Michael DeBakey

Last updated
Michael DeBakey
Michael DeBakey.jpg
Michael Ellis DeBakey
Born
Michael DeBakey

(1908-09-07)September 7, 1908
DiedJuly 11, 2008(2008-07-11) (aged 99)
Alma mater Tulane University
Awards Lomonosov Gold Medal (2003)

Michael Ellis DeBakey (7 September 1908 – 11 July 2008) was a Lebanese-American cardiovascular surgeon, scientist, and medical educator. [1] DeBakey was the chancellor emeritus of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, director of The Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, and senior attending surgeon of The Methodist Hospital in Houston. [2] [3] [4] He participated in important work in the treatment of heart patients. [5]

Baylor College of Medicine

Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas, US, is a health sciences university. It includes a medical school, Baylor College of Medicine; the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; the School of Allied Health Sciences; and the National School of Tropical Medicine. The school, located in the middle of the world's largest medical center, is part owner of Baylor St. Luke's Medical Center, part of the CHI St. Luke's Health system, and has hospital affiliations with: Harris Health System, Texas Children's Hospital, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Memorial Hermann – The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, Menninger Clinic, the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Children's Hospital of San Antonio.

Houston City in Texas, United States

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles (1,620 km2), Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States. Though primarily in Harris county, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend & Montgomery counties.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Contents

Early life

He was born in Lake Charles, Louisiana, on September 7, 1908. [6] His parents were Maronite Christian Lebanese immigrants Shaker and Raheeja Dabaghi (later Anglicized to DeBakey).[ citation needed ]

Lake Charles, Louisiana City in Louisiana, United States

Lake Charles is the fifth-largest incorporated city in the U.S. state of Louisiana, located on Lake Charles, Prien Lake, and the Calcasieu River. Founded in 1861 in Calcasieu Parish, it is a major industrial, cultural, and educational center in the southwest region of the state.

Medical career

Colonel Michael DeBakey, Medical Corps, US Army, October 1945-February 1946 7410062962 e303caa6fe oMichael DeBakey.jpg
Colonel Michael DeBakey, Medical Corps, US Army, October 1945-February 1946

DeBakey received his BS degree from Tulane University in New Orleans. In 1932, he received an M.D. degree from Tulane University School of Medicine. He remained in New Orleans to complete his internship and residency in surgery at Charity Hospital. DeBakey completed his surgical fellowships at the University of Strasbourg, France, under Professor René Leriche, and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, under Professor Martin Kirschner. Returning to Tulane Medical School, he served on the surgical faculty from 1937 to 1948. From 1942 to 1946, he was on military leave as a member of the Surgical Consultants' Division in the Office of the Surgeon General of the Army, and in 1945 he became its Director and received the Legion of Merit. DeBakey helped develop the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) units and later helped establish the Veteran's Administration Medical Center Research System. He joined the faculty of Baylor University College of Medicine (now known as the Baylor College of Medicine) in 1948, serving as Chairman of the Department of Surgery until 1993. DeBakey was president of the college from 1969 to 1979, served as Chancellor from 1979 to January 1996; he was then named Chancellor Emeritus. He was also Olga Keith Wiess and Distinguished Service Professor in the Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery at Baylor College of Medicine and Director of the DeBakey Heart Center for research and public education at Baylor College of Medicine and The Methodist Hospital.

A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.

Tulane University private university in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States

Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. It is considered the top university and the most selective institution of higher education in the state of Louisiana. The school is known to attract a geographically diverse student body, with 85 percent of undergraduate students coming from over 300 miles away.

Tulane University School of Medicine

The Tulane University School of Medicine is located in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States and is a part of Tulane University. The school is located in the Medical District of the New Orleans Central Business District.

He was a member of the medical advisory committee of the Hoover Commission and was chairman of the President's Commission on Heart Disease, Cancer and Stroke during the Johnson Administration. He worked in numerous capacities to improve national and international standards of health care. Among his numerous consultative appointments was a three-year membership on the National Advisory Heart and Lung Council of the National Institutes of Health.

The Hoover Commission, officially named the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, was a body appointed by President Harry S. Truman in 1947 to recommend administrative changes in the Federal Government of the United States. It took its nickname from former President Herbert Hoover, who was appointed by Truman to chair it.

Lyndon B. Johnson 36th President of the United States

Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. Formerly the 37th vice president of the United States from 1961 to 1963, he assumed the presidency following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson also served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people who have served in all four federal elected positions.

National Institutes of Health Medical research organization in the United States

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The majority of NIH facilities are located in Bethesda, Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program (IRP) and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program.

DeBakey served in the U.S. Army during World War II and promoted wartime medicine by supporting the stationing of doctors closer to the front lines which improved the survival rate of wounded soldiers in the Korean War. [7] [8]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Korean War 1950–1953 war between North Korea and South Korea

The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border.

Medical pioneer

At age 23, while still in medical school at Tulane University, DeBakey developed a version of the roller pump, a component of the heart–lung machine. [9] [10] The pump provided a continuous flow of blood during operations. This, in turn, made open-heart surgery possible. The roller pump had first been invented for blood transfusions by American inventor Eugene E. Allen from 1881 through 1890 (US Patents 249285, 409000, and 425015).

Peristaltic pump

A peristaltic pump is a type of positive displacement pump used for pumping a variety of fluids, they are also commonly known as roller pumps. The fluid is contained within a flexible tube fitted inside a circular pump casing. A rotor with a number of "rollers", "shoes", "wipers", or "lobes" attached to the external circumference of the rotor compresses the flexible tube. As the rotor turns, the part of the tube under compression is pinched closed thus forcing the fluid to be pumped to move through the tube. Additionally, as the tube opens to its natural state after the passing of the cam fluid flow is induced to the pump. This process is called peristalsis and is used in many biological systems such as the gastrointestinal tract. Typically, there will be two or more rollers, or wipers, occluding the tube, trapping between them a body of fluid. The body of fluid is then transported, at ambient pressure, toward the pump outlet. Peristaltic pumps may run continuously, or they may be indexed through partial revolutions to deliver smaller amounts of fluid.

Heart Surgeon Michael E. DeBakey Michael E. DeBakey.jpeg
Heart Surgeon Michael E. DeBakey

With his mentor, Alton Ochsner, he postulated in 1939 a strong link between smoking and carcinoma of the lung, a hypothesis which other researchers supported as well. DeBakey was among the earlier surgeons to perform coronary artery bypass surgery, and in 1953 he performed the first successful carotid endarterectomy. A pioneer in the development of an artificial heart, DeBakey was among the first to use an external heart pump successfully in a patient – a left ventricular bypass pump.

DeBakey helped pioneered the use of Dacron grafts to replace or repair blood vessels. In 1958, to counteract narrowing of an artery caused by an endarterectomy, DeBakey performed the first successful patch-graft angioplasty. This procedure involved patching the slit in the artery from an endarterectomy with a Dacron or vein graft. The patch widened the artery so that when it closed, the channel of the artery returned to normal size.

In the 1960s, DeBakey and his team of surgeons were among the early instances of surgeries on film. [9] DeBakey hired surgeon Denton Cooley to Baylor College of Medicine in 1951. They collaborated and frequently worked together until Cooley's resignation from his faculty position at the college in 1969.

The Congressional Gold Medal awarded to DeBakey 2007 Michael DeBakey Congressional Gold Medal front.jpg
The Congressional Gold Medal awarded to DeBakey

The DeBakey High School for Health Professions, the Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center and the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston at the Texas Medical Center in Houston are named after him. He had a role in establishing the Michael E. DeBakey Heart Institute at the Hays Medical Center in Kansas. Several atraumatic vascular surgical clamps and forceps that he introduced also bear his name. DeBakey founded the Michael E. DeBakey Institute at Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences as a collaboration between Texas A&M, the Baylor College of Medicine and the UT Health Science Center at Houston to further cardiovascular research.

DeBakey received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969. In 1987, President Ronald Reagan awarded him the National Medal of Science. [11] He was a Health Care Hall of Famer, a Lasker Luminary, and a recipient of The United Nations Lifetime Achievement Award and the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction. He was given the Lifetime Achievement Award of the Foundation for Biomedical Research and in 2000 was cited as a "Living Legend" by the Library of Congress. On April 23, 2008, he received the Congressional Gold Medal from President George W. Bush, Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid. [12] [13] [14]

DeBakey continued to practice medicine until his death in 2008 at the age of 99. His contributions to the field of medicine spanned the better part of 75 years. DeBakey operated on more than 60,000 patients, including several heads of state. [15] DeBakey and a team of American cardiothoracic surgeons, including George Noon, supervised quintuple bypass surgery performed by Russian surgeons on Russian President Boris Yeltsin in 1996. [16]

Health issues

On December 31, 2005, at age 97, DeBakey suffered an aortic dissection. Years prior, DeBakey had pioneered the surgical treatment of this condition, creating what is now known as the DeBakey Procedure. [1] He was hospitalized at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas.

DeBakey initially resisted the surgical option, but as his health deteriorated and DeBakey became unresponsive, the surgical team opted to proceed with surgical intervention. In a controversial decision, Houston Methodist Hospital Ethics Committee approved the operation; on February 9–10, he became the oldest patient ever to undergo the surgery for which he was responsible. The operation lasted seven hours. After a complicated post-operative course that required eight months in the hospital at a cost of over one million dollars, DeBakey was released in September 2006 and returned to good health. [16]

In early 2008, Dr. DeBakey attended the groundbreaking for the new Michael E. DeBakey Library and Museum at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, [17] honoring his life, work, and dedication to care and teaching. The museum officially opened on Friday, May 14, 2010. [18]

Death

On July 11, 2008, DeBakey died at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, two months before his 100th birthday; the cause of death remained unspecified. [1] [19] After lying in repose in Houston's City Hall, being the first ever to do so, [20] DeBakey received a memorial service at the Co-Cathedral of the Sacred Heart on July 16, 2008 [21] Dr. DeBakey was granted ground burial in Arlington National Cemetery by the Secretary of the Army. [22] On January 21, 2009, DeBakey became the first posthumous recipient of The Denton A. Cooley Leadership Award. [23]

Views on animal research

DeBakey founded and chaired the Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR), whose goal is to promote public understanding and support for animal research. DeBakey made wide use of animals in his research. [24] He antagonized animal rights and animal welfare advocates who oppose the use of animals in the development of medical treatment for humans when he claimed that the "future of biomedical research; and ultimately human health" would be compromised if shelters stopped turning over surplus animals for medical research. [25] Responding to the need for animal research, DeBakey stated that "These scientists, veterinarians, physicians, surgeons and others who do research in animal labs are as much concerned about the care of the animals as anyone can be. Their respect for the dignity of life and compassion for the sick and disabled, in fact, is what motivated them to search for ways of relieving the pain and suffering caused by diseases." [26]

DeBakey Medical Foundation

In honor of DeBakey, the DeBakey Medical Foundation, in conjunction with Baylor College of Medicine, annually selects recipients of the Michael E. DeBakey, M.D., Excellence in Research Awards. [27] The awards recognize faculty who have published outstanding scientific research contributions to clinical or basic biomedical research. The awards are funded by the DeBakey Medical Foundation and have funded researchers from the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy at Texas Children's Cancer Center. [28]

The Foundation helped to establish the Michael E. DeBakey, Selma DeBakey and Lois DeBakey Endowed Scholarship Fund in Medical Humanities at Baylor University. [29] The scholarship designates award recipients as "DeBakey Scholars" in recognition of the legacy of the DeBakey family.

Honors

DeBakey High School for Health Professions DeBakeyHighSchoolHouston.JPG
DeBakey High School for Health Professions

Publications

DeBakey's writings are reflected in his authorship or co-authorship in more than 1,300 published medical articles, chapters and books on various aspects of surgery, medicine, health, medical research and medical education, as well as ethical, socio-economic and philosophic discussion in these fields. In addition to his scholarly writings, he co-authored such popular works as The Living Heart, The Living Heart Shopper's Guide and The Living Heart Guide to Eating Out. Some of the references:

M. E. DeBakey: The living heart. Charter Books, 1977; Putnam Publishing Group, 1983

M. E. DeBakey: The Living heart diet. New York: Raven Press/Simon and Schuster, 1984

M. E. DeBakey: New living heart. Adams, 1997

Michael DeBakey and Antonio Gotto: The Living Heart in the 21st Century. Prometheus, 2012

DeBakey worked on his first book with Beebe after the Second World War:

M. E. DeBakey and G. W. Beebe: Battle Casualties Incidence, Mortality, and Logistic Considerations, 1952

See also

Related Research Articles

Texas Medical Center Business district and neighborhood of Houston in Harris County, Texas, United States

The Texas Medical Center (TMC) is a 2.1-square-mile (5.4 km2) medical district and neighborhood in south-central Houston, Texas, immediately south of the Museum District and west of Texas State Highway 288. Over sixty medical institutions, largely concentrated in a triangular area between Brays Bayou, Rice University, and Hermann Park, are members of the Texas Medical Center Corporation—a non-profit umbrella organization—which constitutes the largest medical complex in the world. The TMC has an extremely high density of clinical facilities for patient care, basic science, and translational research.

Denton Cooley American heart surgeon

Denton Arthur Cooley was an American heart and cardiothoracic surgeon famous for performing the first implantation of a total artificial heart. Cooley was also founder and surgeon in-chief of The Texas Heart Institute, chief of Cardiovascular Surgery at clinical partner Baylor St. Luke's Medical Center, consultant in Cardiovascular Surgery at Texas Children's Hospital and a clinical professor of Surgery at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

DeBakey High School for Health Professions

Michael E. DeBakey High School for Health Professions (DHSHP) is a medical secondary school located in the Medical Center area of Houston, Texas, United States. It is a part of the Houston Independent School District (HISD).

Houston Methodist Hospital Hospital in Texas, United States

Houston Methodist Hospital is the flagship hospital of Houston Methodist. Located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas, Houston Methodist Hospital was established in 1919 during the height of the Spanish influenza epidemic as an outreach ministry of Methodist Episcopal Church. Houston Methodist comprises seven community hospitals, a continuing care hospital as well as several emergency centers and physical therapy clinics throughout greater Houston.

Rafael Espada Guatemalan politician

Dr. José Rafael Espada is a former Vice President of Guatemala and a former cardiothoracic surgeon.

Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston Hospital in Texas, United States

Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center (MEDVAMC) is a hospital affiliated with and operated by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas. It is one of the department's largest hospitals, serving Harris County, Texas and 27 surrounding counties. It is named for Michael E. DeBakey, a renowned surgeon and president of Baylor College of Medicine.

Domingo Liotta Argentinian surgeon

Domingo Santo Liotta is a pioneer of heart surgery, creator of multiple cardiac prostheses including the first total artificial heart used in a human being.

O. H. "Bud" Frazier, M.D. is a heart surgeon and director of cardiovascular surgery research at the Texas Heart Institute (THI), best known for his work in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) of failing hearts using left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and total artificial hearts (TAH).

F. Charles Brunicardi is an American physician.

Peter H. Lin American surgeon

Peter Lin is an American vascular surgeon, medical researcher, specializing in minimally invasive endovascular treatment of vascular disease. He has published extensively in the area of vascular surgery and endovascular surgery.

Gerald Murray Lawrie, M.D. is an American heart surgeon and pioneer in the surgical treatment of valvular heart disease of Australian descent.

Norman Edward Shumway was a pioneer of heart surgery at Stanford University. He was the 67th president of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery and the second to perform a Heart transplantation in the United States.

Charles D Fraser, Jr. is the Medical Director and Surgeon of the Texas Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease at Dell Children's Medical Center. Formerly, Dr. Fraser was Chief of Congenital Heart Surgery and Cardiac Surgeon In-Charge at Texas Children’s Hospital, the nation’s largest pediatric hospital, served as chief of the Congenital Heart Surgery Division at Baylor College of Medicine, and Director of the Adult Congenital Heart Surgery Program at the Texas Heart Institute.

Michael J. Reardon is an American cardiac surgeon and medical researcher. He is known for his work in heart autotransplantation for cancerous heart tumor, an operation in which the surgeon removes the patient’s heart, cuts out the malignant tumor, and reimplants the heart back in the patient’s chest. He performed the first successful heart autotransplantation for a cancerous heart tumor in 1998.

Daniel Albo is an American surgeon, medical researcher, and pioneer in minimally invasive gastrointestinal surgical oncology. He has published in areas including laparoscopic colorectal surgery and surgical oncology. He is the director of surgical oncology services and the director of health services research at the Georgia Regents University Cancer Center.

David John Sugarbaker was an American physician who was Chief of the Division of General Thoracic Surgery and the Director of the Baylor College of Medicine Lung Institute at CHI St. Luke's Health–Baylor St. Luke's Medical Center in Houston, Texas. He was an internationally recognized thoracic surgeon specializing in the treatment of mesothelioma, the surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma, and treatment of complex thoracic cancers.

William Harrison Bell was an American Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon and a Professor of Surgery who is known for his contributions to the field of Orthognathic Surgery. Dr. Bell's groundbreaking research provided a biologic basis for the Le Fort I osteotomy and other orthognathic surgical procedures used to reposition the facial skeleton. Active throughout his life, his later work provided a biologic rationale for distraction osteogenesis of the facial skeleton, a technique used to gradually lengthen bone at a rate of 1mm a day. A prolific author, his publications provided a thorough description of the diagnosis and management of dentofacial deformity, surgical technique, and detailed figures that illustrated the operations in sufficient detail that would provide generations of surgeons the necessary information from which to apply a surgical-orthodontic approach to facial deformity. He is credited in the United States with pioneering the transition of the field of Oral Surgery to become Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

William A. Zoghbi is a Lebanese-American cardiologist. He is Professor of Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College and in the Houston Methodist Institute for Academic Medicine, in Houston Texas. He holds the Elkins Family Distinguished Chair in Cardiac Health at the Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center. Zoghbi is the Chairman of the Department of Cardiology at Houston Methodist Hospital. He is a Master of the American College of Cardiology and served as its president in 2012.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Ackerman, Todd; Eric Berger (2008-07-12). "Dr. Michael DeBakey: 1908-2008". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  2. "Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, General facts". methodisthealth.com. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
  3. "DeBakey Bio". Baylor College of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2013-05-30.
  4. "AMNews: May 19, 2008. Heart surgeon pioneer wins highest civilian honor". AMNews. 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2008-07-13.
  5. Caroline Richmond (2008-07-14). "Michael DeBakey: Cardiovascular surgeon whose innovations revolutionised the treatment of heart patients". The Independent .
  6. Patricia Sullivan (July 13, 2008). "Michael DeBakey – cardiac surgery pioneer who saved thousands in his 70-year career". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  7. Altman, Lawrence K. (2008-07-13). "Michael DeBakey, Rebuilder of Hearts, Dies at 99". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
  8. "Dr. Michael DeBakey". They Got Their Start In Military Medicine. Department of Defense Military Health System. Retrieved 2008-07-12.[ dead link ]
  9. 1 2 "DeBakey Surgical Innovations". Baylor College of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2010-06-05. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
  10. https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/FJBBHD.pdf
  11. "The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details | NSF - National Science Foundation". Nsf.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  12. "Heart surgeon DeBakey receives high honor". KTRK. 2008-04-30.
  13. "Houston's DeBakey gets congressional medal in D.C." Houston Chronicle.
  14. "Michael DeBakey, pioneer of heart procedures, dead at 99". Associated Press. July 12, 2008. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  15. 1 2 Altman, Lawrence K. (2006-12-25). "The Man on the Table Was 97, but He Devised the Surgery". The New York Times . Retrieved 2006-12-25.
  16. Museum History (2013-08-08). "Museum History | Baylor College of Medicine | Houston, Texas". Bcm.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  17. Todd Ackerman, Houston Chronicle (2010-05-14). "Baylor honors pioneer DeBakey with library, museum - Houston Chronicle". Chron.com. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  18. "Baylor, Methodist mourn death of Dr. Michael E. DeBakey". Baylor College of Medicine.
  19. Ackerman, Todd (2008-07-15). "Houstonians view DeBakey's casket at City Hall - Houston Chronicle". Chron.com. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  20. "Dr. DeBakey is being remembered in a way officials say has never happened | abc13.com". Abclocal.go.com. 2008-07-15. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  21. Lefrak, EA; Stevens, PM; Nicotra, MB; Viroslav, J; Noon, GP; DeBakey, ME (January 1973). "An experimental model for evaluating extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support in acute respiratory failure". The American surgeon. 39 (1): 20–30. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(71)90077-4. PMID   4686133.
  22. "whenwillitend" (PDF). Banpondseizure.org. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  23. "Animal Research Saves Lives". Mofed.org. 2002-04-07. Archived from the original on 2016-12-11. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  24. "Index - DeBakey Excellence in Research Awards - Baylor College of Med…". 7 September 2013. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013.
  25. "Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers Dr. Malcolm Brenner an…". 7 September 2013. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013.
  26. Fogleman, L. DeBakey Medical Foundation Supports Endowe d Scholarship Fund for Baylor University Medical Humanities Students. Baylor Media Communications. 14 July 2009.
  27. "Universidad Francisco Marroquín". Ufm.edu (in Spanish). 2014-08-13. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  28. Marianne Dyson (1997). "1997 Space Technology Utilization Award". Rnasa.org. Retrieved 2011-04-19.
  29. Lindbergh-Carrel Prize Archived February 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  30. "Selected Major Awards and Honors - In Memoriam, Michael E. DeBakey, M.D. - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas". 25 November 2008. Archived from the original on 25 November 2008.