شبه جزیره میانکاله
|Official name||Miankaleh Peninsula, Gorgan Bay and Lapoo-Zaghmarz Ab-bandan|
|Designated||23 June 1975|
Miyānkāle peninsula (Persian : شبه جزیره میانکاله) is a long, narrow peninsula in Behshahr County of Māzandarān Province in the north of Iran situated in the extreme south-eastern part of the Caspian Sea. The elongate peninsula is 48 kilometres (30 miles) long, and between 1.3 and 3.2 kilometres (1,400 and 3,500 yards) wide.
It sets apart the Gorgan Bay from the Caspian Sea. The elevation of the peninsula from the sea level is 23 meters. Four villages are situated on it, namely: Ashuradeh, Qezel-e shomali, Qezel-Mehdi, and Qavasatl. The city situated at the opposite side of the peninsula's end is Bandar Torkaman. The island of Ashuradeh lies off the eastern tip of the peninsula.
Miankaleh peninsula is one of the richest ecological havens in West Asia and perhaps in the whole world. It is home to many unique Caspian bird and reptile species native to this region. It is also a very important internationally recognized refuge for migratory birds. Flora and fauna include:
The peninsula, with Gorgan Bay, has been designated an International Wetland (Ramsar site) in 1975and an international UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1976. On the national level, it is protected under the "Wildlife Refuge" status by the Iranian Dept. of Environment.
One of the indigenous predators of Iran, the Caspian tiger, used to live in the north-western to north-eastern parts of the country. In 2010, a pair of Siberian tigers was sent from Russia to Iran's Tehran Zoological Garden in exchange for their Persian leopards. The Siberian tigers currently in captivity are set to be reintroduced in the wild to replace the Caspian tigers on the Miankaleh peninsula.Iran received two more pairs of Siberian tigers in 2012.
This nature reserve is vulnerable to industry and tourism. While tourism-related activities continue to pollute the area, the Iranian government plans to build a huge hotel complex right in the middle of this nature park. Parts of the peninsula have already been sold by the government for industrial and residential purposes.
The number of migratory birds has fallen significantly during the past few years. Extensive fishing and hunting has damaged the ecological balance, and many species are either moribund or under threat of total extinction.
Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman. Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The mountains enclose several broad basins, on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located. Until the 20th century, when major highways and railroads were constructed through the mountains to connect the population centers, these basins tended to be relatively isolated from one another.
Long Point is a sand spit and medium-sized hamlet on the north shore of Lake Erie, part of Norfolk County in the province of Ontario, Canada.
UNESCO Biosphere Reserves are environment-protected scientific-research institutions of international status that are created with the intent for conservation in a natural state the most typical natural complexes of biosphere, conducting background ecological monitoring, studying of the surrounding natural environment, its changes under the activity of anthropogenic factors.
The Sundarbans National Park is a national park, tiger reserve, and biosphere reserve in West Bengal, India. It is part of the Sundarbans on the Ganges Delta, and adjacent to the Sundarban Reserve Forest in Bangladesh. The delta is densely covered by mangrove forests, and is one of the largest reserves for the Bengal tiger. It is also home to a variety of bird, reptile and invertebrate species, including the salt-water crocodile. The present Sundarban National Park was declared as the core area of Sundarban Tiger Reserve in 1973 and a wildlife sanctuary in 1977. On 4 May 1984 it was declared a national park. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site inscribed in 1987, and it has been designated as a Ramsar site since 2019. It is considered as a World Network of Biosphere Reserve from 1989.
The Caspian tiger was a tiger from a specific population of the Panthera tigris tigris subspecies that was native to eastern Turkey, northern Iran, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus around the Caspian Sea, Central Asia to northern Afghanistan, and Xinjiang in western China. It inhabited sparse forests and riverine corridors in this region until the 1970s. This population was assessed as extinct in 2003.
Ag-Gel National Park — is a national park of Azerbaijan. It was established in an area in Ağcabədi Rayon and Beyləqan Rayon administrative districts on July 5, 2003 on the basis of the former "Ag-Gol State Reserve" and "Ag-Gol State Game Reserve" which it superseded, on a surface area of 17,924 hectares (179.24 km2).
Los Guatuzos Wildlife Refuge has an area of 437.5 km2 (168.9 sq mi) and is located south of Lake Nicaragua and west of the San Juan River in Nicaragua. Los Guatuzos is a protected area consisting of tropical wetlands, rainforest, and wildlife refuge, it is the only internationally registered tropical wetland area in Nicaragua.
Ashūradeh, or Ashur Ada, is the only island of the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea. Ashuradeh's surface is 800 hectares . It is located on the eastern end of the Miankaleh peninsula in the county of Behshahr of Māzandarān Province of Iran, 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) from Bandar Torkaman and 23 kilometers (14 mi) from Gorgan.
Protected areas of Poland include the following categories, as defined by the Act on Protection of Nature of 16 April 2004, by the Polish Parliament:
Mary's Point is a 12 square kilometres (4.6 sq mi) wetland in Albert County, New Brunswick, Canada. It is at the head of the Bay of Fundy, just outside the small community of Harvey and approximately 40 km (25 mi) south of Moncton. Designated a Ramsar wetland of international importance on May 24, 1982, it is also part of the Fundy biosphere reserve established in 2007, which also contains the Shepody Bay wetland. It was also the first Canadian site in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve, as part of the Bay of Fundy Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve. It is within the Shepody Bay National Wildlife Area, which is administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service.
Sembilang National Park is a national park covering 2,051 km2 along the east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The park is dominated by swamps as peat forests, like the neighbouring Berbak National Park, and both parks are Ramsar wetlands of international importance. The park is considered to have the most complex shorebird community in the world, with 213 species recorded, and supports the world's largest breeding colony of milky storks. From Palembang to the Sembilang National Park needs one hour drive plus one and a half hour by boat and then one hour overland.
Astrakhan Nature Reserve is a Russian 'zapovednik' covering an area including the islands and wetlands of the Volga Delta, where the Volga River enters the northwest sector of the Caspian Sea. The landscape is one of extensive reeds, cattails and willows and is an important nesting area for waterfowl and wading birds. The areas is rich in fish, with 50 species recorded, including beluga sturgeon. The reserve is situated in the Ikryaninsky District of Astrakhan Oblast. Since 1975, the territory has been part of a Ramsar wetlands site of international importance, and since 1984 it has been included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tamil Nadu:
Biosphere reserves are areas comprising terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems. The biosphere reserve title is handed over by UNESCO. Each reserve promotes solutions reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. Biosphere reserves are 'Science for Sustainability support sites' – special places for testing interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and managing changes and interactions between social and ecological systems, including conflict prevention and management of biodiversity. Biosphere reserves are nominated by national governments and remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located. Their status is internationally recognized.
The Siberian Tiger Introduction Project involves reestablishing populations of the Siberian tiger, also known as the Amur tiger, in their former range and also expanding their range by introducing them as replacements of their genetically similar relative, the extinct Caspian tiger, which inhabited Central and Western Asia. Currently, the Siberian tiger inhabits the cold mountains of the Russian Far East and northern China.
The Dublin Bay Biosphere Reserve is a biosphere reserve comprising Dublin Bay, North Bull Island and adjacent land, including parts of Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. It contains one of the finest sand dune systems on the island of Ireland, and is internationally important in terms of its conservation value. There are high quality examples of several rare and threatened coastal habitats present within its area.
Taymyr Nature Reserve is a Russian 'zapovednik' located in the northern lowlands of Siberia, on the Taimyr Peninsula, and on the coast of the Laptev Sea of the Arctic Ocean. The reserve includes the most northern forest of Dahurian larch in the world, and also the most northern mainland mountain range in the world. The protected area was established to protect the breeding grounds of the Red-breasted goose as well as the summer residences of wild reindeer and the biodiversity of the Lake Taymyr. The reserve is situated about 120 km east of the town of Norilsk, and 3,000 km northeast of Moscow, in the Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai. In 1995, the site was designated a UNESCO MAB Reserve. The reserve was formally established in 1979, and covers an area of 1,781,928 ha (6,880.06 sq mi).
Mornington Peninsula and Western Port Biosphere Reserve is a biosphere reserve in the Australian state of Victoria located on land and coastal waters associated both with the Mornington Peninsula and the bay known as Western Port.
The Gulf of Gorgan, also known as Gorgan Bay, is the largest gulf in the Caspian Sea. It is located at the south-eastern shore of the Caspian Sea near the cities of Behshahr, Gorgan and Sari in Iran and is separated from the main water body by the Miankaleh peninsula and extends until the Ashuradeh peninsula.
The biosphere reserves of Iran have a total land area of 1.64 million km2. They support more than 8,000 recorded species of plants, 502 species of birds, 164 species of mammals, 209 species of reptiles, and 375 species of butterflies.