Michel Suleiman

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Michel Suleiman
ميشال سليمان

Michel Suleiman 2012.jpeg
President of Lebanon
In office
25 May 2008 24 May 2014
Prime Minister Fouad Siniora
Saad Hariri
Najib Mikati
Tammam Salam
Preceded by Emile Lahoud
Fouad Siniora (Acting)
Succeeded by Tammam Salam (Acting)
Michel Aoun
Commander of the Armed Forces
In office
21 December 1998 30 August 2008
Preceded by Émile Lahoud
Succeeded by Jean Kahwaji
Personal details
Born (1948-11-21) 21 November 1948 (age 70)
Amsheet, Lebanon
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Wafaa Sleiman (1973–present)
Alma mater Lebanese Army Military Academy
Lebanese University
Military service
AllegianceFlag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon
Branch/service Lebanese Armed Forces
Years of service1967–2008
Rank General
Commands11th Infantry Brigade
6th Infantry Brigade
Lebanese Armed Forces
Battles/wars Lebanese Civil War
Operation Dinnieh
Operation Benin
2006 Lebanon War
Operation Nahr el-Bared

Michel Suleiman (Arabic : ميشال سليمانArabic pronunciation:  [miːʃaːl suleːmaːn] ; born 21 November 1948) served as President of Lebanon from 2008 to 2014. Before becoming President, he served as Commander of the Lebanese Armed Forces from 1998 to 2008. [1]

President of Lebanon

The President of the Lebanese Republic is the head of state of Lebanon. The president is elected by the parliament for a term of six years, which is not immediately renewable. By convention, the president is always a Maronite Christian.

Lebanese Armed Forces combined military forces of Lebanon

The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) or Forces Armées Libanaises (FAL) in French, also known as the Lebanese Army, is the military of the Lebanese Republic. It consists of three branches, the army, the air force, and the navy. The motto of the Lebanese Armed Forces is "Honor, Sacrifice, Loyalty". The Lebanese Armed Forces symbol consists of a Lebanon cedar tree surrounded by two laurel leaves, positioned above the symbols of the three branches: the ground forces represented by the two bayonets, the navy represented by an anchor, and the air force represented by two wings.

Contents

After Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) commander Émile Lahoud took office as President in November 1998, Suleiman succeeded him, taking his place in December. Suleiman was later elected President and was sworn into office on 25 May 2008. [2] [3]

Émile Lahoud Lebanese President

Émile Jamil Lahoud is a Lebanese politician who was President of Lebanon from 1998 to 2007.

An indirect presidential election was held in the Parliament of Lebanon on 25 May 2008, after the term of incumbent President Émile Lahoud expired on 24 November 2007 at midnight. General Michel Sleiman, the Commander of the Lebanese Armed Forces, was elected as the consensus candidate after months of delays in holding the election due to an ongoing political dispute.

Early life and education

Sleiman was born in Amsheet in a Maronite Christian family on 21 November 1948. He joined the Lebanese Armed Forces in 1967 and went on to graduate from the Military Academy as 2nd Lieutenant in 1970. [4] He holds a Bachelor of Arts in Politics and Administrative Sciences from the Lebanese University. [5]

Amsheet City in Mount Lebanon

Amsheet is a seaside town and municipality in the Jbeil District of Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon, about 40 km north of Beirut. The town's average elevation is 140 meters above sea level and its total land area is 595 hectares. Its inhabitants are predominantly Maronites, although there is a Shia Muslim minority.

During his military career, he also participated in several military training courses :

Military career

During his military service, he progressed from an infantry platoon leader to a Battalion Commander, and then assumed the position of a trainer in the Military Academy and in the non-commissioned officer School. From 25 December 1990 until 21 August 1991 he was appointed as the Chief of the Intelligence Branch of Mount Lebanon. The Lebanese Army Intelligence of Mount Lebanon was after the detention of hundreds of anti-Syrian demonstrators with some cases of reported torture. On 25 August 1991 he was reassigned to the post of the Army Staff Secretary-General until 10 June 1993. He was Commander of the 11th Infantry Brigade from 6 June 1993 to 15 January 1996, a period that witnessed violent confrontations with the Israeli forces in the West Beqaa Valley and South Lebanon regions. On 15 January 1996 he was appointed as Commander of the 6th Infantry Brigade and remained in this position until 21 December 1998, when he was appointed as the Commander of the Armed Forces. [2] He was appointed Commander in chief of the Lebanese army, although there were dozens of officers higher in rank and seniority. [6] His appointment was reported to be a result of his family relations with a Syrian high-level official. [6]

Platoon leader military occupation, commander of a platoon, typically an officer

A platoon leader (NATO) or platoon commander is the officer in charge of a platoon. This person is usually a junior officer — a second or first lieutenant or an equivalent rank. The officer is usually assisted by a platoon sergeant. Some special units, such as specific aviation platoons and special forces, require a captain as platoon leader, due to the nature and increased responsibility of such assignments. Platoons normally consist of three or four sections (Commonwealth) or squads (US).

Non-commissioned officer Military officer without a commission

A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission. Non-commissioned officers usually obtain their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks. In contrast, commissioned officers hold higher ranks than NCOs, have more legal responsibilities, are paid more, and often have more non-military training such as a university diploma. Commissioned officers usually earn their commissions without having risen through the enlisted ranks.

Mount Lebanon mountain range in Lebanon

Mount Lebanon is a mountain range in Lebanon. It averages above 2,500 m (8,200 ft) in elevation.

On 19 May 2007, the Lebanese Army entered into a prolonged conflict with Fatah al-Islam, a terrorist organization based in the Nahr al-Bared Refugee Camp in northern Lebanon. The conflict lasted until 2 September 2007 and ended with the Lebanese Army taking complete control of the Camp and the complete defeat of Fatah al-Islam. 170 Lebanese soldiers, 226 members of Fatah al-Islam, and 64 civilians (mostly Palestinian refugees) were killed in the fighting. Due to a number of reasons, including balancing the interests of Lebanese citizens, concerns for the safety of Palestinian refugees, and respecting the delicate political balance that existed in Lebanon at the time, Suleiman was forced to proceed in the conflict with extreme caution and managed to do so successfully, backed by popular and political support for the LAF. [7] [ not in citation given ]

2007 Lebanon conflict war between Fatah al-islam and Lebanon

The 2007 Lebanon conflict began when fighting broke out between Fatah al-Islam, an Islamist militant organization, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) on May 20, 2007 in Nahr al-Bared, an UNRWA Palestinian refugee camp near Tripoli.

Fatah al-Islam terrorist organization

Fatah al-Islam is a radical Sunni Islamist group that formed in November 2006 in a Palestinian refugee camp, located in Lebanon. It has been described as a militant jihadist movement that draws inspiration from al-Qaeda. It became well known in 2007 after engaging in combat against the Lebanese Army in the Nahr al-Bared UNRWA Palestinian refugee camp. Following its defeat at Nahr el-Bared, the group relocated to the Ain al-Hilweh refugee camp near Sidon in 2008. As of 2014, after the death or capture of many members, most of the surviving members of Fatah al-Islam are thought to have joined other groups in Lebanon and Syria including the Free Syrian Army, Al-Nusra Front, Ahrar al-Sham, and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

Nahr al-Bared refugee camp in Lebanon

Nahr al-Bared is a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon, 16 km from the city of Tripoli. Some 30,000 displaced Palestinians and their descendents live in and around the camp, which was named after the river that runs south of the camp. Under the terms of the 1969 Cairo Agreement, the Lebanese Army does not conventionally enter the Palestinian camps, and internal security is provided by Palestinian factions.

On 7 May 2008, an ongoing political crisis between government loyalists and the opposition quickly spiraled out of control when Hezbollah announced that the government's decisions to declare the group's private telecommunications network as illegal and to relieve the head of security at Beirut International Airport (an alleged Hezbollah sympathizer) of his duties amounted to a "declaration of war". Fighting immediately broke out throughout the country, with members of Hezbollah and its allies in the Amal Movement and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party quickly bearing down on their enemies in the Future Movement and the Progressive Socialist Party. The fighting lasted until 14 May 2008, when the Lebanese government canceled its two decisions after the proposition of Suleiman to do so. As the crisis ended, Suleiman was the subject of criticism by some commentators and politicians since the Army did not directly intervene in the armed clashes that took place but instead tried to separate between fighters and protected political figures. On the other hand, others defended his stance by arguing that the only way to preserve the Army's unity and prevent another civil war was to ensure that it remained uninvolved in the fighting against the Lebanese citizens. [8]

Hezbollah Shia Islamist militant group and political party based in Lebanon

Hezbollah —also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group, along with its military wing is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council,, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia and the European Union.

Amal Movement Lebanese political party

The Amal Movement is a Lebanese political party associated with Lebanon's Shia community. It was co-founded by Musa al-Sadr and Hussein el Husseini as the "Movement of the Dispossessed" in 1974. The Amal movement gained attention from Shia outcry after the disappearance of Musa al-Sadr and saw a renewal in popularity after Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1978. The Iranian Revolution of 1978–79 also provided momentum for the party. The Amal Movement is, by a small margin, the largest Shia party in parliament, having sixteen representatives to Hezbollah's thirteen. Amal has an alliance with the Progressive Socialist Party and with Hezbollah.

Syrian Social Nationalist Party political party

The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), is a nationalist political party operating in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine. It advocates the establishment of a Syrian nation state spanning the Fertile Crescent, including present day Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Cyprus, Sinai, southeastern Turkey, based on geographical boundaries and the common history people within the boundaries share.

Military achievements

Path to the Presidency

On 23 November 2007, the term of Emile Lahoud, the 11th President of Lebanon, came to an end. At the time, the Lebanese political spectrum was deeply polarized, with virtually all parties being divided either in the government loyalists (known as 8 March camp), or the opposition (known as 14 March camp). The two camps could not come to an agreement as to who should become the country's 12th president, and so, as a result of a provision in the country's Constitution, the powers of the Presidency transferred to the Government in the expectation that an agreement would be reached shortly afterwards.

Several names were advanced as potential candidates for the presidency, including Michel Aoun, Nassib Lahoud, Boutros Harb, amongst others, each of whom was affiliated either to 14 March or 8 March camps. It soon became apparent however that only an independent candidate would be acceptable to both sides. Michel Suleiman was generally accepted as being the only possible candidate and as a unifying candidate. Most Lebanese commentators and policy makers agreed that Suleiman had won the trust of both the government and opposition camp, and that of most countries in the Arab region, as well as most Western countries. However, his election could not take place until a number of fundamental disagreements between 14 March and 8 March camps could be resolved, including the issue of whether a government of national unity should be formed, and what specific electoral law should be passed in preparation for the parliamentary elections that were to take place in 2009. These difficulties were eventually resolved during the negotiations that took place in Doha, Qatar from 17 May to 20 May 2008. The negotiations were attended by senior representatives from all of Lebanon's major political parties, and the agreement confirmed that Michel Suleiman would be the preferred candidate in the presidential election. [10]

When the vote was finally held in Parliament on 25 May 2008, Suleiman was elected with a majority of 118 votes out of 127. [11] He was indirectly elected by the Lebanese Parliament, which hadn't had a session, as a result of the ongoing political crisis in the country, for 18 months. The Parliament's session was attended by senior representatives from across Lebanon, the Arab region, the United Nations and the European Union, the United States, European states and many other countries. In his acceptance speech which was welcomed by all political figures across the country, the Arab region and the rest of the world, Suleiman spoke of "uniting and working towards a solid reconciliation of the country. We have paid dearly for our national unity. Let us preserve it hand-in-hand". [12] He also made reference to the long-standing crisis between the country's two main political camps when he said that "the people have given us their confidence to fulfill their aspirations, not to afflict them with our petty political disputes". [13]

Presidency

Michel Sleiman meeting Argentine President Cristina Kirchner in The Casa Rosada, October 2012. Kirchner&Sleiman.png
Michel Sleiman meeting Argentine President Cristina Kirchner in The Casa Rosada, October 2012.

On 28 May 2008, President Suleiman reappointed Fouad Siniora as Prime Minister. Siniora was the parliamentary majority's candidate for the position, and Suleiman appointed him in accordance with the country's Constitution and with a majority of 68 MPs who named him. [14]

Shortly after assuming the Presidency, Suleiman departed from tradition when he asked that posters bearing his likeness be removed from public display despite the fact that he thanked "citizens, institutions, municipalities and cultural organizations for the outpouring of support and affection". [15]

The priorities of President Suleiman's presidential term were set out clearly, notably: national reconciliation; affirming Lebanon's active role as a message of dialogue and conviviality; protecting the country's independence, unity and territorial integrity; providing security and favorable conditions for economic and social growth; reinforcing constitutional institutions; fighting terrorism; implementing international resolutions related to Lebanon; opposing any form of settlement for Palestinian refugees on the Lebanese territories.

President Suleiman launched the table of national dialogue at the Presidential Palace in Baabda on 16 September 2008, in pursuance of the Doha Agreement's articles, and in view of consolidating National Reconciliation and Entente.

In parallel to local issues, he exchanged visits with heads of friendly countries, and took part in the work of regional and international organizations, especially the United Nations, in order to consecrate Lebanon's rights and defend its supreme interests. [16]

On Mary McAleese's final overseas visit as President of Ireland, she met Suleiman at the Presidential Palace in Baabda. [17] [18] [19] [20] His Presidency term came to its conclusion on 25 May 2014 amid no internal or foreign consensus on who would be elected as the next President of the Lebanese Republic. Lebanon remained without a President until Michel Aoun was elected on 31 October 2016.

Decorations, medals, awards and honors

Foreign honours

Personal life

Michel Suleiman is married to Wafaa Suleiman and has three children.; [5] Rita, a dentist born in 1975, Lara, an architect born in 1978 and Charbel, a doctor born in 1983. [25] His mother tongue is Arabic and he is also fluent in both French and English. [5]

Related Research Articles

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Suleiman is the main transliteration of the Arabic سليمان Sulāymān / Silīmān. The name means "man of peace" and corresponds to the English name Solomon. The word may also be transliterated as Sulaiman, Suleman, Soliman, Sulayman, Sulaymaan, Sulyman, Suleyman, Sulaman, Süleyman, Sulejman, Sleiman, Sleman, Sliman, Slimane, Soleman, Solyman, SouleymaneSeleman. This disambiguation page focuses on individuals and entities with Suleiman as a predominant transliteration.

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References

  1. "Michel Sleiman - Prestige Magazine". 25 February 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lebanese Army. "Michel Suleiman". Lebanese Army Official Website. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2008.
  3. Al Jazeera English. "Suleiman becomes Lebanon president". Al Jazeera English . Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  4. "Lebanon elects president after months of feuding". ASP. 25 May 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  5. 1 2 3 "Lebanese Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 78)" (PDF). 10 February 2009.
  6. 1 2 Gambill, Gary C. (1 July 2000). "Lebanon after Assad". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. 2 (6). Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  7. BBC (2 September 2007). "Lebanon PM welcomes end of siege". BBC News . Retrieved 28 May 2008.
  8. Hussein Darkoub, Associated Press Writer. "Neutrality fuels rise of Lebanon's new president". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  9. Jack Khoury (12 June 2006). "Report: Israeli spy network in Lebanon uncovered" . Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  10. Translated by NowLebanon Staff. "The Doha Agreement". Now Lebanon. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  11. "Lebanese parliament elects Suleiman as president". Chinaview. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  12. AFP. "Lebanon's new president calls for unity". AFP . Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  13. Sam F. Ghattas, Associated Press Writer (26 May 2008). "Lebanon elects head of state". London: The Independent . Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  14. AFP. "Lebanon president names Siniora as PM of unity cabinet". AFP . Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  15. Anthony Elghossain. "Suleiman calls for removal of posters bearing his likeness". The Daily Star (Lebanon) . Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  16. Lebanese Presidency. "Michel Suleiman Biography". Lebanese Presidency Official Website. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  17. "McAleese to meet Irish troops in Lebanon on final official trip", The Journal 15 October 2011.
  18. "President revisits Lebanon on her final foreign trip in office", The Irish Times, 15 October 2011.
  19. "Mary McAleese concludes final overseas tour", RTÉ News, 16 October 2011.
  20. "Last official trip abroad for Mary McAleese", Irish Examiner, 11 October 2011.
  21. President Michel Suleiman hosts Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdel Aziz Archived 29 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine Marada-news.org, 31 July 2010
  22. Nomination by Sovereign Ordonnance n°3077 of 13 January 2011 (French)
  23. Lebanese Presidency website, Decorations Archived 13 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine page, showing a photo of the decoration
  24. "His Excellency President General Michel Sleiman" . Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  25. "Wafaa Sleiman". Official Website of the Presidency of the Lebanese Republic.
Military offices
Preceded by
Émile Lahoud
Commander of the Armed Forces
1998–2008
Succeeded by
Jean Kahwaji
Political offices
Preceded by
Fouad Seniora
Acting
President of Lebanon
2008–2014
Succeeded by
Tammam Salam
Acting