|Armada de México (Spanish)|
|Founded||January 19, 1821|
|Size||75,000 marines (2021)|
|Part of||Secretariat of The Navy|
|Anniversaries||June 1, National Navy Day|
|Admiral José Rafael Ojeda Durán|
The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent armed forces of Mexico. The actual naval forces are called the Armada de México. The Secretaría de Marina (SEMAR) (English: Naval Secretariat) includes both the Armada itself and the attached ministerial and civil service. The commander of the Navy is the Secretary of the Navy, who is both a cabinet minister and a career naval officer.
The Mexican Navy's stated mission is "to use the naval force of the federation for external defense, and to help with internal order".As of 2020, the Navy consists of about 68,200 men and women plus reserves, over 189 ships, and about 130 aircraft. The Navy attempts to maintain a constant modernization program to upgrade its response capability.
Given Mexico's large area of water (3,149,920 km2 (1,216,190 sq mi)) and extensive coastline (11,122 km (6,911 mi)), the Navy's duties are of great importance. Perhaps its most important on-going missions are the war on drugs and protecting PEMEX's oil wells in Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico. Another important task of the Mexican Navy is to help people in hurricane relief operations and other natural disasters.
The Mexican Navy has its origins in the creation of the Ministry of War in 1821. From that year until 1939 it existed jointly with the Mexican Army in the organic ministry. Since its declaration of independence from Spain in September 1810, through the mid decades of the 19th century, Mexico found itself in a constant state of war, mostly against Spain which had not recognized its independence. Therefore, its priority was to purchase its first fleet from the U.S. to displace the last remaining Spanish forces from its coasts.
The Mexican Navy has participated in many naval battles to protect and defend Mexico's interests. Some of the most important battles were:
The first French intervention in Mexico (The 'Pastry War') (November 1838 – March 1839)
Second invasion by the United States (April 9, 1914 – November 23, 1914)
The President of Mexico is commander in chief of all military forces. Day-to-day control of the Navy lies with the Navy Secretary, José Rafael Ojeda Durán.In Mexico there is no joint force command structure with the army, so the Secretary reports directly to the President. The Navy has a General Headquarters and three naval forces. There are furthermore eight regions (four on the Pacific coast, three on the Mexican Gulf coast and the Región Naval Central, grouping the naval forces, based in and around the capital Mexico City, such as the 7th Naval Infantry Brigade, the Central Special Operations Group and the Air Transport Squadron), thirteen zones, and fourteen naval sectors.
The Navy is divided into three main services designated as "forces":
Other notable services include:
Officers are trained at the Mexican Naval Academy, called the "Heroica Escuela Naval Militar" ("Heroic Military Naval School"), located in Antón Lizardo, Veracruz.
The Mexican Naval Infantry Corps was reorganized in 2007–2009 into 30 Naval Infantry Battalions (Batallones de Infantería de Marina – BIM), a paratroop battalion, a battalion attached to the Presidential Guard Brigade, two Fast Reaction Forces with six battalions each, and three Special Forces groups.The Naval Infantry are responsible for port security, protection of the ten-kilometer coastal fringe, and patrolling major waterways.
The Naval Infantry also is responsible for 23 National Service Training Units under the responsibility of the Navy Secretary, enforcing the National Service obligation for Mexicans of teenage and young adult age.
In 2008, the Mexican Navy created its new search and rescue system, allocated in strategic ports at Pacific and Gulf of Mexico ports, to provide assistance to any ships which are in jeopardy or at risk due to mechanical failure, weather conditions or life risk to the crew. To provide such support, the Navy has ordered Coast Guard Defender class ships (two per station, and one 47-Foot Motor Lifeboat coast guard vessel). Other stations will be provided only with Defender-classboats.
On April 1, 2014, SEMAR officially announced the creation of Port Protection Naval Units (Unidades Navales de Protección Portuaria: UNAPROP) which will include a marine section.The main task of UNAPROPs is to ensure maritime surveillance and inspection.
The Navy offers several options for graduate studies in their educational institutions:
It is the school where future officers are trained for the General Corps of the Navy. Candidates can enter upon completing high school. Upon completion of studies, graduates obtain the degree of Sub-Lieutenant and the title of Naval Science Engineer.
This school Located in Mexico City, offers a career in medicine. Officers are trained with skills for the prevention and health care of naval personnel. By adopting a professional examination, graduates are commissioned Sub-Lieutenants.
In the Naval Engineering School, officers are responsible for the preventive and corrective maintenance of systems and electronic equipment installed on ships and installations of the Mexican Navy. This school offers career of Electronic Engineering and Naval Communications. It is located between the town of Mata Grape and Anton Lizardo, 32 km (20 mi) from the port of Veracruz.
Here the time to achieve a nursing degree lasts eight semesters. Officers are trained with the knowledge and skills necessary to enable them to assist medical personnel in caring for patients in hospitals, sanatoriums, clinics, health sections on land, aboard ships and at The Naval Medical Center.
The Naval Aviation School trains pilots for the Mexican Naval Aviation as well as staff from the Federal Preventive Police and Naval personnel from various countries of Central America. This school is located on La Paz, Baja California Sur.
Located in Acapulco, members of The Navy are trained for marine search, rescue and diving. It also trains state police officers and firefighters.
The annual Navy's budget is in a one to three proportion of the national budget relative to the Mexican Army and Mexican Air Force. The Navy has a reputation for being well-run and well-organized. This reputation allows for a close relationship with the United States Navy (USN), as evidenced by the procurement of numerous former USN ships.
The Secretary of the Navy, Admiral Mariano Francisco Saynez Mendoza, announced on October 1, 2007, detailed plans to upgrade and modernize the country's naval capabilities. On the following day, La Jornada newspaper from Mexico City, disclosed the Mexican Navy plans, which are among others, to build six offshore patrol vessels (OPVs) with a length of 86 metres (282 ft), 1,680 tons and each housing a Eurocopter Panther helicopter as well as small high-speed interception boats. The budget for this project is above US$200 million.
Another project is to build 12 CB 90 HMN high speed (50 knots (93 km/h; 58 mph)) interception boats under license from a Swedish boat company Dockstavarvet to the Mexican Navy. Also, a number of fully equipped planes for surveillance and maritime patrol are being considered. Combinations of options and development are being defined.
The Mexican Navy depends upon their naval shipyards for construction and repairs of their ships. There are five shipyards located in the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean:
The Mexican Navy initiated studies to develop and construct its first missile, according to a May 2005 interview with the undersecretary of the Navy, Armando Sanchez, the missile was to have an average range of 12 to 15 kilometres (7.5 to 9.3 mi) and be able to target enemy ships and aircraft. The undersecretary added that they already had the solid propellant, and the basic design of the missile. All aspects relative to their fuselage were solved as well as the launch platforms. The Mexican Navy was developing the software to direct the missile to its target. In July 2008, the project was reported to be 80% complete. Despite this effort, the missile development was canceled in 2009 due to "problems with the propulsion system".
In 2009, the Mexican Navy began operating a batch of new MPQ-64 Sentinel radars in the oil-rich Gulf of Mexico. The radar network was installed in 2007 for a trial phase while military personnel were trained to get familiar with the system. The new installations will work together with combat surface vessels that patrol the area.
|Allendeclass||Multipurpose Anti-submarine frigate||F211 Ignacio Allende |
F212 Mariano Abasolo
F213 Guadalupe Victoria
F214 Francisco Javier Mina
|United States – ex-US Navy Knox-classfrigate|
|Reformador class||Multipurpose Frigate||F101 Benito Juárez||Netherlands/Mexico – Ships being built in The Netherlands and Mexico. At least 8 ships planned for fleet modernisation plan.|
|Missile boats (2)|
|Huracán class||Missile boat||A301 Huracán |
|Israel – ex-Israeli Navy Sa'ar 4.5-classmissile boat|
|Patrol vessel and other Warships (35)|
|Oaxacaclass||Ocean patrol vessels||P161 Oaxaca |
P162 Baja California
|Durangoclass||Compact Frigate / Patrol vessel||P151 Durango |
|Holzingerclass||Ocean/Offshore patrol vessels||P131 Holzinger|
P133 De la Vega
|Uribeclass||Ocean patrol vessels|
|Valleclass||Converted Minesweeper / Ocean patrol vessels||P102 Juan de la Barrera|
P103 Mariano Escobedo
P104 Manuel Doblado
P106 Santos Degollado
P108 Juan N. Álvarez
P109 Manuel Gutiérrez Zamora
P110 Valentín Gómez Farías
P112 Francisco Zarco
P113 Ignacio L. Vallarta
P114 Jesús González Ortega
P117 Mariano Matamoros
|United States – ex-Auk-classminesweeper|
|Coastal patrol ships (44)|
|Tenochtitlanclass||Coastal patrol||PC331 Tenochtitlan |
PC333 ARM Palenque
PC334 ARM Mitla
PC335 ARM Uxmal
PC336 ARM Tajin
PC337 ARM Tulum
PC338 ARM Monte Albán
PC339 ARM Bonampak
PC340 Chichen Iztzá
|Netherlands/Mexico Based on Damen Stan Patrol 4207|
|Aztecaclass||Coastal patrol||PC202 Cordova|
PC208 De la Fuente
|Demócrataclass||Coastal patrol||PC241 Demócrata|
PC242 Francisco I. Madero
|Caboclass||Coastal patrol||PC271 Corriente|
|Puntaclass||Coastal patrol||PC-281 Morro|
|Polaris class||Small Patrol vessel||44 In service||Sweden|
|Polaris II class||Small Patrol vessel||6 In service + 17 under construction||Mexico|
|Acuario A/B class||Patrol||In service||Mexico|
|Isla class||Patrol||In service||Mexico|
|Amphibious ships (3)|
|Papaloapan class||Tank landing ship||A411 Papaloapan |
|United States – ex-USN Newport-classtank landing ship|
|Panuco class||Tank landing ship||A402 Manzanillo||United States – ex-US Navy USS Clearwater County, transferred in 1972|
|Logistic support vessel (2)|
|Montes Azulesclass||Landing ship||BAL01 Montes Azules|
BAL02 Libertador (construction completed, inaugurated on September 10, 2012)
|TBD class||Supply ship||BAL11 Isla Madre Launched July 11, 2016.||Netherlands Based on Damen Stan 5009 Fast Crew Supplier|
|Mine counter-measure (6)|
|Huasteco class||Multipurpose logistics vessel||AMP01 Huasteco|
|Maya class||Multipurpose||ATR01 Maya|
|Cuauhtemoc class||Three-masted barque sail training ship||BE01 Cuauhtémoc||Spain|
The Mexican Navy includes 60 smaller patrol boats and 32 auxiliary ships. It acquired 40 fast military assault crafts, designated CB 90 HMN, between 1999 and 2001 and obtained a production license in 2002, enabling further units to be manufactured in Mexico.
|BTR-60/BTR-70||Amphibious Armored Personnel Carrier||APC-70|
|Carat Security Group||Armored Car (Military)||Wolverine (Escorpion)|
|Renault Sherpa Light||Light Armored Vehicle||MACK Sherpa Scout|
|Land Rover||Armored Car (Military)||Defender 4x4|
|Infantry Transport Vehicles|
|AM General HMMWV||Light Utility Vehicle||M1026, M1038, M1151|
|Ford-150||Light Utility Vehicle||4x4 F-150 series pick up|
|Ford-250||Light Utility Vehicle||4x4 F-250 series pick up|
|Dodge Ram||Light Utility Vehicle||4x4 Pick up|
|Mercedes-Benz G-Wagen||Light Utility Vehicle||4x4 G-class|
|Mercedes-Benz Zetros||Utility vehicle||6x6 truck|
|Ural-4320||Utility Vehicle||Off-road 6x6 truck|
|Unimog U-4000||Utility Vehicle||4x4 truck|
|Gama Goat [ citation needed ]||Amphibious 6-wheeled vehicle||6x6 truck|
|Freightliner M2||Utility Vehicle||4x2 truck|
|M16A2 rifle||5.56×45mm NATO||Assault rifle|
|M4 Carbine||5.56×45mm NATO||Assault rifle|
|IMI Galil||5.56×45mm NATO||Assault rifle|
|Heckler & Koch MP5||9×19mm||Submachine gun|
|Heckler & Koch UMP||.45 ACP||Submachine gun|
|FN P90||5.7×28mm||Submachine gun|
|Colt M1911||.45 ACP||Pistol|
|Glock 17||9x19mm Parabellum||Pistol|
|Heckler & Koch MSG90||7.62×51mm NATO||Sniper rifle|
|Barrett M82||.50 BMG||Sniper rifle|
|Remington 700||7.62×51mm NATO||Sniper rifle|
|FN Minimi||5.56×45mm NATO||Machine gun|
|CETME Ameli||5.56×45mm NATO||Machine gun|
|GAU-19||12.7×99mm NATO||Heavy machine gun|
|M2 Browning machine gun||12.7×99mm NATO||Heavy machine gun|
|M134||7.62×51mm NATO||Gatling-type machine gun|
|STK 40 AGL||40mm||Grenade machine gun|
|Milkor MGL||40mm||Grenade launcher|
|M203 grenade launcher||40mm||Grenade launcher|
This section does not cite any sources . (December 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Bofors L70||40mm||Anti-aircraft artillery|
|Shipboard anti-aircraft artillery|
|Phalanx CIWS||20mm||Close in Weapon System|
|Multiple rocket launchers|
|FIROS||122mm||Multiple Launch Rocket System|
|OTO Melara Mod 56||105mm||Towed howitzer|
|Brandt LR||60mm||Light mortar|
|Bofors L70||40mm||Towed anti-aircraft artillery|
|Bofors L60||40mm||Towed anti-aircraft artillery|
|Oerlikon||20mm||Towed anti-aircraft artillery|
|Gabriel||Mk. II||Anti-shipping missile|
|RGM-84L Harpoon||Block II||Anti-shipping missile|
|RIM-116||RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM)||Anti-aircraft missile|
|RIM-162||RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM)||Anti-aircraft missile|
|Light anti-tank weapons|
|Valmet L-90||Combat/Counter Insurgency||L-90TP||8|
|Beechcraft T-6 Texan II||Training||T-6C+||2|
|CASA C-295||Tactical transport||C295M||6|
|Bombardier Dash 8||Tactical transport||DH-8||1|
|Turbo Commander||Transport||980 Turbo||4|
|Gulfstream IV||VIP transport||G450||1|
|Reconnaissance and intelligence|
|CASA CN-235||Surveillance||CN-235MP 300||6|
|Lancair||Reconnaissance|| IV-P |
|King Air 350||Surveillance||King Air 350ER||4|
|Eurocopter Fennec||Search & rescue||AS555AF||2|
|Eurocopter Panther||Combat||AS656MB / MBe||14|
|Eurocopter EC 725||Transport||EC725||3|
|Bölkow Bo 105||Surveillance||EC-Super Five||11|
|MD Helicopters MD 500||Training||MD-500||4|
|Mil Mi-2||Transport||Mi-2 Hopite||1|
|MD Helicopters MD Explorer||Combat||MD-902||6|
|Sikorsky UH-60 Blackhawk||Transport and combat||UH-60M||10|
|UAV SEMAR||Reconnaissance/Intelligence||T1 / T2 / T3||3|
|EADS CASA||surveillance||CASA CN-235||2|
|Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk||Utility maritime helicopter||MH-60R||10|
This section needs to be updated.June 2018)(
For the year 2008 budget, the Mexican Congress approved a US$15 million fund to build only 17 out of the 60 combat boats requested. These ships, designated CB 90 HMN, are to increase the Mexican Navy's fast boat fleet. Additional budgets will be awarded each passing year. In total, the Mexican Navy has over 189 operational ships.
In January 2013, the 112th Session of US Congress authorized the transfer of the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates USS Curts and USS McClusky to the Mexican Navy, but due to the cost of overhauling the vessels and the removal of all the weapons systems and most of the electronics and radar gear by the USN prior to transfer, this is still undecided by Mexico. The offer expired on January 1, 2016.
On March 25, 2014 Beechcraft Corporation received an order of 2 T-6C+ military trainers from the Mexican Navy.
On June 24, 2014, the Mexican Government requested the purchase of 5 UH-60Ms in USG configuration from the U.S.; its estimated cost is $225 million. Also on June 24, BAE Systems announced it was awarded a contract by the Mexican Government to supply the navy with 4 Mk 3 57mm naval guns, for the ships of the Reformador class.
The Argentine Navy is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force.
The Sigma class is a Dutch-built family of modular naval vessels, of either corvette or frigate size, designed by Damen Group.
The Colombian Navy, officially the Colombian National Navy, also known as the "Armada Nacional" or just the "Armada" in Spanish, is the naval branch of the military forces of Colombia. The Navy is responsible for security and defence in the Colombian zones of both the Atlantic (Caribbean) and Pacific oceans, the extensive network of rivers inside the country, and a few small land areas under its direct jurisdiction.
The Durango class is an offshore patrol vessel class in service with the Mexican Navy. The Durango class, comprising four ships, was designed and constructed in Mexico in 1999–2000. The class entered service in 2000 and is used primarily for drug interdiction and patrol.
The Oaxaca class are offshore patrol vessels, constructed and designed by and for the Mexican Navy. The class is named after the Mexican state of Oaxaca. The Mexican Navy has requested seven of these ships with four already in service, three in construction, which were disclosed on June 1 on the Navy anniversary, with the name PO-163 Independencia, which is to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Independence of Mexico. Also, another ship PO-164, named Revolucion, is in the process of raising the Mexican flag in a couple of months. Two more to be constructed in Navy's Naval Shipyards.
The Sierra-class corvettes are corvettes of the Mexican Navy intended mainly for interception of drug smugglers, exclusive economic zone (EEZ) patrol, and countering terrorism. The class comprises four ships with the lead ship ARM Sierra commissioned by the Mexican Navy in 1998. One ship, ARM Benito Juárez, was sunk as a target ship in 2007 after being wrecked by fire in 2003. The other three vessels remain in service.
The Mexican Secretariat of the Navy is a member of the federal executive cabinet with responsibility for managing the country's navy and marine forces. The secretary is appointed by the President of the Republic and heads the Secretariat of the Navy.
The National Navy of Uruguay is a branch of the Armed Forces of Uruguay under the direction of the Ministry of National Defense and the commander in chief of the Navy.
The Astilleros de la Secretaría de Marina, are also known as ASTIMAR. The yards are dependent on the Mexican General Directorate of Naval Construction of the Mexican Navy, which carries out various types of naval construction and repairs in the Mexican territory.
The Naval Infantry Corps are the naval infantry and amphibious infantry force of the Mexican Navy. The main task of the Infantería de Marina is to guarantee the maritime security of the country's ports and external and internal defense of the country. To accomplish these responsibilities, the corps is trained and equipped to take on any type of operations from Sea, Air and Land.
The Dutch shipbuilding firm The Damen Group, designs and manufactures a wide variety of vessels, including a range of related patrol vessels known generally as the Damen Stan Patrol Vessels.
The Ecuadorian Navy is responsible for the surveillance and protection of national maritime territory and has a personnel of 9,127 men to protect a coastline of 2,237 km which reaches far into the Pacific Ocean. The vessels are identified by a ship prefix of B.A.E.: Buque de la Armada del Ecuador or L.A.E.: Lancha de la Armada del Ecuador.
ARM Oaxaca (PO-161) is the lead ship of the Oaxaca class of patrol vessels, constructed by and for the Mexican Navy.
Timeline of Mexican Naval anti-drug cartel operations during the Mexican drug war are listed below:
The Meteoro-class offshore patrol vessel, also known as Buque de Acción Marítima (BAM), are new modular offshore patrol vessels of the Spanish Navy adapted to different purposes from a common base, manufactured by Navantia. The BAMs combine high performance with mission versatility, a high commonality with other ships operated by the Spanish Navy. Acquisition and lifecycle costs are reduced.
Tenochtitlan-class patrol vessels is a Mexican Navy class of patrol vessels in 2012, that is based on the Damen Stan 4207 patrol vessel design. Over a dozen navies, coast guards and other government agencies operate vessels based on this design. While some of those vessels are equipped for purely civilian patrols, the Mexican vessels are armed with a pair of Browning M2 machine guns, and a jet-boat pursuit craft that can be launched and retrieved via a stern launching ramp, while the vessel is underway.
The Dutch shipbuilding firm The Damen Group, designs and manufactures a range of patrol vessels, of various sizes, including the Damen Stan 4207 Patrol Vessels. The Damen Stan patrol vessel designs' names include a four digit code, where the first two digits are the vessel's length, in metres, and the second two digits are its width.
ARA King is a World War II era Argentine Navy warship, originally classified as minelayer and later as patrol ship. The vessel is named after Juan King, an Argentine naval officer that served in the Cisplatine War. It is the third Argentine naval ship with this name.
Audaz (P-45) is an offshore patrol vessel and the fifth of the Meteoro class created for the Spanish Navy. It is the fourth Navy ship to carry this name. The patrol vessel was built in the Navantia's shipyard in San Fernando.
Furor (P-46) is an offshore patrol vessel and the sixth of the Meteoro class created for the Spanish Navy.