Michael I Rangabe

Last updated
Michael I Rangabe
Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans
Michael I Rangabe.jpg
Michael I Rangabe, from the Madrid Skylitzes
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Reign2 October 811 – 22 June 813
Coronation 2 October 811
Hagia Sophia
Predecessor Staurakios
Successor Leo V
Co-emperor Theophylact (811-813)
Bornc. 770
Died11 January 844
Prote Island
Burial
Church on Prote Island, transferred to Monastery of Satyros
Spouse Prokopia
Issue Theophylaktos
Staurakios
Niketas
Georgo
Theophano
Full name
Michael Rangabe
Dynasty Nikephorian
Father Theophylact Rhangabe

Michael I Rhangabe (Greek : Μιχαῆλ Ῥαγκαβές, Michaēl Rhangabe; c. 770 – 11 January 844) was Byzantine Emperor from 811 to 813.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Contents

Michael was the son of the patrician Theophylact Rhangabe, the admiral of the Aegean fleet. [1] He married Prokopia, the daughter of the future Emperor Nikephoros I, [2] and received the high court dignity of kouropalatēs after his father-in-law's accession in 802.

Theophylact Rhangabe or Theophylaktos Rhangabe, was a Byzantine admiral, and the father of the emperor Michael I Rhangabe.

Aegean Sea Part of the Mediterranean Sea between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas

The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, or between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In the north, the Aegean is connected to the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea by the straits of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus. The Aegean Islands, numbering over are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. Along with the Ionian Sea, which it connects to the southwest, the Aegean Sea contain some 1415 islands. The sea reaches a maximum depth of 3,544 meters, to the east of Crete.

Prokopia was the Empress consort of Michael I Rhangabe of the Eastern Roman Empire. She was a daughter of Nikephoros I. The name of her mother is not known. Her only known sibling is Staurakios.

Background

Coronation by the Patriarch, as depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes. Michael I (Roman emperor), coronation.jpg
Coronation by the Patriarch, as depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes .
Nikephorian dynasty
Chronology
Nikephoros I 802811
with Staurakios as co-emperor, 803811
Staurakios 811
Michael I 811813
with Theophylact as co-emperor, 811813
Succession
Preceded by
Isaurian dynasty
Followed by
Leo V and the Amorian dynasty

Michael survived Nikephoros' disastrous campaign against Krum of Bulgaria, and was considered a more appropriate candidate for the throne than his severely injured brother-in-law Staurakios. [2] When Michael's wife Prokopia failed to persuade her brother to name Michael as his successor, a group of senior officials (the magistros Theoktistos, the Domestic of the Schools Stephen, and Patriarch Nikephoros) forced Staurakios to abdicate in his favor on 2 October 811.

Staurakios Byzantine emperor

Staurakios or Stauracius was Eastern Roman Emperor from 26 July to 2 October 811. He was born some time after 778 AD, to Nikephoros I and an unknown woman. Nikephoros seized the throne of the Roman Empire from Irene of Athens in 802, and elevated Staurakios to co-emperor in December 803. After Nikephoros fell in the Battle of Pliska on 26 July 811, Staurakios was declared emperor, despite his severe injuries. However, due to these injuries his reign was short, he was usurped by his brother-in-law, Michael I Rangabe, on 2 October 811, after which he was sent to live in a monastery, where he stayed until he died of gangrene on 11 January 812.

Theoktistos was a senior Byzantine official who played an important role under the Nikephorian dynasty (802–813).

Domestic of the Schools

The office of the Domestic of the Schools was a senior military post of the Byzantine Empire, extant from the 8th century until at least the early 14th century. Originally simply the commander of the Scholai, the senior of the elite tagmata regiments, the Domestic quickly rose in prominence: by the mid-9th century, its holders essentially occupied the position of commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army, next to the Emperor. The office was eclipsed in the 12th century by that of the Grand Domestic, and in the Palaiologan period, it was reduced to a purely honorary, mid-level court dignity.

Michael I attempted to carry out a policy of reconciliation, abandoning the exacting taxation instituted by Nikephoros I. While reducing imperial income, Michael generously distributed money to the army, the bureaucracy, and the Church. [3] Elected with the support of the Orthodox party in the Church, Michael diligently persecuted the iconoclasts and forced the Patriarch Nikephoros to back down in his dispute with Theodore of Stoudios, the influential abbot of the monastery of Stoudios. Michael's piety won him a very positive estimation in the work of the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor.

Eastern Orthodox Church Christian Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 200–260 million baptised members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although roughly half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East.

Byzantine Iconoclasm two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities

Byzantine Iconoclasm refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Orthodox Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy. The "First Iconoclasm", as it is sometimes called, existed between about 726 and 787. The "Second Iconoclasm" was between 814 and 842. According to the traditional view, Byzantine Iconoclasm was started by a ban on religious images by Emperor Leo III and continued under his successors. It was accompanied by widespread destruction of images and persecution of supporters of the veneration of images. The Pope remained firmly in support of the use of images throughout the period, and the whole episode widened the growing divergence between the Byzantine and Carolingian traditions in what was still a unified church, as well as facilitating the reduction or removal of Byzantine political control over parts of Italy.

Theodore the Studite Byzantine saint

Theodore the Studite was a Byzantine Greek monk and abbot of the Stoudios Monastery in Constantinople. He played a major role in the revivals both of Byzantine monasticism and of classical literary genres in Byzantium. He is known as a zealous opponent of iconoclasm, one of several conflicts that set him at odds with both emperor and patriarch.

In 812 Michael I reopened negotiations with the Franks, and recognized Charlemagne as imperator and basileus (Emperor), but not Emperor of the Romans. [4] [5] [6] In exchange for that recognition, Venice was returned to the Empire. However, under the influence of Theodore, Michael rejected the peace terms offered by Krum and provoked the capture of Mesembria (Nesebar) by the Bulgarians. After an initial success in spring 813, Michael's army prepared for a major engagement at Versinikia near Adrianople in June. [2] The imperial army was defeated, while Leo the Armenian fled from the battle. [2] With conspiracy in the air, Michael preempted events by abdicating on 11 July 813 in favor of the general Leo the Armenian and becoming a monk (under the name Athanasios). [7] [2] His sons were castrated and relegated into monasteries, [7] one of them, Niketas (renamed Ignatios), eventually becoming Patriarch of Constantinople. [8] Michael died 11 January 844. [9]

Franks people

The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with later Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.

Charlemagne King of the Franks, King of Italy, and Holy Roman Emperor

Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was king of the Franks from 768, king of the Lombards from 774, and emperor of the Romans from 800. During the Early Middle Ages, he united the majority of western and central Europe. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian Empire. He was later canonized by Antipope Paschal III.

Imperator rank in ancient Rome

The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen. The English word emperor derives from imperator via Old French Empereür. The Roman emperors themselves generally based their authority on multiple titles and positions, rather than preferring any single title. Nevertheless, imperator was used relatively consistently as an element of a Roman ruler's title throughout the principate and the dominate. In Latin, the feminine form of Imperator is imperatrix.

Family

By his wife Prokopia, Michael I had at least five children:

Related Research Articles

The 810s decade ran from January 1, 810, to December 31, 819.

814 Year

Year 814 (DCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

811 Year

Year 811 (DCCCXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

812 Year

Year 812 (DCCCXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

813 Year

Year 813 (DCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Leo V the Armenian Byzantine emperor (lived 775–820)

Leo V the Armenian was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820. A senior general, he forced his predecessor, Michael I Rangabe, to abdicate and assumed the throne. He ended the decade-long war with the Bulgars, and initiated the second period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. He was assassinated by supporters of Michael the Amorian, one of his most trusted generals, who succeeded him on the throne.

Nikephoros I Roman emperor

Nikephoros I, or Nicephorus I, was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska. Prior to his accession, he had served as genikos logothetēs, whence he is sometimes surnamed "the Logothete" and "Genikos" or "Genicus".

Krum Khan of Bulgaria

Krum was the Khan of Bulgaria from sometime between 796 and 803 until his death in 814. During his reign the Bulgarian territory doubled in size, spreading from the middle Danube to the Dnieper and from Odrin to the Tatra Mountains. His able and energetic rule brought law and order to Bulgaria and developed the rudiments of state organization.

This is a list of people, places, things, and concepts related to or originating from the Byzantine Empire. Feel free to add more, and create missing pages. You can track changes to the articles included in this list from here.

Battle of Versinikia battle

The Battle of Versinikia was fought in 813 between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire, near the city of Adrianople (Edirne) in present-day Turkey.

Ignatios of Constantinople Patriarch of Constantinople

St. Ignatius or Ignatios, was a Patriarch of Constantinople from July 4, 847, to October 23, 858, and from November 23, 867, to his death on October 23, 877. In the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, he is regarded as a saint, with a feast day of October 23.

Theophano was the Empress consort of Staurakios of the Byzantine Empire. According to the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor, Theophano was a relative of Irene. Both women were from Athens but the nature of their relation to each other is not known.

The Hikanatoi, sometimes Latinized as Hicanati, were one of the Byzantine tagmata, the elite guard units based near the imperial capital of Constantinople. Founded in the early 9th century, it survived until the late 11th century.

Constantine (son of Leo V) Byzantine emperor

Symbatios, variously also Sabbatios (Σαββάτιος) or Sambates (Σαμβάτης) in some sources, was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian. Soon after the coronation of his father, he was crowned co-emperor and renamed Constantine (Κωνσταντῖνος). He reigned nominally along with his father until the latter's deposition in 820, after which he was exiled to Prote, one of the Princes Islands, as a monk.

Byzantine Empire under the Nikephorian dynasty

Following the deposition of the Byzantine empress Irene of Athens, the throne of the Byzantine Empire passed to a relatively short-lived dynasty, the Nikephorian dynasty, named after its founder, Nikephoros I. The empire was in a weaker and more precarious position than it had been for a long time and its finances were problematic.

Theophylact (son of Michael I) 9th-century Byzantine co-emperor

Theophylact or Theophylaktos was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Michael I Rhangabe and grandson, on his mother's side, of Nikephoros I. He was junior co-emperor alongside his father for the duration of the latter's reign, and was tonsured, castrated, and exiled to Plate Island after his overthrow, under the monastic name Eustratius.

Martyrs of Adrianople

The Martyrs of Adrianople were three hundred and seventy seven Christians who were executed in 815. They are commemorated by the Eastern Orthodox Church on 22 January.

References

  1. Venning 2006, p. 218.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Bradbury 2004, p. 64.
  3. Ostrogorsky 1986, p. 197.
  4. eum imperatorem et basileum appellantes, cf. Royal Frankish Annals , a. 812.
  5. Eichmann, Eduard (1942). Die Kaiserkrönung im Abendland: ein Beitrag zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des kirchlichen Rechte, der Liturgie und der Kirchenpolitik. Echter-Verlag. p. 33.
  6. Canning 1996, p. 70.
  7. 1 2 Luttwak 2009, p. 182.
  8. 1 2 Bury 1912, p. 14.
  9. Anthony 2017, p. 8.

Sources

Further reading

See also

Michael I Rangabe
Born: c. 770 Died: 11 January 844
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Staurakios
Byzantine Emperor
2 October 811 – 22 June 813
with Theophylact (811–813)
Succeeded by
Leo V