Metel Anti-Ship Complex

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RPK-3 Metel
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-14 'Silex')
Postoiannaia gruppirovka VMF Rossii v Sredizemnom more obespechivaet protivovozdushnuiu oboronu nad territorii Sirii (15).jpg
launcher with SS-N-14 missiles on an Udaloy-classdestroyer.
TypeAnti-submarine/ship missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1969current
Used byRussia
Production history
Designed1960s
Specifications
Mass3,930 kg (8,660 lb)
Length7.2 m (24 ft) (85R missile)
WarheadVarious ASW torpedoes or nuclear depth charge. Later multi purpose torpedoes and 185 kg shaped charge warhead against ships.

Propellantsolid fuel rocket
Operational
range
10 90 km for 85RU/URPK-5 Rastrub [1] (versus ship)
5 50 km (anti-sub )
Maximum depth20500 metres
Maximum speed Mach 0.95, 290 m/s (650 mph)
Guidance
system
Radio command via helicopter or other external guidance plus an IR seeker.
Launch
platform
Kresta II, Kara, Burevestnik 1 & 2, Udaloy I, Kirov

Metel Anti-Ship Complex (Russian : противолодочный комплекс «Метель» 'Snowstorm'; NATO reporting name: SS-N-14 Silex) is a Russian family of anti-submarine missiles. There are different anti-submarine variants ('Metel') for cruisers and frigates, and a later version with a shaped charge ('Rastrub') that can be used against shipping as well as submarines.

Contents

The missile carries an underslung anti-submarine torpedo which it drops immediately above the suspected position of a submarine. The torpedo then proceeds to search and then home in on the submarine. In the case of the 85RU/URPK-5, the UGMT-1 torpedo is a multi-purpose torpedo and can be used against submarines as well as surface ships. The missile has been in operational service since 1968, but is no longer in production; it was superseded by the RPK-2 Viyuga (SS-N-15 'Starfish').

Development

In the early 1960s the Soviet Union introduced the RBU-6000 and RBU-1000 anti-submarine rocket launchers, which worked on a similar principle to the Royal Navy's Hedgehog system of the Second World War, propelling small depth charges up to 5,800 metres (6,300 yd) from a ship. However this meant that a ship would still be in range of the submarine's torpedoes and missiles, and depth charges were less accurate than homing torpedoes. In 1963 the US Navy introduced ASROC, a missile that flew to the estimated position of the target submarine, and then dropped a torpedo into the water to destroy it. The SS-N-14 was the Soviet response.

In 1993, an upgraded version, designated YP-85, with a range of 250 km (130 nmi), was proposed for export. [2]

Design

The missile is based on the P-120 Malakhit (NATO: SS-N-9 'Siren') anti-shipping missile. The missile itself is radio command guided and is powered by a solid fuel rocket motor. The later 'Rastrub' models of the weapon were "universal" carrying a UGMT-1 multi-purpose torpedo and in addition had 185 kg (408 lb) shaped charge warhead for use against ships guided by radio command and infrared seeker. [3] In anti-submarine mode the missile flew at approximately 400 m (1,300 ft) altitude, and when it was over the estimated position of the target submarine the missile was commanded to release the torpedo or depth charge. In anti-shipping mode the missile flies much lower, at 15 m (49 ft). [1]

Operational history

The URPK-3 entered service in 1969 on the Kresta II and Kara classes of cruisers. [2] The URPK-4 was introduced in 1973, and the anti-ship version URPK-5 Rastrub in 1976. [2] The URPK-4 has been used on the Burevestnik-class frigates and the first batch of the Udaloy-class destroyers; the Udaloy II carries the SS-N-15 'Starfish'. The system was installed on the battlecruiser Admiral Ushakov (ex-Kirov) but not on her sister ships. [2]

Of these the Krestas and all but two Karas have been retired, along with most of the Burevestniks and half the Udaloys; the Kirov appears to have been upgraded to the SS-N-16 'Stallion' at some point. 100 missiles are estimated to remain in service as of 2006.

Variants

Operators

Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 http://kollektsiya.ru/raketi/320-urk-5-rastrub-b-universalnyj-raketnyj-kompleks.html
  2. 1 2 3 4 "URPK-3/-4/-5 (SS-N-14 'Silex'/83R and 84R Metel, 85RU Rastrub)", Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems, 2008-09-10, retrieved 2009-01-28
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-13. Retrieved 2014-12-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

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