Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly

Last updated

Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly
Barclay de Tolly (Dawe).jpg
Portrait of Barclay de Tolly from the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace, by George Dawe
Born(1761-12-27)27 December 1761
Pomautsch  [ lt ], Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
(present-day Pamūšis, Šiauliai County, Lithuania)
Died24 September [ O.S. 12 September] 1818
Insterburg, Kingdom of Prussia
(present-day Chernyakhovsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia)
Buried
Beckhof  [ et ]
(present-day Jõgeveste, Valga County, Estonia)
AllegianceFlag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire
Service/branch Imperial Russian Army
Years of service1776–1818
Rank Field Marshal
Commands held Governor-General of Finland
Minister of War
Battles/wars Russo-Turkish War (1787–92)

Russo-Swedish War (1788–90)
Kościuszko Uprising

Finnish War
Napoleonic Wars

Awards Order of St. George
Coat of arms of the princely Barclay de Tolly family of 1815, in the Baltic Coat of arms book [et
] by Carl Arvid von Klingspor [de
] in 1882. Barclay de Tolly.jpg
Coat of arms of the princely Barclay de Tolly family of 1815, in the Baltic Coat of arms book  [ et ] by Carl Arvid von Klingspor  [ de ] in 1882.

Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly [nb 1] (German : Fürst Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly; 27 December [ O.S. 16 December] 176126 May [ O.S. 14 May] 1818) was a Baltic German Field Marshal and Minister of War of the Russian Empire during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition. Barclay implemented a number of reforms during this time that improved supply system in the army, doubled the number of army troops, and implemented new combat training principles. He was also the Governor-General of Finland.

<i>Knyaz</i> Historical Slavic title

Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is usually translated into English as prince, duke or count, depending on specific historical context and the potentially known Latin equivalents of the title for each bearer of the name. In Latin sources the title is usually translated as comes or princeps, but the word was originally derived from the Proto-Germanic *kuningaz (king).

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

Contents

He was born into a German-speaking noble family from Livonia who were members of the Scottish Clan Barclay. His father was the first of his family to be accepted into the Russian nobility. Barclay joined the Imperial Russian Army at a young age in 1776, enlisting in the Pskov Carabineer Regiment. For his role in the capture of Ochakov in 1788 from the Ottomans, he was personally decorated by Grigory Potemkin. Afterwards he participated in Catherine II's Swedish War. In 1794, he took part in putting down the Kościuszko Uprising in Poland and was again decorated for role in the capture of Vilnius.

Baltic Germans ethnic Germans inhabitants of the eastern Baltic Sea

The Baltic Germans are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia. Since their resettlement in 1939, Baltic Germans have markedly declined as a geographically determined ethnic group. The largest groups of present-day descendants of the Baltic Germans live in Germany and Canada. It is estimated that several thousand still reside in Latvia and Estonia.

Livonia historic region along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea

Livonia is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the Livonians, who lived on the shores of present-day Latvia.

Clan Barclay

Clan Barclay is a Lowland Scottish clan.

In 1806, Barclay began commanding in the Napoleonic Wars, distinguishing himself at the Battle of Pułtusk that same year. He was wounded at the Battle of Eylau in 1807 while his troops were covering the retreat of the Russian army. Because of his wounds, he was forced to leave command. The following year, he carried out successful operations in the Finnish War against Sweden. Barclay led a large number of Russian troops approximately 100km across the frozen Gulf of Bothnia in winter during a snowstorm. For his accomplishments, Barclay de Tolly was appointed Governor-General of the Grand Duchy of Finland. From 20 January 1810 to September 1812 he was the Minister of War of the Russian Empire.

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).

Battle of Pułtusk

The Battle of Pułtusk took place on 26 December 1806 during the War of the Fourth Coalition near Pułtusk, Poland. Despite their strong numerical superiority and artillery, the Russians suffered the French attacks, before retiring the next day having suffered greater losses than the French, disorganizing their army for the rest of the year.

Battle of Eylau battle

The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia. Late in the battle, the Russians received timely reinforcements from a Prussian division of von L'Estocq. After 1945 the town was renamed Bagrationovsk as a part of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. The engagement was fought during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.

When the French invasion of Russia began in 1812, Barclay de Tolly was commander of the 1st Army of the West, the largest Army to face Napoleon. Barclay was appointed Commander-in-Chief and initiated a scorched earth policy from the beginning of the campaign, though this made him unpopular among Russians. After the Battle of Smolensk failed to halt the French and discontent among Russians continued to grow, Alexander I appointed Mikhail Kutuzov as Commander-in-Chief, though Barclay remained in charge of the 1st Army. However, Kutuzov continued the same scorched earth retreat up to Moscow where the Battle of Borodino took place nearby. Barclay commanded the right wing and center of the Russian army for the battle. After Napoleon's retreat, the eventual success of Barclay's tactics made him a hero among Russians. He became Commander-in-Chief once again in 1813 after the death of Kutuzov and led the taking of Paris, for which he was made a Field Marshal. His health later declined and he died on a visit to Germany in 1818.

French invasion of Russia Napoleon Bonapartes attempted conquest of the Russian Empire

The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 and in France as the Russian Campaign, began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army. Napoleon hoped to compel the Emperor of All Russia, Alexander I, to cease trading with British merchants through proxies in an effort to pressure the United Kingdom to sue for peace. The official political aim of the campaign was to liberate Poland from the threat of Russia. Napoleon named the campaign the Second Polish War to gain favor with the Poles and to provide a political pretext for his actions.

The First Western Army was created in 1810 as part of the reorganisation of the Imperial Russian Army, and was intended as a defense against the north-western part of the Empire from the expected invasion by Napoleon. The total troops in this Army included 150 battalions, 128 squadrons, 19 cossack regiments, and 590 guns.

Scorched earth military strategy

A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location. Any assets that could be used by the enemy may be targeted, for example food sources, water supplies, transportation, communications, industrial resources, and even the local people themselves.

Early life and family

Barclay de Tolly was a descendant of the Scottish Clan Barclay, with roots in Towie (Towy or Tolly; Scottish Gaelic : Tollaigh) in Aberdeenshire. [2] He was born in Pomautsch  [ lt ], [3] [4] Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (present-day Pamūšis, Šiauliai County, Lithuania) and raised in Beckhof, Livonia, Russian Empire (now part of Estonia). The commonly accepted birth date of 27 December 1761 is actually the day of his baptism in the Lutheran church of the town Zaumel. [5] He was a German-speaking descendant of a Scottish family, as his ancestor Peter Barclay had settled in Livonia in the 17th century.

Towie, Aberdeenshire Hamlet in Aberdeenshire, Scotland

Towie is a small hamlet in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, close to Alford and Lumsden, on the River Don.

Duchy of Courland and Semigallia former country

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.

Šiauliai County County in Lithuania

Šiauliai County is one of ten counties in Lithuania. It is in the north of the country, and its capital is Šiauliai. On 1 July 2010, the county administration was abolished, and since that date, Šiauliai County remains as the territorial and statistical unit.

From 1765, the young Barclay de Tolly grew up in St. Petersburg and was raised by his aunt. Gregory Fremont-Barnes and Todd Fisher, who are amongst the world's leading Napoleonic-era scholars,[ citation needed ] state that this was a common occurrence amongst the German Protestants, and it gave the young man an exposure to higher society unavailable in the Baltic provinces. [6] His grandfather Wilhelm Barclay de Tolly served as the mayor of Riga, while his father Bogdan Barclay de Tolly (1734–1781) served in the Russian army before being admitted into the ranks of the Russian nobility by the Tsar. [6]

Barclay de Tolly (Russian nobility) noble family

Barclay de Tolly is the name of a Baltic German noble family of Scottish origin. During the time of the Revolution of 1688 in Britain, the family migrated to Russia from Towy (Towie) in Aberdeenshire. It then became a German-speaking family in Livonia.

Riga City in Latvia

Riga is the capital, the largest and primate city of Latvia. With 632,614 inhabitants (2019), it is also the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava river. Riga's territory covers 307.17 km2 (118.60 sq mi) and lies 1–10 m above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain.

The future field marshal started his active service in the Imperial Russian Army in 1776, and he would spend the rest of his life with the military. [6] [ dead link ] He had two brothers who also served in the Russian army, Axel Heinrich Barclay de Tolly, a Major General of Engineers, and Erich Johann Barclay de Tolly, a Major of Artillery.

Service history

Arms of Prince Barclay de Tolly Barclay de Tolly.jpg
Arms of Prince Barclay de Tolly
Statue of Barclay de Tolly in front of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg, by Boris Orlovsky Monument to Barclay de Tolly in SPB.jpg
Statue of Barclay de Tolly in front of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg, by Boris Orlovsky

Barclay was enlisted in the Pskov Carabineer Regiment on 13 May 1776, and he achieved the rank of a cornet by May 1778.[ citation needed ] In the same year, he joined the Imperial jaeger regiments, and joined alongside the rest of his unit the army of Prince Potemkin. [6] In 1788–1789, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792, Barclay served against the Turks, under the command of Victor Amadeus of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym. During this campaign, he distinguished himself in the taking of Ochakov and Akkerman.

In 1789, he was transferred to the Finnish front during the Russo-Swedish War of 1788-1790, [6] and four years later, he fought against the Poles. [6] He was a lieutenant colonel by 1794 after serving as aide-de-camp to various senior officers in several campaigns. In that year, he was appointed commander of the Estland Jaeger Corps, and three years later commander of the 4th Jaeger Regiment, becoming its chief in 1799, soon after being promoted to general major for his service in the Polish Campaign of 1794. [7]

In the war of 1806 against Napoleon, Barclay took a distinguished part in the Battle of Pultusk (December 1806) and was wounded at the Battle of Eylau (7 February 1807), where his conduct won him promotion to the rank of lieutenant general. [8] After a period of convalescence, Barclay returned to the army and in 1808 commanded operations against the Swedes during the Finnish War. In 1809, he successfully marched over the frozen Gulf of Bothnia, which allowed him to surprise the enemy and seize Umeå in Sweden. [8] For this exploit, immortalized by the Russian poet Baratynsky, he was made full general and Governor-General of Finland. A year later, he became Minister of War, retaining the post until 1813. [8]

Napoleon's invasion

During Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812, Barclay assumed the supreme command of the 1st Army of the West, the largest of the Russian armies facing Napoleon. He used a strategy of retreat leaving behind scorched earth from the beginning of the campaign in order to draw the French supply lines deep into Russian territory and retreated to the village of Tsaryovo-Zaimishche between Moscow and Smolensk, although some consider the strategy merely an confluence of diverse circumstances and not attributable to the will of one man. [9]

Nevertheless, the Russians keenly opposed the appointment of a foreigner as commander-in-chief. His rivals spread rumors of his being Napoleon's agent, and the populace condemned him as a coward. Barclay was forced by his subordinates and the Tsar to engage Napoleon at Smolensk (17–18 August 1812). Napoleon forced Barclay to retreat when he threatened Barclay's only escape route. After losing the Holy City of Smolensk, the outcry of officers and civilians grew to a point where the Tsar could no longer ignore it. He appointed Kutuzov, previously a general at the battle of Austerlitz, as the over-all commander of the Russian forces. Barclay remained General of the 1st Army of the West.

Barclay commanded the right flank at the Battle of Borodino (7 September 1812) with great valour and presence of mind and during the celebrated council at Fili advised Kutuzov to surrender unfortified Moscow to the enemy. His illness made itself known at that time and he was forced to leave the army soon afterwards.

After Napoleon was driven from Russia, the eventual success of Barclay's tactics made him a romantic hero, misunderstood by his contemporaries and rejected by the court. His popularity soared, and his honour was restored by the tsar.

Foreign campaigns

Barclay was re-employed in the field and took part in the German Campaign of 1813 and the French Campaign of 1814, which ended the War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814). After Kutuzov's death, he once again became commander-in-chief of the Russian forces at the Battle of Bautzen (21 May 1813), and in this capacity he served at Dresden (26–27 August 1813), Kulm (29–30 August 1813) and Leipzig (16–19 October 1813). In the latter battle, he commanded a central part of the Allied forces so effectively that the tsar bestowed upon him the title of count.

Barclay de Tolly Mausoleum in Jogeveste, southern Estonia DeTollyMausoleum.jpg
Barclay de Tolly Mausoleum in Jõgeveste, southern Estonia

Barclay took part in the invasion of France in 1814 and commanded the taking of Paris, receiving the baton of a Field Marshal in reward. In 1815 he again served as commander-in-chief of the Russian army, which after the Hundred Days occupied France, and he was created a prince at the close of the war.

As his health grew worse, he left the military and settled down in his Jõgeveste manor (German exonym: Beckhof, Polish: Tepelshof) (nowadays Southern Estonia). [10] Barclay de Tolly died at Insterburg (Chernyakhovsk), East Prussia, on 26 May 1818 (14 May, Old Style) on his way from his Livonian manor to Germany, where he wanted to renew his health. His and his wife Helene Auguste Eleonore von Smitten's remains were embalmed and put into the mausoleum built to a design by Apollon Shchedrin and Vasily Demut-Malinovsky in 1832 in Jõgeveste (in Helme, Estonia).

Bust of Barclay de Tolly in Tartu, Estonia. BarclayDeTolly-TartuStatue.jpg
Bust of Barclay de Tolly in Tartu, Estonia.

A grand statue of him was erected in front of the Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg at the behest of Emperor Nicholas I. He is also commemorated by a modern statue in Riga, a full-size bronze-mounted statue by Vladimir Surovtsev in Chernyakhovsk, a bust monument in Tartu, and the so-called "Barclay's leaning house" in Tartu (which was acquired by his widow after his death).

After the extinction of the Barclay de Tolly princely line with his son Magnus on 29 October 1871 (17 October, Old Style), Alexander II allowed the field marshal's sister's grandson through female lineage, Alexander von Weymarn, to assume the title of Prince Barclay de Tolly-Weymarn on 12 June 1872 (31 May, Old Style). [11] [12]

Awards and decorations

Commemoratives and legacy

Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly. Russia postage stamp, 2011 Barclay de Tolly stamp 2011.jpg
Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly. Russia postage stamp, 2011

Notes

  1. In Russian: Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay-de-Tolli Cyrillic: Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли

Related Research Articles

Pyotr Bagration General of the Imperial Russian Army

Pyotr Bagration was a Russian general and prince of Georgian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.

Battle of Leipzig 1813 Napoleonic battle

The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine. The battle was the culmination of the German campaign of 1813 and involved 600,000 soldiers, 2,200 artillery pieces, the expenditure of 200,000 rounds of artillery ammunition and 127,000 casualties, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.

Battle of Borodino battle of the French invasion of Russia during the Napoleonic Wars

The Battle of Borodino was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.

Mikhail Kutuzov Field Marshal of the Russian Empire

Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals.

Fabian Steinheil Russian army general, Governor General of Finland. Discoverer of pargasite and cordierite, var. steinheilite

Count Fabian Gotthard von Steinheil was a Russian military officer, and the Governor-General of Finland between 1810 and 1824.

Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Marshal of France

Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, 1st Marquis of Gouvion-Saint-Cyr was a French commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars who rose to Marshal of France and Marquis.

War of the Sixth Coalition Part of the Napoleonic Wars

In the War of the Sixth Coalition, sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German States defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia of 1812, the continental powers joined Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal and the rebels in Spain who were already at war with France.

Levin August von Bennigsen German general

Levin August Gottlieb Theophil Graf von Bennigsen was a German general in the service of the Russian Empire.

Peter Wittgenstein Russian army officer in the Napoleonic wars (1769–1843)

Louis Adolph Peter, 1st Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg-Berleburg, better known as Peter Wittgenstein in English, was a Prince of the German dynasty Sayn-Wittgenstein and Field Marshal in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic wars.

Wincenty Krasiński nobleman, political activist and military leader

Count Wincenty Krasiński was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), political activist and military leader.

Preobrazhensky Regiment

The Preobrazhensky Lifeguard Regiment was one of the oldest and most elite guard regiments of the Imperial Russian Army. Along with the Semyonovsky Regiment, the Preobrazhensky Regiment also served as a gendarmerie unit for the state Secret Chancellery in the 18th century, headed by Prince Fyodor Romodanovsky.

Aleksey Gorchakov Russian general

Prince Aleksey Ivanovich Gorchakov was a Russian general and statesman from the Gorchakov family.

Alexander Chernyshyov Russian general, diplomat and statesman

Prince Alexander Ivanovich Chernyshov, General of Cavalry (1827), was a Russian military leader, diplomat and statesman, whose career began in the Napoleonic Wars. After the Battle of Austerlitz (1805), he carried out successful diplomatic missions to France and Sweden and served with distinction in battles of 1812 and 1813. Chernyshyov rose through the ranks to the role of Russian Minister of War (1827–1852), chairman of the State Council and Cabinet of Ministers (1848–1856), and acquired the styles from Count (1826) to Serene Prince (1849).

Imperial Russian Army land armed force of the Russian Empire

The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars.

Étienne Tardif de Pommeroux de Bordesoulle French general

Étienne Tardif de Pommeroux, comte de Bordesoulle was a French nobleman and soldier, who fought in the Napoleonic Wars and the Spanish expedition.

Samuel-François Lhéritier French General during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars

Baron Samuel-François Lhéritier de Chézelles was a French soldier who rose through the ranks during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, eventually gaining promotion to the military rank of Général de Division.

Nikita Pankratiev Imperial Russian general-lieutenant

Nikita Petrovich Pankratiev was an Imperial Russian general-lieutenant (1829).

Alexander Barclay de Tolly-Weymarn

Prince Alexander Magnus Friedrich Barclay de Tolly-Weymarn, born as Alexander Magnus Friedrich von Weymarn, was a Baltic German military commander who served in the Imperial Russian Army.

The Special Chancellery was a unit of Russian foreign intelligence in the beginning of the 19th century, serving the reign of Alexander I of Russia during the Napoleonic wars. The Special Chancellery participated in the two years prior to and during the French Invasion of Russia in 1812. The Special Chancellery operated under the Minister of War. The Minister of War at the time, Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, created the Special Chancellery in 1812. The Special Chancellery’s mission was to gather intelligence on the political activity, military activity, and economy of European states that were a potential enemy of Russia, particularly France. Its operations focused on strategic intelligence, operational and tactical intelligence, and counterintelligence. The Special Chancellery is known to be the birth of counterespionage in Russia.

References

  1. Carl Arvid von Klingspor (1882). Baltisches Wappenbuch. Stockholm. p. 112. ISBN   978-0-543-98710-5 . Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  2. His ancestor emigrated from Towy (Tolly) in Aberdeenshire c. 1688. "CHAPTER IX. SCOTTISH FAMILIES SETTLED IN RUSSIA. THE COURT PHYSICIANS. ROGERSON. OTHER SCOTS - SIR James WYLIE, COUNT BARCLAY DE TOLLY, LERMONTOFF. CONCLUSION.". Scottish Influences in Russian History. p. 6. Retrieved 2015-08-26. The story of the family is this. They came to Russia during the times of the Revolution of 1688, from Towy (Tolly) in Aberdeenshire.[ permanent dead link ]
  3. ‹See Tfd› (in Russian) Biography on the official website of the Russian Ministry of Defense Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
  4. (in Lithuanian) Famous Russian officer is from Lithuania
  5. (in Lithuanian) The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Lithuania Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fremont-Barnes & Fisher 2004, p. 172.
  7. p. 25, Mikaberidze, The Russian officer Corps
  8. 1 2 3 Nafziger 2001, p. 26.
  9. War and Peace by graf Leo Tolstoy. April 2001. Retrieved 4 April 2018 via www.gutenberg.org.
  10. Anderson, Sten. "Hotell De Tolly". www.hotelldetolly.ee. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  11. "Genealogisches Handbuch der Oeselschen Ritterschaft, Seite 442". personen.digitale-sammlungen.de.
  12. "Genealogisches Handbuch der Oeselschen Ritterschaft, Seite 424". personen.digitale-sammlungen.de.
  13. "31 greatest commanders in Russian history". russian7.ru. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  14. Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(4524) Barklajdetolli". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (4524) Barklajdetolli. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 389. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_4463. ISBN   978-3-540-00238-3.

Sources

Further reading

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly at Wikimedia Commons

Political offices
Preceded by
Georg Magnus Sprengtporten
Governor-General of Finland
1809–1810
Succeeded by
Fabian Steinheil
Government offices
Preceded by
Aleksey Arakcheyev
Minister of Land Forces of Russia
1810–1812
Succeeded by
Aleksey Gorchakov