in)famously used by Lance Armstrong to train for the Tour de France; many professionals based in neighbouring Monaco still use the climb for training and testing.

Menton was also the location of a international tennis tournament the Riviera Championships that ran from 1902 to 1976. It was hosted by the Menton Lawn Tennis Club. The event was part of the French Riviera circuit tour.

Notable residents

Emile Appay - Menton Emile Appay - Menton.JPG
Émile Appay – Menton

Notables who were born, lived, or died in Menton include:

Living people

Historical figures

International relations

Menton Menton 03092010.jpg
Menton

Menton is twinned with: [42] [43]

See also

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  10. 1 2 cahoon, ben. "Monaco". www.worldstatesmen.org.
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  15. Francour, P., M. Harmelin-Vivien, J. G. Harmelin, and J. duClerc. 1995. Impact of Caulerpa taxifolia colonization on the littoral ichthyofauna of northwestern Mediterranean. Hydrobiologia 300-301:345-353
  16. "Climat et Météo à Menton - Office de Tourisme de Menton - French Riviera- site officiel - Menton - France". Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
  17. "Station Name: MENTON (FRANCE)". March 2017. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
  18. "The "Colombières" garden". Menton – Gardens. Menton.com. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  19. "Belle Epoque in Menton". Riviera Kitchen. 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
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  21. "Mirazur – Menton - a MICHELIN Guide Restaurant". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  22. "The Worlds 50 Best Restaurants - The 1-50 Winners List". UI - 50B - Restaurants - GLOBAL. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  23. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Menton, EHESS. (in French)
  24. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  25. 1 2 "Les écoles maternelles." Menton. Retrieved on 25 September 2018.
  26. 1 2 "Les écoles primaires." Menton. Retrieved on 25 September 2018.
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