Metz

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Metz
Metz centre ville.jpg
Metz flag.svg
Flag
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Coat of arms
Location of Metz
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Metz
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Metz
Coordinates: 49°07′13″N6°10′40″E / 49.12028°N 6.17778°E / 49.12028; 6.17778 Coordinates: 49°07′13″N6°10′40″E / 49.12028°N 6.17778°E / 49.12028; 6.17778
Country France
Region Grand Est
Department Moselle
Arrondissement Metz
Canton 3 cantons
Intercommunality Metz Métropole
Government
  Mayor (2014-2020) Dominique Gros (PS)
Area
1
41.94 km2 (16.19 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
117,890
  Density2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
57463 /57000
Elevation162–256 m (531–840 ft)
Website Metz Ville
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
BlasonLorraine.svg
Part of the series on
Lorraine
Flag of Lorraine.svg
Flag of Lorraine since the 13th century

Metz (French pronunciation:  [mɛs] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), Lorraine Franconian pronunciation: [mɛts]) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle department and the seat of the parliament of the Grand Est region. [2] [3] Located near the tripoint along the junction of France, Germany, and Luxembourg, [4] the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion. [5]

Lorraine Franconian dialect

Lorraine Franconian is an ambiguous designation for dialects of West Central German, a group of High German dialects spoken in the Moselle department of the former north-eastern French region of Lorraine.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Seille (Moselle) river in France, tributary of the Moselle

The Seille is a river in north-eastern France. It is a right tributary of the Moselle. It is also known as the Seille lorraine or the Grande Seille, to distinguish it from another Seille, a small tributary of the Saône.

Contents

Metz has a rich 3,000-year-history, [6] having variously been a Celtic oppidum, an important Gallo-Roman city, [7] the Merovingian capital of Austrasia, [8] the birthplace of the Carolingian dynasty, [9] a cradle of the Gregorian chant, [10] and one of the oldest republics in Europe. [11] The city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has been strongly influenced by Germanic culture due to its location and history. [12]

Celts Ethnolinguistic group

The Celts are an indigenous Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Europe identified by their use of Celtic languages and cultural similarities. The history of pre-Celtic Europe and the exact relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial. The exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is disputed; in particular, the ways in which the Iron Age inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland should be regarded as Celts have become a subject of controversy. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC.

Oppidum Iron Age type of settlement

An oppidum is a large fortified Iron Age settlement. Oppida are associated with the Celtic late La Tène culture, emerging during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, spread across Europe, stretching from Britain and Iberia in the west to the edge of the Hungarian plain in the east. They continued to be used until the Romans conquered Southern and Western Europe. In regions north of the rivers Danube and Rhine, such as most of Germania, where the populations remained independent from Rome, oppida continued to be used into the 1st century AD.

Austrasia

Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries. It was centred on the Meuse, Middle Rhine and the Moselle rivers, and was the original territory of the Franks, including both the so-called Salians and Rhineland Franks, which Clovis I conquered after first taking control of the bordering part of Roman Gaul, now northern France, which is sometimes described in this period as Neustria.

Because of its historical, cultural, and architectural background, Metz has been submitted on France's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List. [13] [14] [15] The city features noteworthy buildings such as the Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral with its largest expanse of stained-glass windows in the world, [16] [17] the Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains being the oldest church in France, [18] its Imperial Station Palace displaying the apartment of the German Kaiser, [19] or its Opera House, the oldest one working in France. [20] Metz is home to some world-class venues including the Arsenal Concert Hall and the Centre Pompidou-Metz museum.

World Heritage Site place listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or natural significance

A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.

Gothic architecture style of architecture

Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was widely used, especially for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century.

Metz Cathedral cathedral located in Moselle, in France

Cathedral of Saint Stephen of Metz, also known as Metz Cathedral, is a historic Roman Catholic cathedral in Metz, capital of Lorraine, France. Saint-Étienne de Metz is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz and the seat of the Bishop of Metz, currently Pierre Raffin. The cathedral treasury exhibits the millennium rich collection of the Bishopric of Metz, including paraments and items used for the Eucharist.

A basin of urban ecology, [21] [22] Metz gained its nickname of The Green City (French : La Ville Verte), [23] as it has extensive open grounds and public gardens. [24] The historic city centre is one of the largest commercial pedestrian areas in France. [25] [26]

Urban ecology The study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment.

Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved surfaces, and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of ecology.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

A historic garrison town, Metz is the economic heart of the Lorraine region, specialising in information technology and automotive industries. Metz is home to the University of Lorraine and a centre for applied research and development in the materials sector, notably in metallurgy and metallography, [27] the heritage of the Lorraine region's past in the iron and steel industry. [28]

Garrison military base; collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location

Garrison is the collective term for any body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base. The garrison is usually in a city, town, fort, castle, ship or similar. "Garrison town" is a common expression for any town that has a military base nearby.

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). An information technology system is generally an information system, a communications system or, more specifically speaking, a computer system – including all hardware, software and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users.

Automotive industry Organizations involved with motor vehicles

The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

Etymology

In ancient times, the town was known as "city of Mediomatrici", being inhabited by the tribe of the same name. [29] After its integration into the Roman Empire, the city was called Divodurum Mediomatricum, meaning Holy Village or Holy Fortress of the Mediomatrici, [30] then it was known as Mediomatrix. [29] During the 5th century AD, the name evolved to "Mettis", which gave rise to Metz. [29]

Mediomatrici

The Mediomatrici were an ancient Celtic people of Gaul, who belong to the division of Belgae. Julius Caesar shows their position in a general way when he says that the Rhine flows along the territories of the Sequani, Mediomatrici, Triboci or Tribocci, and Treviri. Ptolemy places the Mediomatrici south of the Treviri.

Roman Empire Period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–476 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from Italy, homeland of the Romans and metropole of the empire, with the city of Rome as capital. The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Senate of Rome sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople. The fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

History

Henry II of France entering Metz in 1552, putting an end to the Republic of Metz. Henri2entranceMetz.jpg
Henry II of France entering Metz in 1552, putting an end to the Republic of Metz.

Metz has a recorded history dating back over 2,000 years. Before the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, it was the oppidum of the Celtic Mediomatrici tribe. [6] Integrated into the Roman Empire, Metz became quickly one of the principal towns of Gaul with a population of 40,000, [7] until the barbarian depredations and its transfer to the Franks about the end of the 5th century. [6] [31] [32] Between the 6th and 8th centuries, the city was the residence of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia. [8] After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, Metz became the capital of the Kingdom of Lotharingia and was ultimately integrated into the Holy Roman Empire, being granted semi-independent status. [6] During the 12th century, Metz became a republic and the Republic of Metz stood until the 15th century. [11]

With the signature of the Treaty of Chambord in 1552, Metz passed to the hands of the Kings of France. [6] [33] As the German Protestant Princes who traded Metz (alongside Toul and Verdun) for the promise of French military assistance, had no authority to cede territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the change of jurisdiction wasn't recognised by the Holy Roman Empire until the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Under French rule, Metz was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics and became a strategic fortified town. [6] [34] With creation of the departments by the Estates-General of 1789, Metz was chosen as capital of the Department of Moselle. [6] Despite that Metz was a French-speaking city, after the Franco-Prussian War and according to the Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871, the city was annexed into the German Empire, being part of the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine and serving as capital of the Bezirk Lothringen. [35]

Metz remained German until the end of World War I, when it reverted to France. [36] However, after the Battle of France during the Second World War, the city was annexed once more by the German Third Reich. [6] In 1944, the attack on the city by the U.S. Third Army freed the city from German rule and Metz reverted one more time to France after World War II. [37] [38]

During the 1950s, Metz was chosen to be the capital of the newly created Lorraine region. [39] With the creation of the European Community and the later European Union, the city has become central to the Greater Region and the SaarLorLux Euroregion. [39]

Geography

Metz is located on the banks of the Moselle and the Seille rivers, 43 km (26.7 mi) from the Schengen tripoint where the borders of France, Germany, and Luxembourg meet. [4] The city was built in a place where many branches of the Moselle river creates several islands, which are encompassed within the urban planning. [40]

The terrain of Metz forms part of the Paris Basin and presents a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction. [41] Metz and its surrounding countryside are included in the forest and crop Lorraine Regional Natural Park, covering a total area of 205,000 ha (506,566.0 acres). [42]

Climate

The climate of Lorraine is a semi-continental climate. [43] The summers are warm and humid, sometimes stormy, and the warmest month of the year is July, when daytime temperatures average approximately 25 °C (77.0 °F). The winters are cold and snowy with temperature dropping to an average low of −0.5 °C (31.1 °F) in January. Lows can be much colder through the night and early morning and the snowy period extends from November to February. [44]

The length of the day varies significantly over the course of the year. [45] The shortest day is 21 December with 7:30 hours of sunlight; the longest day is 20 June with 16:30 hours of sunlight. The median cloud cover is 93% and does not vary substantially over the course of the year. [44]

Climate data for Metz, France (1981–2010 averages)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.1
(61.0)
20.8
(69.4)
24.3
(75.7)
29.6
(85.3)
32.4
(90.3)
37.7
(99.9)
37.3
(99.1)
39.5
(103.1)
34.0
(93.2)
26.8
(80.2)
22.3
(72.1)
18.1
(64.6)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F)4.8
(40.6)
6.5
(43.7)
11.0
(51.8)
15.0
(59.0)
19.5
(67.1)
22.7
(72.9)
25.3
(77.5)
24.8
(76.6)
20.4
(68.7)
15.1
(59.2)
9.0
(48.2)
5.5
(41.9)
15.0
(59.0)
Average low °C (°F)−0.5
(31.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
2.4
(36.3)
4.7
(40.5)
8.9
(48.0)
12.0
(53.6)
14.0
(57.2)
13.6
(56.5)
10.4
(50.7)
7.1
(44.8)
3.2
(37.8)
0.7
(33.3)
6.4
(43.5)
Record low °C (°F)−20.1
(−4.2)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−15.3
(4.5)
−5.1
(22.8)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.9
(35.4)
4.3
(39.7)
3.9
(39.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
−6.2
(20.8)
−11.7
(10.9)
−17.0
(1.4)
−23.2
(−9.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)64.2
(2.53)
57.1
(2.25)
61.8
(2.43)
50.5
(1.99)
58.9
(2.32)
61.7
(2.43)
63.7
(2.51)
61.1
(2.41)
63.8
(2.51)
71.9
(2.83)
63.9
(2.52)
79.2
(3.12)
757.8
(29.83)
Average precipitation days11.59.611.59.310.29.89.29.18.811.011.211.8123.0
Average snowy days7.86.34.61.90.10.00.00.00.00.13.05.729.5
Average relative humidity (%)87827873747473768187878880
Mean monthly sunshine hours 53.677.6125.8178.1201.6218.6225.6213.1158.198.448.541.31,640.4
Source #1: Météo France [46] [47]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990) [48]

Demographics

Paul Verlaine by Edmond Aman-Jean, 1892, oil on canvas, Golden Courtyard museums
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Metz with its magnificent open countries, prolific undulating rivers, wooded hillsides, vineyards of fire; cathedral all in volute, where the wind sings as a flute, and responding to it via the Mutte: this big voice of the good Lord!
-- Paul Verlaine, Ode to Metz, Invectives, 1896 Paul Verlaine-Edmond Aman-Jean mg 9503.jpg
Paul Verlaine by Edmond Aman-Jean, 1892, oil on canvas, Golden Courtyard museums
Metz with its magnificent open countries, prolific undulating rivers, wooded hillsides, vineyards of fire; cathedral all in volute, where the wind sings as a flute, and responding to it via the Mutte: this big voice of the good Lord!
Paul Verlaine, Ode to Metz, Invectives, 1896

Population

The inhabitants of Metz are called Messin(e)s. Statistics on the ethnic and religious make up of the population of Metz are haphazard, as the French Republic prohibits making distinctions between citizens regarding race, beliefs, and political and philosophic opinions in the process of census taking. This would otherwise document the city to be a Germanic locale, as is the rest of the province and the neighboring Alsace [50]

The French national census of 2012 estimated the population of Metz to be 119,551, while the population of Metz urban agglomeration was about 389,851. [51] Through history, Metz's population has been impacted by the vicissitudes of the wars and annexations involving the city, which have prevented continuous population growth. More recently, the city has suffered from the restructuring of the military and the metallurgy industry. [52] The historical population for the current area of Metz municipality is as follows: [53] [54] [55]

Year17931800180618211836184118611871188018901900
Number of inhabitants36,878 Red Arrow Down.svg 32,099 Green Arrow Up.svg 39,131 Green Arrow Up.svg 42,030 Green Arrow Up.svg 42,793 Red Arrow Down.svg 39,767 Green Arrow Up.svg 56,888 Red Arrow Down.svg 51,332 Green Arrow Up.svg 53,131 Green Arrow Up.svg 60,186 Red Arrow Down.svg 58,462
Year19101921193119461962197519821990199920092014
Number of inhabitants Green Arrow Up.svg 68,598 Red Arrow Down.svg 62,311 Green Arrow Up.svg 78,767 Red Arrow Down.svg 70,105 Green Arrow Up.svg 102,771 Green Arrow Up.svg 111,869 Green Arrow Up.svg 114,232 Green Arrow Up.svg 119,594 Green Arrow Up.svg 123,776 Red Arrow Down.svg 121,841 Red Arrow Down.svg 117,619

Notable people

Several well-known figures have been linked to the city of Metz throughout its history. Renowned Messins include poet Paul Verlaine, [56] composer Ambroise Thomas, and mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet; numerous well-known German figures were also born in Metz notably during the annexation periods. Moreover, the city has been the residence of people such as writer François Rabelais, Cardinal Mazarin, political thinker Alexis de Tocqueville, French patriot and American Revolutionary War hero Marquis Gilbert du Motier de La Fayette, and Luxembourg-born German-French statesman Robert Schuman.

Law and government

Local law

The Local Law (French : droit local) applied in Metz is a legal system that operates in parallel with French law. Created in 1919, it preserves the French laws applied in France before 1870 and maintained by the Germans during the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, but repealed in the rest of France after 1871. It also maintains German laws enacted by the German Empire between 1871 and 1918, specific provisions adopted by the local authorities, and French laws that have been enacted after 1919 to be applicable only in Alsace-Lorraine. This specific local legislation encompasses different areas including religion, social work and finance.

The most striking of the legal differences between France and Alsace-Lorraine is the absence in Alsace-Lorraine of strict secularism, even though a constitutional right of freedom of religion is guaranteed by the French government. Alsace-Lorraine is still governed by a pre-1905 law established by the Concordat of 1801, which provides for the public subsidy of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist churches and the Jewish religion.

Administration

The city hall on the Place d'Armes. Place darmes (3658773965).jpg
The city hall on the Place d'Armes.

Like every commune of the present French Republic, Metz is managed by a mayor (French : maire) and a municipal council (French : conseil municipal), democratically elected by two-round proportional voting for six years. [57] The mayor is assisted by 54 municipal councillors, [58] and the municipal council is held on the last Thursday of every month. [59] [60] Since 2008, [61] the mayor of Metz has been socialist Dominique Gros. [62]

The city belongs to the Metz Metropole union of cities, which includes the 40 cities of the Metz urban agglomeration. [63] Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle based in the former Intendant Palace. [39] In addition, Metz is the seat of the parliament of the Grand Est region, hosted in the former Saint-Clement Abbey.

City administrative divisions

The city of Metz is divided into 14 administrative divisions: [64]

NumberDistrictSightsLocation
1Devant-les-PontsDesvalliere barracks Districts of Metz, France.jpg
2Metz-Nord PatrotteHarbour zone
3Les îles Grand East regional parliament, University of Lorraine, Fabert High School, Cogeneration Plant
4Plantières-Queuleu Queuleu Fort, Museum of Resistance and Deportation of Metz
5BellecroixBellecroix Fort
6Metz-VallièresRobert Schuman private hospital
7Borny University of Lorraine, Contemporary Music Venue
8Grigy-Technopôle Metz Science Park, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, University of Lorraine, Georgia Tech Lorraine, Supélec
9Grange aux BoisTrade Fair Center, Regional Hospital of Metz-Thionville
10Sablon Centre Pompidou-Metz, Indoor Sports Arena, Caisse d'Épargne regional headquarters, Metz-Metropole Conference Centre Hall (project)
11MagnySaint-Clement and Leusiotte woods
12Nouvelle Ville Imperial Station-Palace, INSEE and Banque Populaire regional headquarters, Central Post Office, Chamber of Commerce
13Metz CentreCity Hall, Prefecture, Diocese of Metz and Saint-Stephen Cathedral, Arsenal Concert Hall, Opera House
14Ancienne Ville Golden Courtyard Museum, Regional Contemporary Art Fund of Lorraine, Jazz Concert Venue

Cityscape and environmental policy

Street in old city Metz, street in old city.jpg
Street in old city

Metz contains a mishmash of architectural layers, bearing witness to centuries of history at the crossroads of different cultures, [65] and features a number of architectural landmarks. [66] The city possesses one of the largest Urban Conservation Areas in France, [67] and more than 100 of the city's buildings are classified on the Monument Historique list. [68] Because of its historical and cultural background, Metz is designated as French Town of Art and History, and has been submitted on to France's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List. [69] [70]

The city is famous for its yellow limestone architecture, a result of the extensive use of Jaumont stone. [66] [71] The historic district has kept part of the Gallo-Roman city with Divodurum's Cardo Maximus, then called Via Scarponensis (today the Trinitaires, Taison, and Serpenoise streets), and the Decumanus Maximus (today En Fournirue and d'Estrées streets). [72] At the Cardo and Decumanus intersection was situated the Roman forum, today the Saint-Jacques Square.

Architecture

The Centre Pompidou-Metz, a symbol of modern Metz Metz (F) - Centre Pompidou - Aussenansicht.jpg
The Centre Pompidou-Metz, a symbol of modern Metz
The Music Box, a high-quality concert and recording studio venue dedicated to the modern forms of art music, in the Borny District. The venue has been erected in a cite HLM as an urban renewal effort Borny District Metz.jpg
The Music Box, a high-quality concert and recording studio venue dedicated to the modern forms of art music, in the Borny District. The venue has been erected in a cité HLM as an urban renewal effort

From its Gallo-Roman past, the city preserves vestiges of the thermae (in the basement of the Golden Courtyard museum), parts of the aqueduct, [73] and the Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains. [18]

Saint Louis' square with its vaulted arcades and a Knights Templar chapel remains a major symbol of the city's High Medieval heritage. The Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral, several churches and Hôtels, and two remarkable municipal granaries reflect the Late Middle Ages. [17] [74] [75] [76] [77] Examples of Renaissance architecture can be seen in Hôtels from the 16th century, such as the House of Heads (French : Maison des Têtes). [66]

The city hall and the buildings surrounding the town square are by French architect Jacques-François Blondel, who was awarded the task of redesigning and modernizing the centre of Metz by the Royal Academy of Architecture in 1755 the context of the Enlightenment. [78] [79] Neoclassical buildings from the 18th century, such as the Opera House, [20] the Intendant Palace (the present-day prefecture), [80] and the Royal Governor's Palace (the present-day courthouse) built by Charles-Louis Clérisseau, are also found in the city. [66]

The Imperial District was built during the first annexation of Metz by the German Empire. [81] In order to "germanise" the city, Emperor Wilhelm II decided to create a new district shaped by a distinctive blend of Germanic architecture, including Renaissance, neo-Romanesque and neo-Classical, mixed with elements of Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Alsatian and mock-Bavarian styles. [81] Instead of Jaumont stone, commonly used everywhere else in the city, stone used in the Rhineland, such as pink and grey sandstone, granite and basalt were used. [81] The district features noteworthy buildings including the rail station and the Central Post Office by German architect Jürgen Kröger. [19]

Modern architecture can also be seen in the town with works of French architects Roger-Henri Expert (Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Enfant-Jésus church, 1934), Georges-Henri Pingusson (Fire Station, 1960), and Jean Dubuisson (subdivisions, 1960s). [70] [82] [83] The refurbishment of the former Ney Arsenal as a Concert Hall in 1989 and the erection of the Metz Arena in 2002, by Spanish and French architects Ricardo Bofill and French Paul Chemetov represent the Postmodern movement. [66]

The Centre Pompidou-Metz museum in the Amphitheatre District represents a strong architectural initiative to mark the entrance of Metz into the 21st century. [84] Designed by Japanese architect Shigeru Ban, the building is remarkable for the complex, innovative carpentry of its roof, [85] [86] and integrates concepts of sustainable architecture. The project encompasses the architecture of two recipients of the Pritzker Architecture Prize, Shigeru Ban (2014) and French Christian de Portzamparc (1994). The Amphitheatre District is also conceived by French architects Nicolas Michelin, Jean-Paul Viguier, and Jean-Michel Wilmotte and designer Philippe Starck. [87] The urban project is expected to be completed by 2023. [87] [88] Further, a contemporary music venue designed by contextualist French architect Rudy Ricciotti stands in the Borny District. [89]

Urban ecology

Water games on the Islands District Metz R03.jpg
Water games on the Islands District

Under the leadership of such people as botanist Jean-Marie Pelt, Metz pioneered a policy of urban ecology during the early 1970s. [21] Because of the failure of post-war urban planning and housing estate development in Europe during the 1960s, mostly based on the concepts of CIAM, [90] [91] [92] Jean-Marie Pelt, then municipal councillor of Metz, initiated a new approach to the urban environment. [22]

Based initially on the ideas of the Chicago School, Pelt's theories pleaded for better integration of humans into their environment and developed a concept centered on the relationship between "stone and water". [21] [93] [94] His policy was realized in Metz by the establishment of extensive open areas surrounding the Moselle and the Seille rivers and the development of large pedestrian areas. As a result, Metz has over 37 m2 (400 sq ft) of open areas per inhabitant in the form of numerous public gardens in the city. [24]

The principles of urban ecology are still applied in Metz with the implementation of a local Agenda 21 action plan. [26] The municipal ecological policy encompasses the sustainable refurbishment of ancient buildings, [95] [96] the erection of sustainable districts and buildings, green public transport, [97] and the creation of public gardens by means of landscape architecture. [98]

Additionally, the city has developed its own combined heat and power station, using waste wood biomass from the surrounding forests as a renewable energy source. [99] [100] With a thermal efficiency above 80%, the 45MW boiler of the plant provides electricity and heat for 44,000 dwellings. The Metz power station is the first local producer and distributor of energy in France. [101]

Military architecture

The Germans' Gate from the 13th century, one of the last medieval bridge castles found in France. Today, an exhibition hall Metz Porte des Allemands R06.jpg
The Germans' Gate from the 13th century, one of the last medieval bridge castles found in France. Today, an exhibition hall

As a historic Garrison town, Metz has been heavily influenced by military architecture throughout its history. [102] From ancient history to the present, the city has been successively fortified and modified to accommodate the troops stationed there. Defensive walls from classical antiquity to the 20th century are still visible today, incorporated into the design of public gardens along the Moselle and Seille rivers. [102] A medieval bridge castle from the 13th century, named Germans' Gate (French : Porte des Allemands), today converted into a convention and exhibition centre, has become one of the landmarks of the city. It is still possible to see parts of the 16th century citadel, as well as fortifications built in the 1740s by Louis de Cormontaigne but based on designs by Vauban. [103] [104] Important barracks, mostly from the 18th and 19th centuries, are spread around the city: some, which are of architectural interest, have been converted to civilian use, such as the Arsenal Concert Hall by Spanish architect Ricardo Bofill.

The extensive fortifications of Metz, which ring the city, include early examples of Séré de Rivières system forts. [105] Other forts were incorporated into the Maginot Line. [106] A hiking trail on the Saint-Quentin plateau passes through a former military training zone and ends at the now abandoned military forts, providing a vantage point from which to survey the city. [107] [108]

Economy

Rue Serpenoise, in the main pedestrian area. Rue Serpenoise Metz.JPG
Rue Serpenoise, in the main pedestrian area.

Although the steel industry has historically dominated Moselle's economy, Metz's efforts at economic diversification have created a base in the sectors of commerce, tourism, information technology and the automotive industry. The city is the economic heart of the Lorraine region and around 73,000 people work daily within the urban agglomeration. [109] The transport facilities found in the conurbation, including the international high-speed railway, motorway, inland connections and the local bus rapid transit system, have made the city a transport hub in the heart of the European Union. [110] Metz is home to the biggest harbour handling cereals in France with over 4,000,000 tons/year. [111]

Metz is home to the Moselle Chamber of Commerce. International companies such as PSA Peugeot Citroën, ArcelorMittal, SFR, and TDF have established plants and centres in the Metz conurbation. Metz is also the regional headquarters of the Caisse d'Epargne and Banque Populaire banking groups.

Metz is an important commercial centre of northern France with France's biggest retailer federation, consisting of around 2,000 retailers. [112] Important retail companies are found in the city, such as the Galeries Lafayette, the Printemps department store and the Fnac entertainment retail chain. The historic city centre displays one of the largest [ citation needed ] commercial pedestrian areas in France and a mall, the Saint-Jacques centre. In addition there are several multiplex movie theatres and malls found in the urban agglomeration.

In recent years, Metz municipality have promoted an ambitious policy of tourism development, including urban revitalization and refurbishment of buildings and public squares. [113] [114] This policy has been spurred by the creation of the Centre Pompidou-Metz in 2010. [115] Since its inauguration, the institution has become the most popular cultural venue in France outside Paris, with 550,000 visitors per year. [116] Meanwhile, Saint-Stephen Cathedral is the most visited building in the city, accommodating 652,000 visitors per year. [117]

Culture

Museums and exhibition halls

Some of the cultural venues in Metz, clockwise from top: the Arsenal, the Golden Courtyard, the Opera House, and the Saint-Jacques square Cultural venues in Metz, France.jpg
Some of the cultural venues in Metz, clockwise from top: the Arsenal, the Golden Courtyard, the Opera House, and the Saint-Jacques square
The Museum of the 1870 War and of the Annexion, the only museum in Europe dedicated to the Franco-Prussian War Museum 1870 War Gravelotte.jpg
The Museum of the 1870 War and of the Annexion, the only museum in Europe dedicated to the Franco-Prussian War
The choir of the Saint Stephen's Cathedral with its extensive stained glass windows, including works of Marc Chagall Metz, Cathedrale Saint-Etienne-PM 49650.jpg
The choir of the Saint Stephen's Cathedral with its extensive stained glass windows, including works of Marc Chagall
Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains, the oldest church in France and cradle of the Gregorian Chant Metz Saint Pierre R02.jpg
Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains, the oldest church in France and cradle of the Gregorian Chant
The Covered Market, home to traditional local food producers and retailers Palais episcopal Metz.jpg
The Covered Market, home to traditional local food producers and retailers
Fireworks on the town square for the celebrations of Saint Nicholas, the Lorraine's patron saint Fireworks Saint Nicholas celebrations, Metz 2011.jpg
Fireworks on the town square for the celebrations of Saint Nicholas, the Lorraine's patron saint

In addition, Metz features other museums and exhibition venues, such as:

Entertainment and performing arts

Metz has several venues for the performing arts. The Opera House of Metz, the oldest working opera house in France, features plays, dance, and lyric poetry. [131] The Arsenal Concert Hall, dedicated to art music, is widely renowned for its excellent acoustics. [132] [133] The Trinitarians Club is a multi-media arts complex housed in the vaulted cellar and chapel of an ancient convent, the city's prime venue for jazz music. [134] The Music Box (French : Boite à Musique), familiarly known as BAM, is the concert venue dedicated to rock and electronic music. [135] The Braun Hall and the Koltès Theater feature plays, and the city has two movie theaters specializing in Auteur cinema. The Saint-Jacques Square, surrounded by busy bars and pubs whose open-air tables fill the centre of the square.

Since 2014, the former bus garage has been converted to accommodate over thirty artists in residence, in a space where they can create and rehearse artworks and even build set decorations. [136] The artistic complex, called Metz Network of All Cultures (French : Toutes les Cultures en Réseau à Metz) and familiarly known as TCRM-Blida, encompasses a large hall of 3,000 m2 (32,000 sq ft) while theater and dance companies benefit from a studio of 800 m2 (8,600 sq ft) with backstages. [ citation needed ]

Metz in the arts

Metz was an important cultural centre during the Carolingian Renaissance. [10] For instance, Gregorian chant was created in Metz during the 8th century as a fusion of Gallican and ancient Roman repertory. Then called Messin Chant, it remains the oldest form of music still in use in Western Europe. The bishops of Metz, notably Saint-Chrodegang promoted its use for the Roman liturgy in Gallic lands under the favorable influence of the Carolingian monarchs. Messin chant made two major contributions to the body of chant: it fitted the chant into the ancient Greek octoechos system, and invented an innovative musical notation, using neumes to show the shape of a remembered melody. [137] Metz was also an important centre of illumination of Carolingian manuscripts, producing such monuments of Carolingian book illumination as the Drogo Sacramentary. [138] [139]

The Metz School (French : École de Metz) was an art movement in Metz and the region between 1834 and 1870, centred on Charles-Laurent Maréchal. [140] The term was originally proposed in 1845 by the poet Charles Baudelaire, who appreciated the works of the artists. They were influenced by Eugène Delacroix and inspired by the medieval heritage of Metz and its romantic surroundings. [140] The Franco-Prussian War and the annexation of the territory by the Germans resulted in the dismantling of the movement. The main figures of the Metz School were Charles-Laurent Maréchal, Auguste Migette, Auguste Hussenot, Louis-Théodore Devilly, Christopher Fratin, and Charles Pêtre. [140] Their works include paintings, engravings, drawings, stained-glass windows, and sculptures.

A festival named "passages" takes place in May. Numerous shows are presented to it. [141]

The Graoully dragon as symbol of the city

The Graoully is depicted as a fearsome dragon, vanquished by the sacred powers of Saint Clement of Metz, the first Bishop of the city. The Graoully quickly became a symbol of Metz and can be seen in numerous insignia of the city, from the 10th century on. [142] Writers from Metz tend to present the legend as an allegory of Christianity's victory over paganism, represented by the harmful dragon. [142]

Cuisine

Local specialties include the quiche, the potée, the Lorrain pâté, and also suckling pig. [143] [144] Different recipes, such as jam, tart, charcuterie and fruit brandy, are made from the Mirabelle and Damson plums. [143] [144] Also, Metz is the cradle of some pastries like the Metz cheese pie and the Metz Balls (French : boulet de Metz), a ganache-stuffed biscuit coated with marzipan, caramel, and dark chocolate. [143] Local beverages include Moselle wine and Amos beer. [143] [144]

The Covered Market of Metz is one of the oldest, most grandiose in France and is home to traditional local food producers and retailers. Originally built as the bishop's palace, the French Revolution broke out before the Bishop of Metz could move in and the citizens decided to turn it into a food market. [145] The adjacent Chamber's Square (French : Place de la Chambre) is surrounded by numerous local food restaurants.

Celebrations and events

Many events are celebrated in Metz throughout the year. [146] The city of Metz dedicates two weeks to the Mirabelle plum during the popular Mirabelle Festival held in August. During the festival, in addition to open markets selling fresh plums, mirabelle tarts, and mirabelle liquor, there are live music, fireworks, parties, art exhibits, a parade with floral floats, a competition, the crowning of the Mirabelle Queen and a gala of celebration. [147]

A literature festival is held in June. The Montgolfiades hot air balloon festival is organized in September. The second most popular Christmas Market in France is held in November and December. [148] Finally, a Saint Nicholas parade honors the patron saint of the Lorraine region in December.

Sports

Metz is home to the Football Club of Metz (FC Metz), a football association club in Ligue 2, the second division of French football (as of 2018–2019 season). FC Metz has won three times the Ligue 2 (1935, 2007, and 2014), twice the Coupe de France (in 1984 and 1988) and the French League Cup (in 1986 and 1996), and was French championship runner-up in 1998. [149] FC Metz has also gained recognition in France and Europe for its successful youth academy, winning the Gambardella Cup 3 times in 1981, 2001, and 2010. [149] The Saint-Symphorien stadium has been the home of FC Metz since the creation of the club.

Metz Handball is a Handball club. Metz Handball has won the French Women's First League championship 23 times, the Women's France Cup nine times, and the French Women's League Cup eight times. [150] The Metz Arena has been the home of Metz Handball since 2002.

Since 2003, Metz has been home to the Moselle Open, an ATP World Tour 250 tournament played on indoor hard courts, which usually takes place in September. [151]

ClubEventSportLeagues and CupsStadium
FC Metz [152] Association Football Ligue 1, French Cup, French League Cup Saint-Symphorien stadium
Metz Handball [153] Handball French Women's First League, EHF Women's Champions League Metz Arena
Metz Hockey Club [154] Hockey French Men's Second LeagueSaint-Symphorien Ice Ring
Metz Ronde Pétanque Pétanque French Championship, European CupSaint-Symphorien Arena
Metz TT [155] Table Tennis French Women's Pro A; French Men's Pro BSaint-Symphorien Arena
Moselle Open [156] Tennis ATP World Tour 250 tournament Metz Arena
Golden Mirabelle Open [157] Golf Allianz Golf TourTechnopole Golf Course
Mirabelle Metz Marathon [158] Athletics Metz Urban Agglomeration

Education

Georgia Tech Lorraine campus. GT Lorraine.jpg
Georgia Tech Lorraine campus.

High schools

Metz has numerous high schools, including the Fabert High School and the Lycée of Communication. Some of these institutions offer higher education programs such as classes préparatoires (undergraduate school) or BTS (technician certificate).

University of Lorraine

Metz is also home to the University of Lorraine (often abbreviated in UdL). [159] The university is divided into two university centers, one in Metz (material sciences, technology, and management) and one in Nancy (biological sciences, health care, administration, and management). The University of Lorraine, which ranks in 2016 among the top 15 of French universities and among top 300 of the world universities according to the 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities, [160] has a student body of over 55,000 and offers 101 accredited research centers organized in 9 research areas and 8 doctoral colleges. [161]

Graduate schools

At the end of the 1990s, the city expanded and the Metz Science Park was created in the southern area. Along with this expansion, several graduate schools took the opportunity to establish campuses in the park. At first, facilities were grouped around the lake Symphony, like Supélec in 1985 and Georgia Tech Lorraine in 1990. [162] In 1996, the engineering school Arts et Métiers ParisTech (ENSAM) built a research and learning center next to the golf course. [163] This opened the way to the development of a new area, where the Franco-German university (ISFATES) and the ENIM moved in 2010. These graduate schools often cooperate with the University of Lorraine. For instance, the university and ENSAM share research teams, laboratories, equipments, and doctoral programs.

Transport

The Mettis hybrid bi-articulated bus Mettis BRT Metz.jpg
The Mettis hybrid bi-articulated bus
The Station Palace in the Imperial District Gare de Metz R01.jpg
The Station Palace in the Imperial District

Local transport

Public transport includes a bus rapid transit system, called Mettis. [164] Mettis vehicles are high-capacity hybrid bi-articulated buses built by Van Hool, [165] and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with disability access. Mettis has its own planned and integrated transportation system, which includes two dedicated lines that spread out into the Metz conurbation. Mettis lanes A and B serve the city's major facilities (e.g. city centre, university campus, and hospitals), and a transport hub is located next to the railway station. [166]

Railways

Metz Railway Station is connected to the French high speed train (TGV) network, which provides a direct rail service to Paris and Luxembourg. The time from Paris (Gare de l'Est) to Metz is 82 minutes. Additionally, Metz is served by the Lorraine TGV railway station, located at Louvigny, 25 km (16 mi) to the south of Metz, for high speed trains going to Nantes, Rennes, Lille and Bordeaux (without stopping in Paris). Also, Metz is one of the main stations of the regional express trains system, Métrolor.

Motorways

Metz is located at the intersection of two major road axes: the Eastern Motorway, itself a part of the European route E50 connecting Paris to Prague, and the A31 Motorway, which goes north to Luxembourg and south to the Mediterranean Sea towards Nancy, Dijon, and Lyon.

Airports

The Luxembourg International Airport is the nearest international airport, connected to Metz by Métrolor train. The Lorraine TGV Station is 75 minutes by train from France international Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. Finally, Metz-Nancy-Lorraine Airport is located in Goin, 16.5 km (10.25 mi) southeast of Metz..

Waterways

Metz is located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers, both navigable waterways. The marina connects Metz to the cities of the Moselle valley (i.e. Trier, Schengen, and Koblenz) via the Moselle river.

Main sights

The iconic Protestant church Temple Neuf on the Moselle river Temple de Metz mai 2009.jpg
The iconic Protestant church Temple Neuf on the Moselle river

Religious heritage

Civil heritage

Administrative heritage

Military heritage

International relations

Metz is a member of the QuattroPole (FR) (DE) union of cities, along with Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, and Trier (neighbouring countries: Luxembourg, France, and Germany). [172] Metz has a central place in the Greater Region and of the economic SaarLorLux Euroregion. Metz is also twin town with: [173]

Notes and references

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  2. "Official website of the prefecture of Moselle" (in French). Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  3. "Official website of the Moselle department" (in French). Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  4. 1 2 Says J.M. (2010) La Moselle, une rivière européenne. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-857-2 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  5. "Official website of the Greater Region" (in French). Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Bour R. (2007) Histoire de Metz, nouvelle édition. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-728-5 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  7. 1 2 Vigneron B. (1986) Metz antique: Divodurum Mediomatricorum. Eds. Maisonneuve. ISBN   2-7160-0115-4 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  8. 1 2 Huguenin A. (2011) Histoire du royaume mérovingien d'Austrasie. Eds. des Paraiges. ISBN   979-10-90185-00-5 pp. 134,275 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  9. Settipani C. (1989) Les ancêtres de Charlemagne. Ed. Société atlantique d'impression. ISBN   2-906483-28-1 pp. 3–49 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  10. 1 2 Demollière C.J. (2004) L'art du chantre carolingien. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   2-87692-555-9 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  11. 1 2 Roemer F. (2007) Les institutions de la République messine. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-709-4 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  12. Weyland A. (2010) Moselle plurielle: identité complexe & complexes identitaires. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-748-3 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  13. "World Heritage Site List of France, UNESCO Official Website" (HTLM). Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  14. "Presentation of the specificity of Metz for the UNESCO World Heritage Site enlistment, UNESCO Official Website" (HTLM) (in French). Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  15. "Presentation of the specificity of Metz for the UNESCO World Heritage Site enlistment, Official Website of the Municipality of Metz" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
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  18. 1 2 3 Delestre X. (1988) Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains (Metz - Moselle): de l'époque romaine à l'époque gothique. Eds. Guides archeologiques de la France. ISBN   978-2-85822-439-5 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  19. 1 2 3 Schontz A. (2008) La gare de Metz. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-833-6 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  20. 1 2 3 Masson G. (2002) L'Opéra-théâtre de Metz. Ed. Klopp, Gerard. ISBN   978-2-911992-38-4 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  21. 1 2 3 Pelt J.M. (1977) L'Homme re-naturé. Eds. Seuil. ISBN   2-02-004589-3 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
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  24. 1 2 "Official municipal website, Public garden map of Metz" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  25. Hamel S. and Walter J. (2000) Metz. Ecologie urbaine et convivialité. Ed. Autrement. ISBN   978-2-86260-343-8 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
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  27. "University of Lorraine. Research, innovation, and valorisation" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2011.
  28. Gendarme R. (1985) Sidérurgie en Lorraine, les coulées du futur. Eds. Presses Universitaires de Nancy. ISBN   2-86480-224-4 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
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  32. Gibbon E (1788) History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 4:35
  33. Brasme P. (2011) Quand Metz reçoit la France. Eds. des Paraiges. ISBN   979-10-90185-03-6 pp. 17–34 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  34. Vigneron B. (2010) Le dernier siècle de la république de Metz. Eds. du Panthéon. ISBN   978-2-7547-0356-7 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  35. Roth F. (2011) La Lorraine Annexée - version 2011, nouvelle édition. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-866-4 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  36. Berrar J.C. (2009) Metz, retour à le France. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-784-1 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  37. Przybylski S. (2009) La Campagne de Lorraine de 1944, Panther contre Sherman. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-820-6 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  38. Denis P. (2008) La Libération de la Lorraine, 1940–1945. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-764-3 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  39. 1 2 3 Roth F. (2012) Histoire politique de la Lorraine, de 1900 à nos jours. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN   978-2-87692-881-7 ‹See Tfd› (in French)
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  49. The Mutte is the name of the large bell of the Saint-Stephen cathedral.
  50. A law from 1872 forbids the collection by the state of census data based on questions about religious beliefs. The French Third Republic considered that kind of information to be private and that any citizen of the Republic should be considered as equal of his mates, regardless his provocative and potentially divisive [ clarification needed ]. In accordance with the concept of laïcité, this principle was reaffirmed by the current French Fifth Republic in a law from 1978, stating that "it is forbidden to collect or process data of a personal nature related to racial or ethnic origins as well as political, philosophic, or religious opinions."
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  60. Since March 2009, records of municipal council meetings are available as audio files in French.
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  63. "Official Metz Metropole website, list of cities webpage" (in French). Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved June 2012.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
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  71. "Official website of the Jaumont stone companies" . Retrieved 1 July 2011.
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  74. "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 1" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  75. "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 2" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
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Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Metz"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.

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