Micronesia

Last updated
Romanum Island, Chuuk, Micronesia Pohnpei of Micronesia.jpg
Romanum Island, Chuuk, Micronesia

Map of Micronesia (shown in dark magenta) Oceania UN Geoscheme - Map of Micronesia.svg
Map of Micronesia (shown in dark magenta)

Micronesia (( UK: /ˌmkrəˈnziə/ , US: /-ˈnʒə/ ); from Greek : μικρόςmikrós "small" and Greek : νῆσοςnêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean. It has a shared cultural history with two other island regions: Polynesia to the east and Melanesia to the south.

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. It is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Contents

The region has a tropical marine climate and is part of the Oceania ecozone. There are four main archipelagos along with numerous outlying islands.

A tropical marine climate is a tropical climate that is primarily influenced by the ocean. It is usually experienced by islands and coastal areas 10° to 20° north and south of the equator. There are two main seasons in a tropical marine climate: the wet season and the dry season. The annual rainfall is 1000 to over 1500 mm. The temperature ranges from 20 °C to 35 °C. The trade winds blow all year round and are moist, as they pass over warm seas. These climatic conditions are found, for example, across the Caribbean; the eastern coasts of Brazil, Madagascar and Queensland; and many islands in tropical waters.

Archipelago A group of islands

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

Micronesia is divided politically among several sovereign countries. One of these is the Federated States of Micronesia, which is often called "Micronesia" for short and is not to be confused with the overall region. The Micronesia region encompasses five sovereign, independent nations—the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands and Nauru—as well as three U.S. territories in the northern part: Northern Mariana Islands, Guam and Wake Island.

Federated States of Micronesia Island republic in Oceania

The Federated States of Micronesia is an independent republic associated with the United States. It consists of four states – from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae – that are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean. Together, the states comprise around 607 islands that cover a longitudinal distance of almost 2,700 km (1,678 mi) just north of the equator. They lie northeast of New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2,900 km (1,802 mi) north of eastern Australia and some 4,000 km (2,485 mi) southwest of the main islands of Hawaii.

Palau republic in Oceania

Palau, officially the Republic of Palau, is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 340 islands, forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia, and has an area of 466 square kilometers (180 sq mi). The most populous island is Koror. The capital Ngerulmud is located on the nearby island of Babeldaob, in Melekeok State. Palau shares maritime boundaries with the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

Kiribati Island nation in the central Pacific Ocean

Kiribati, officially the Republic of Kiribati, is a sovereign state in Micronesia in the central Pacific Ocean. The permanent population is just over 110,000 (2015), more than half of whom live on Tarawa Atoll. The state comprises 32 atolls and reef islands and one raised coral island, Banaba. They have a total land area of 800 square kilometres (310 sq mi) and are dispersed over 3.5 million square kilometres. Their spread straddles both the equator and the 180th meridian, although the International Date Line goes round Kiribati and swings far to the east, almost reaching the 150°W meridian. This brings the Line Islands into the same day as the Kiribati Islands. Kiribati's easternmost islands, the southern Line Islands, south of Hawaii, have the most advanced time on Earth: UTC+14 hours.

Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers. [1] The earliest known contact with Europeans occurred in 1521, when Spain reached the Marianas. The coinage of the term "Micronesia" is usually attributed to Jules Dumont d'Urville's usage in 1832; however, Domeny de Rienzi had used the term a year previously. [2]

Jules Dumont dUrville French explorer

Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville was a French explorer and naval officer who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica. As a botanist and cartographer he gave his name to several seaweeds, plants and shrubs, and places such as d'Urville Island in New Zealand.

Geography

Micronesia is one of three major cultural areas in the Pacific Ocean, along with Polynesia and Melanesia Pacific Culture Areas.png
Micronesia is one of three major cultural areas in the Pacific Ocean, along with Polynesia and Melanesia

Micronesia is a region that includes approximately 2100 islands, with a total land area of 2,700 km2 (1,000 sq mi), the largest of which is Guam, which covers 582 km2 (225 sq mi). The total ocean area within the perimeter of the islands is 7,400,000 km2 (2,900,000 sq mi). [3]

Guam Island territory of the United States of America

Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is the westernmost point and territory of the United States, along with the Northern Mariana Islands. The capital city of Guam is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo. The inhabitants of Guam are called Guamanians, and they are American citizens by birth. Indigenous Guamanians are the Chamorros, who are related to other Austronesian natives of Eastern Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. Guam has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983.

There are four main island groups in Micronesia:

Caroline Islands archipelago

The Caroline Islands are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the western Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea. Politically they are divided between the Federated States of Micronesia in the eastern part of the group, and Palau at the extreme western end. Historically, this area was also called Nuevas Filipinas or New Philippines as they were part of the Spanish East Indies and governed from Manila in the Philippines.

Gilbert Islands chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean

The Gilbert Islands are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean about halfway between Papua New Guinea and Hawaii. They form the main part of Kiribati.

Mariana Islands archipelago in western North Pacific Ocean

The Mariana Islands are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east. They lie south-southeast of Japan, west-southwest of Hawaii, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines, demarcating the Philippine Sea's eastern limit. They are found in the northern part of the western Oceanic sub-region of Micronesia, and are politically divided into two jurisdictions of the United States: the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and, at the southern end of the chain, the territory of Guam. The islands were named after the influential Spanish queen Mariana of Austria.

Plus the island country of Nauru.

Caroline Islands

The Caroline Islands are a widely scattered archipelago consisting of about 500 small coral islands, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines. The Carolines consist of two states: the Federated States of Micronesia, consisting of approximately 600 islands on the eastern side of the chain with Kosrae being the most eastern and Palau consisting of 250 islands on the western side.

Gilbert Islands

The Gilbert Islands are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands, arranged in an approximate north-to-south line. In a geographical sense, the equator serves as the dividing line between the northern Gilbert Islands and the southern Gilbert Islands. The Republic of Kiribati contains all of the Gilberts, as well as the island of Tarawa, the site of the country's capital.

Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands are an arc-shaped archipelago made up by the summits of fifteen volcanic mountains. The island chain arises as a result of the western edge of the Pacific Plate moving westward and plunging downward below the Mariana plate, a region which is the most volcanically active convergent plate boundary on Earth. The Marianas were politically divided in 1898, when the United States acquired title to Guam under the Treaty of Paris, 1898, which ended the Spanish–American War. Spain then sold the remaining northerly islands to Germany in 1899. Germany lost all of her colonies at the end of World War I and the Northern Mariana Islands became a League of Nations Mandate, with Japan as the mandatory. After World War II, the islands were transferred into the United Nations Trust Territory System, with the United States as Trustee. In 1976, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States entered into a covenant of political union under which commonwealth status was granted the Northern Mariana Islands and its residents received United States citizenship.

Marshall Islands

Beach scenery at Laura, Majuro, Marshall Islands Laura beach n tree (170671778).jpg
Beach scenery at Laura, Majuro, Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands are located north of Nauru and Kiribati, east of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the U.S. territory of Wake Island. The islands consist of 29 low-lying atolls and 5 isolated islands, [4] comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The atolls and islands form two groups: the Ratak Chain and the Ralik Chain (meaning "sunrise" and "sunset" chains). All the islands in the chain are part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, a presidential republic in free association with the United States. Having few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture. Of the 29 atolls, 24 of them are inhabited.

Bikini Atoll is an atoll in the Marshall Islands. There are 23 islands in the Bikini Atoll. The islands of Bokonijien, Aerokojlol and Nam were vaporized during nuclear tests that occurred there. [5] The islands are composed of low coral limestone and sand. [6] The average elevation is only about 2.1 metres (7 ft) above low tide level.

Nauru

Nauru is an oval-shaped island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 km (26 mi) south of the Equator, listed as the world's smallest republic, covering just 21 km2 (8 sq mi). [8] With 11,347 residents, it is the second least-populated country, after Vatican City. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, which is exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles. [9] The presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although channels in the reef allow small boats access to the island. [10] A fertile coastal strip 150 to 300 m (490 to 980 ft) wide lies inland from the beach. [9]

Wake Island

Wake Island is a coral atoll with a coastline of 19 km (12 mi) just north of the Marshall Islands. It is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States. Access to the island is restricted and all activities on the island are managed by the United States Air Force.

Geology

The majority of the islands in the area are part of a coral atoll. Coral atolls begin as coral reefs that grow on the slopes of a central volcano. When the volcano sinks back down into the sea, the coral continues to grow, keeping the reef at or above water level. One exception is Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia, which still has the central volcano and coral reefs around it.

Fauna

Spinner Dolphins SpinnerDolphinsoffKauai 1999-03-15.jpg
Spinner Dolphins

Climate

The region has a tropical marine climate moderated by seasonal northeast trade winds. There is little seasonal temperature variation. The dry season runs from December or January to June and the rainy season from July to November or December. Because of the location of some islands, the rainy season can sometimes include typhoons.

History

Prehistory

Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific Chronological dispersal of Austronesian people across the Pacific (per Bellwood in Chambers, 2008).png
Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific
Mount Marpi in Saipan. Suicide Cliff in Saipan 3.JPG
Mount Marpi in Saipan.

Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers. [1] There are numerous difficulties with conducting archaeological excavations in the islands, due to their size, settlement patterns and storm damage. As a result, much evidence is based on linguistic analysis. [12] The earliest archaeological traces of civilization have been found on the island of Saipan, dated to 1500 BCE or slightly before. [13]

Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the 2nd millennium BC, with inter-island navigation made possible using traditional stick charts. [14]

Construction of Nan Madol, a megalithic complex made from basalt lava logs in Pohnpei began as early as 1200 CE.

The prehistory of many Micronesian islands such as Yap is not known very well. [15]

Early European contact

The earliest known contact with Europeans occurred in 1521, when a Spanish expedition under Ferdinand Magellan reached the Marianas [16] This contact is recorded in Antonio Pigafetta's chronicle of Magellan's voyage, in which he recounts that the Chamorro people had no apparent knowledge of people outside of their island group. [17] A Portuguese account of the same voyage suggests that the Chamorro people who greeted the travellers did so "without any shyness as if they were good acquaintances", raising the possibility that earlier unrecorded contact had occurred. [18]

Further contact was made during the sixteenth century, although often initial encounters were very brief. Documents relating to the 1525 voyage of Diogo da Rocha suggest that he made the first European contact with inhabitants of the Caroline Islands, possibly staying on the Ulithi atoll for four months and encountering Yap. Marshall Islanders were encountered by Alvaro de Saavedra in 1529. [19] More certain recorded contact with the Yap islands occurred in 1625. [20]

Colonisation and conversion

In the early 17th century Spain colonized Guam, the Northern Marianas and the Caroline Islands (what would later become the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of Palau), creating the Spanish East Indies, which was governed from the Spanish Philippines.

In 1819, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions – a Protestant group – brought their Puritan ways to Polynesia. Soon after, the Hawaiian Missionary Society was founded and sent missionaries into Micronesia. Conversion was not met with as much opposition, as the local religions were less developed (at least according to Western ethnographic accounts). In contrast, it took until the end of the 19th/beginning of the 20th centuries for missionaries to fully convert the inhabitants of Melanesia; however, before a cultural contrast can even be made, one cannot neglect to take into account the fact that Melanesia has always had deadly strains of more malaria present in various degrees and distributions throughout its history {see: De Rays Expedition} and up to the present; in contrast, Micronesia does not and never seems to have had any malarial mosquitos nor pathogens on any of its islands in the past. [21]

German–Spanish Treaty of 1899

German New Guinea before and after the German-Spanish treaty of 1899 German new guinea 1888 1899.png
German New Guinea before and after the German-Spanish treaty of 1899

In the Spanish–American War, Spain lost many of its remaining colonies. In the Pacific, the United States took possession of the Spanish Philippines and Guam. On January 17, 1899, the United States also took possession of unclaimed and uninhabited Wake Island. This left Spain with the remainder of the Spanish East Indies, about 6,000 tiny islands that were sparsely populated and not very productive. These islands were ungovernable after the loss of the administrative center of Manila and indefensible after the loss of two Spanish fleets in the war. The Spanish government therefore decided to sell the remaining islands to a new colonial power: the German Empire.

The treaty, which was signed by Spanish Prime Minister Francisco Silvela on February 12, 1899, transferred the Caroline Islands, the Mariana Islands, Palau and other possessions to Germany. Under German control, the islands became a protectorate and were administered from German New Guinea. Nauru had already been annexed and claimed as a colony by Germany in 1888.

20th century

Map from 1961 of the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, formerly Japan's South Pacific Mandate. MapofTTPI.gif
Map from 1961 of the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, formerly Japan's South Pacific Mandate.

In the early 20th century, the islands of Micronesia were divided between three foreign powers:

During World War I, Germany's Pacific island territories were seized and became League of Nations mandates in 1923. Nauru became an Australian mandate, while Germany's other territories in Micronesia were given as a mandate to Japan and were named the South Pacific Mandate. During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops and was bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific. Following Japan's defeat in World War II its mandate became a United Nations Trusteeship administered by the United States as the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Nauru became independent in 1968.

21st century

Today, most of Micronesia are independent states, except for Guam and Wake Island, which are U.S. territories and for the U.S. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Politics

The Pacific Community (SPC) is a regional intergovernmental organisation whose membership includes both nations and territories in the Pacific Ocean and their metropolitan powers.

States and dependencies

CountryPopulation (July 2016 estimate) [22] Area (km2)Population density (/km2)Urban populationLife expectancyLiteracy rateOfficial language(s)Main religion(s)Ethnic groups
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia 104,937702152.64122%71.2389%EnglishRoman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, others 3% Chuukese 48.8%, Pohnpeian 24.2%, Kosraean 6.2%, Yapese 5.2%, Yap outer islands 4.5%, Asian 1.8%, Polynesian 1.5%, other 7.8%
Flag of Guam.svg  Guam (United States)162,8961,478122.37193%78.1899%English 38.3%, Chamorro 22.2% [23] Roman Catholic 85%, Buddhism 3.6, other religion 11.4% Chamorro 37.1%, Filipino 26.3%, other Pacific islander 11.3%, white 6.9%, other 8.6%, mixed 9.8%
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 114,395811122.66644%64.0392%English, Gilbertese (de facto)Roman Catholic 55%, Protestant 36%Micronesian 98.8%
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 53,066181363.86271%71.4893.7% Marshallese 98.2%, EnglishProtestant 54.8%, other Christian 40.6% Marshallese 92.1%, mixed Marshallese 5.9%, other 2%
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru 11,34721441.286100%64.9999% [24] Nauruan f[] Nauru Congregational Church 35.4%, Roman Catholic 33.2%, Nauru Independent Church (Protestant) [25] 10.4%, Baha'i faith 10%, Buddhism 9% Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg  Northern Mariana Islands (United States)55,023464104.13191%76.997%English, Chamorro and Carolinian [26] Roman Catholic, Buddhism 10.6%Asian 56.3%, Pacific islander 36.3%, White 1.8%, other 0.8%, mixed 4.8%
Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 21,50345945.48881%71.5192% Paluan 64.7% d[] , EnglishRoman Catholic 41.6%, Protestant 23.3% Palauan 69.9%, Filipino 15.3%, Chinese 4.9%, other Asian 2.4%, white 1.9%, Carolinian 1.4%, other Micronesian 1.1%, other 3.2%
Total523,1674,116193.20671.71%71.1994.93%

Economy

Nationally, the primary income is the sale of fishing rights to foreign nations that harvest tuna using huge purse seiners. A few Japanese long liners still ply the waters. The crews aboard fishing fleets contribute little to the local economy since their ships typically set sail loaded with stores and provisions that are cheaper than local goods. Additional money comes in from government grants, mostly from the United States and the $150 million the US paid into a trust fund for reparations of residents of Bikini Atoll that had to move after nuclear testing. Few mineral deposits worth exploiting exist, except for some high-grade phosphate, especially on Nauru.

Most residents of Micronesia can freely move to and work within, the United States. Relatives working in the US that send money home to relatives represent the primary source of individual income. Additional individual income comes mainly from government jobs and work within shops and restaurants.

The tourist industry consists mainly of scuba divers that come to see the coral reefs, do wall dives and visit sunken ships from WWII. Major stops for scuba divers in approximate order are Palau, Chuuk, Yap and Pohnpei. Some private yacht owners visit the area for months or years at a time. However, they tend to stay mainly at ports of entry and are too few in number to be counted as a major source of income.

Copra production used to be a more significant source of income, however, world prices have dropped in part to large palm plantations that are now planted in places like Borneo.

Demographics

The people today form many ethnicities, but all are descended from and belong to the Micronesian culture. The Micronesian culture was one of the last native cultures of the region to develop. It developed from a mixture of Melanesians and Filipinos. Because of this mixture of descent, many of the ethnicities of Micronesia feel closer to some groups in Melanesia, or the Philippines. A good example of this are the Yapese people who are related to Austronesian tribes in the Northern Philippines. [27] A 2011 survey found that 93.1% of Micronesian are Christians. [28]

There are also substantial Asian communities found across the region, most notably in the Northern Mariana Islands where they form the majority and smaller communities of Europeans who have migrated from the United States or are descendants of settlers during European colonial rule in Micronesia.

Though they are all geographically part of the same region, they all have very different colonial histories. The US-administered areas of Micronesia have a unique experience that sets them apart from the rest of the Pacific. Micronesia has great economic dependency on its former or current motherlands, something only comparable to the French Pacific. Sometimes, the term American Micronesia is used to acknowledge the difference in cultural heritage. [29]

Indigenous groups

Carolinian people

It is thought that ancestors of the Carolinian people may have originally immigrated from the Asian mainland and Indonesia to Micronesia around 2,000 years ago. Their primary language is Carolinian, called Refaluwasch by native speakers, which has a total of about 5,700 speakers. The Carolinians have a matriarchal society in which respect is a very important factor in their daily lives, especially toward the matriarchs. Most Carolinians are of the Roman Catholic faith.

The immigration of Carolinians to Saipan began in the early 19th century, after the Spanish reduced the local population of Chamorro natives to just 3,700. They began to immigrate mostly sailing from small canoes from other islands, which a typhoon previously devastated. The Carolinians have a much darker complexion than the native Chamorros.

Chamorro people

Chamorro people in 1915 Chamorro people in 1915.jpg
Chamorro people in 1915

The Chamorro people are the indigenous peoples of the Mariana Islands, which are politically divided between the United States territory of Guam and the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Micronesia. The Chamorro are commonly believed to have come from Southeast Asia at around 2000 BC. They are most closely related to other Austronesian natives to the west in the Philippines and Taiwan, as well as the Carolines to the south.

The Chamorro language is included in the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian family. Because Guam was colonized by Spain for over 300 years, many words derive from the Spanish language. The traditional Chamorro number system was replaced by Spanish numbers. [30]

Chuukese people

The Chuukese people are an ethnic group in Oceania. They constitute 48% of the population of the Federated States of Micronesia. Their language is Chuukese. The home atoll of Chuuk is also known by the former name Truk.

Kaping people

The roughly 3000 residents of the Federated States of Micronesia that reside in Kapingamarangi, nicknamed 'Kapings', are both one of the most remote and most difficult people to visit in Micronesia and the entire world. Their home atoll is almost a 1,600 km (1,000 mi) round trip to the nearest point of immigration check-in and check-out. There are no regular flights. The only way to legally visit is to first check-in, travel on a high-speed sailboat to the atoll and then backtrack almost 800 km (500 mi). Owing to this difficulty, only a handful of the few sailors that travel across the Pacific will attempt to visit. The local language is the Kapingamarangi language. The children typically attend high school on Pohnpei where they stay with relatives in an enclave that is almost exclusively made up of Kapings.[ citation needed ]

Nauruan people

The Nauruan people are an ethnicity inhabiting the Pacific island of Nauru. They are most likely a blend of other Pacific peoples. [31]

The origin of the Nauruan people has not yet been finally determined. It can possibly be explained by the last Malayo-Pacific human migration (c. 1200). It was probably seafaring or shipwrecked Polynesians or Melanesians, which established themselves there because there was not already an indigenous people present, whereas the Micronesians were already crossed with the Melanesians in this area.

Immigrant groups

Asian people

There are large Asian communities found across certain Micronesian countries that are either immigrants, foreign workers or descendants of either one, most migrated to the islands during the 1800s and 1900s. [32] According to the 2010 census results Guam was 26.3% Filipino, 2.2% Korean, 1.6% Chinese and 2% other Asian. [33] The 2010 census showed the Northern Mariana Islands was 50% Asian of which 35.3% were Filipino, 6.8% Chinese, 4.2% Korean and 3.7% other Asian (mainly Japanese, Bangladeshi and Thai). [34] The 2010 census for the Federated States of Micronesia showed 1.4% were Asian while statistics for Nauru showed 8% of Nauruans were Chinese. [35] [36] The 2005 census results for Palau showed 16.3% were Filipino, 1.6% Chinese, 1.6% Vietnamese and 3.4% other Asian (mostly Bangladeshi, Japanese and Korean). [37]

Japanese rule in Micronesia also led to Japanese people settling the islands and marrying native spouses. Kessai Note, the former president of the Marshall Islands has partial Japanese ancestry by way of his paternal grandfather, and Emanuel Mori, the former president of The Federated States of Micronesia, is descended from one of the first settlers from Japan, Koben Mori.

European people

Languages of Micronesia. Languages of Micronesia.en.svg
Languages of Micronesia.

The 2010 census results of Guam showed 7.1% were white while the 2005 census for Palau showed 8% were European. Smaller numbers at 1.9% in Palau and 1.8% in the Northern Mariana Islands were recorded as "white". In conjunction to the European communities there are large amounts of mixed Micronesians, some of which have European ancestry.

Languages

The largest group of languages spoken in Micronesia are the Micronesian languages. They are in the family of Oceanic languages, part of the Austronesian language group. They are descended from the protolanguage Proto-Oceanic, which are developed from Proto-Austronesian.

The languages in the Micronesian family are Marshallese, Gilbertese, Kosraean, Nauruan, as well as a large sub-family called the Trukic–Ponapeic languages containing 11 languages.

On the eastern edge of the Federated States of Micronesia, the languages Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi represent an extreme westward extension of Polynesian.

There are two languages spoken that do not belong to the Oceanic languages: Chamorro in the Mariana Islands and Palauan in Palau.

Culture

Animals and food

By the time Western contact occurred, although Palau did not have dogs, they did have fowls and maybe also pigs. Nowhere else in Micronesia were pigs known about at that time. Fruit bats are native to Palau, but other mammals are rare. Reptiles are numerous and both mollusks and fish are an important food source. [38] The people of Palau, the Marianas and Yap often chew betel nuts seasoned with lime and pepper leaf. Western Micronesia was unaware of the ceremonial drink, which was called saka on Kosrae and sakau on Pohnpei. [15]

Architecture

The book Prehistoric Architecture in Micronesia argues that the most prolific pre-colonial Micronesian architecture is: "Palau's monumental sculpted hills, megalithic stone carvings and elaborately decorated structure of wood placed on piers above elevated stone platforms". [39] The archeological traditions of the Yapese people remained relatively unchanged even after the first European contact with the region during Magellan's 1520s circumnavigation of the globe. [15]

Art

Micronesia's artistic tradition has developed from the Lapita culture. Among the most prominent works of the region is the megalithic floating city of Nan Madol. The city began in 1200 CE and was still being built when European explorers begin to arrive around 1600. The city, however, had declined by around 1800 along with the Saudeleur dynasty and was completely abandoned by the 1820s. During the 19th century, the region was divided between the colonial powers, but art continued to thrive. Wood-carving, particularly by men, flourished in the region, resulted in richly decorated ceremonial houses in Belau, stylized bowls, canoe ornaments, ceremonial vessels and sometimes sculptured figures. Women created textiles and ornaments such as bracelets and headbands. Stylistically, traditional Micronesian art is streamlined and of a practical simplicity to its function, but is typically finished to a high standard of quality. [40] This was mostly to make the best possible use of what few natural materials they had available to them. [41]

The first half of the 20th century saw a downturn in Micronesia's cultural integrity and a strong foreign influence from both western and Japanese Imperialist powers. A number of historical artistic traditions, especially sculpture, ceased to be practiced, although other art forms continued, including traditional architecture and weaving. Independence from colonial powers in the second half of the century resulted in a renewed interest in, and respect for, traditional arts. A notable movement of contemporary art also appeared in Micronesia towards the end of the 20th century. [42]

Cuisine

The cuisine of the Mariana Islands is tropical in nature, including such dishes as Kelaguen as well as many others.

Palauan cuisine includes local foods such as cassava, taro, yam, potato, fish and pork. Western cuisine is favored among young Palauans.

Education

The educational systems in the nations of Micronesia vary depending on the country and there are several higher level educational institutions.

The CariPac consists of institutions of higher education in Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau. The Agricultural Development in the American Pacific is a partnership of the University of Hawaii, American Samoa Community College, College of Micronesia, Northern Marianas College and the University of Guam.

In the Federated States of Micronesia, education is required for citizens aged 6 to 13, [43] and is important to their economy. [44] The literacy rate for citizens aged 15 to 24 is 98.8%. [45] The College of Micronesia-FSM has a campus in each of the four states with its national campus in the capital city of Palikir, Pohnpei. The COM-FSM system also includes the Fisheries and Maritime Institute (FMI) on the Yap islands. [46] [47]

The public education in Guam is organized by the Guam Department of Education. Guam also has several educational institutions, such as University of Guam, Pacific Islands University and Guam Community College, There is also the Guam Public Library System and the Umatac Outdoor Library.

Weriyeng [48] is one of the last two schools of traditional navigation found in the central Caroline Islands in Micronesia, the other being Fanur. [49]

The Northern Marianas College is a two-year community college located in the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI).

The College of the Marshall Islands is a community college in the Marshall Islands.

Law

Understanding Law in Micronesia notes that The Federated States of Micronesia's laws and legal institutions are "uninterestingly similar to [those of Western countries]". However, it explains that "law in Micronesia is an extraordinary flux and flow of contrasting thought and meaning, inside and outside the legal system". It says that a knee-jerk reaction would be that law is messed up in the region and that improvement is required, but argues that the failure is "one endemic to the nature of law or to the ideological views we hold about law". [50]

The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations Trusteeship administered by the United States, borrowed heavily from United States law in establishing the Trust Territory Code during the Law and Development movement of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Many of those provisions were adopted by the new Congress of the Federated States of Micronesia when the Federated States of Micronesia became self-governing in 1979. [51]

Media

In September 2007, journalists in the region founded the Micronesian Media Association. [52]

Music and dance

Micronesian music is influential to those living in the Micronesian islands. [53] Some of the music is based around mythology and ancient Micronesian rituals. It covers a range of styles from traditional songs, handed down through generations, to contemporary music.

Traditional beliefs suggest that the music can be presented to people in dreams and trances, rather than being written by composers themselves. Micronesian folk music is, like Polynesian music, primarily vocal-based.

In the Marshall Islands, the roro is a kind of traditional chant, usually about ancient legends and performed to give guidance during navigation and strength for mothers in labour. Modern bands have blended the unique songs of each island in the country with modern music. Though drums are not generally common in Micronesian music, one-sided hourglass-shaped drums are a major part of Marshallese music. [54] There is a traditional Marshallese dance called beet, which is influenced by Spanish folk dances. In it, men and women side-step in parallel lines. There is a kind of stick dance performed by the Jobwa, nowadays only for very special occasions.

Popular music, both from Micronesia and from other areas of the world, is played on radio stations in Micronesia. [53]

Sports

The region is home to the Micronesian Games, [55] a quadrennial international multi-sport event involving all Micronesia's countries and territories except Wake Island.

Nauru has two national sports, weightlifting and Australian rules football. [56] According to 2007 Australian Football League International Census figures, there are around 180 players in the Nauru senior competition and 500 players in the junior competition, [57] representing an overall participation rate of over 30% for the country.

Religion and mythology

Micronesian mythology comprises the traditional belief systems of the people of Micronesia. There is no single belief system in the islands of Micronesia, as each island region has its own mythological beings.

There are several significant figures and myths in the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauruan and Kiribati traditions.

See also

Related Research Articles

History of the Federated States of Micronesia

The Federated States of Micronesia are located on the Caroline Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. The history of the modern Federated States of Micronesia is one of settlement by Micronesians; colonization by Spain, Germany, and Japan; United Nations trusteeship under United States-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; and gradual independence beginning with the ratification of a sovereign constitution in 1979.

Northern Mariana Islands American-dependent insular area in the western Pacific

The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 14 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The CNMI includes the 14 northernmost islands in the Mariana Archipelago except the southernmost island of the chain, Guam, which is a separate U.S. territory. The CNMI and Guam are the westernmost point and territory of the United States.

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands United Nations trust territory in the western Pacific administered by the United States from 1947 to 1986

The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) was a United Nations trust territory in Micronesia administered by the United States from 1947 to 1994.

Pohnpei island in Micronesia

Pohnpei "upon (pohn) a stone altar (pei)" is an island of the Senyavin Islands which are part of the larger Caroline Islands group. It belongs to Pohnpei State, one of the four states in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Major population centers on Pohnpei include Palikir, the FSM's capital, and Kolonia, the capital of Pohnpei State. Pohnpei Island is the largest (334 km²), with a highest point, most populous, and most developed single island in the FSM.

Pacific Islander indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands

Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands. It is a geographic and often ethnic/racial term to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. These people speak various Austronesian languages. New Zealand has the largest concentration of Pacific Islanders in the world. However, the majority of its people are not identified as Pacific Islanders—instead during the 20th century and into the 21st century the country saw a steady stream of immigration from Polynesian countries such as Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Niue and French Polynesia.

Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia flag

The flag of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) was adopted on 30 November 1978. The blue field represents the Pacific Ocean, while the four stars represent the states in the federation: Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae and Yap.

Rongerik Atoll atoll

Rongerik Atoll or Rongdrik Atoll is a coral atoll of 17 islands in the Pacific Ocean, and is located in the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands, approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) east of Bikini Atoll. Its total land area is only 1.68 square kilometres (0.65 sq mi), but it encloses a lagoon of 144 square kilometres (56 sq mi).

Flag of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

The flag of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) consisted of a light blue field that contained six white stars centered in a circle pattern. The stars symbolized the six districts of the former trusteeship: the Marianas, the Marshall Islands, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Palau. The blue field symbolized freedom and loyalty.

Flags of Oceania Wikimedia list article

This is a gallery of national flags of Oceania.

Micronesian mythology comprises the traditional belief systems of the people of Micronesia. There is no single belief system in the islands of Micronesia, as each island region has its own mythological beings.

College of the Marshall Islands community college

The College of the Marshall Islands (CMI) is a regionally accredited autonomous community college offering associate degree programs in liberal arts and sciences, business and information technology, elementary education, and nursing. It also offers high school equivalency, community extension, student development, and certificate programs. The College primarily serves students from within the Micronesian region and is designated as the national post-secondary institution for the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), as enacted in RMI PL 1992-13, The College of the Marshall Islands Act.

The Micronesian Games are a quadrennial international multi-sport event within the Micronesian region. The Games were first held in 1969 in Saipan. The 2010 Micronesian Games were initially due to be held in Majuro, until the hosts withdrew. The 2010 Games were hosted by Palau. The Federated States of Micronesia won the bidding to host the 2014 Micronesian Games in Pohnpei State, and later won again against CNMI for the 2018 Micronesian Games to be held in Yap State.

Emelihter Kihleng is a Micronesian poet. She is the first ever Micronesian to publish a collection of poetry in the English language, and is one of few published Micronesian poets.

Rugby union in Micronesia redirects here, for other parts of Micronesia, please see rugby union in Guam, rugby union in Nauru, rugby union in the Marshall Islands and rugby union in the Northern Mariana Islands

Micronesian Pidgin is an English-based pidgin language spoken in nineteenth-century Micronesia. It may have been related to Melanesian Pidgin English, due to a number of workers from Melanesia.

The 8th Micronesian Games were held from July 20 to July 30, 2014, in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM).

Flags of country subdivisions (Oceania)

This article is a gallery of the flags of the principal subdivisions of the countries and territories of Oceania. For purposes of this article, Oceania is taken to comprise Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Bailey Olter High School

Bailey Olter High School, formerly Pohnpei Island Central School (PICS), and Pacific Islands Central School, is a senior high school in Kolonia, Pohnpei Island, Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia. As of 2018 the school, operated by the Pohnpei State Department of Education, has about 1,500 students, making it the state's largest high school. Its service area includes Kolonia, Nett, Sokehs, and U.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 Kirch 2001, p. 167.
  2. Rainbird 2004, p. 6.
  3. Kirch 2001, p. 165.
  4. "Geography". rmiembassyus.org. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013.
  5. "Bikini Atoll Reference Facts" . Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  6. "Marshall Islands". triposo.com.
  7. "Operation Crossroads: Bikini Atoll". Navy Historical Center. Department of the Navy. Archived from the original on 21 May 2000. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  8. Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Nauru". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  9. 1 2 "Background Note: Nauru". State Department Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. September 2005. Retrieved 11 May 2006.
  10. Thaman, RR; Hassall, DC. "Nauru: National Environmental Management Strategy and National Environmental Action Plan" (PDF). South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. p. 234.
  11. Chambers, Geoff (2013). "Genetics and the Origins of the Polynesians". John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0020808.pub2.
  12. Lal 2000, p. 62.
  13. Kirch 2001, p. 170.
  14. The History of Mankind Archived 27 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine by Professor Friedrich Ratzel, Book II, Section A, The Races of Oceania page 165, picture of a stick chart from the Marshall Islands. MacMillan and Co., published 1896.
  15. 1 2 3 Morgan, William N. (1988). Prehistoric Architecture in Micronesia. p. 30. ISBN   9780292786219.
  16. Tucker, Spencer (2009). "The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History". ISBN   9781851099511.
  17. Levesque, R. (Ed.) (1992–97). History of Micronesia: A collection of source documents, (Vol. 1–20). Quebec, Canada: Levesque Publications pp. 249, 251
  18. Rainbird 2004, p. 13-14.
  19. "Geological Survey Professional Paper".
  20. Rainbird 2004, p. 14.
  21. Ridgell, Reilly (1995). Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polonesia. p. 43. ISBN   9781573060011.
  22. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  23. Languages of Guam Archived 23 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Ns.gov.gu. Retrieved on 2010-11-12.
  24. Nauru. Talktalk.co.uk. Retrieved on 2010-11-12.
  25. Nauru. Travelblog.org. Retrieved on 2010-11-12.
  26. DOI Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) – Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Archived 9 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine . Doi.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-12.
  27. "Micronesians - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage". everyculture.com.
  28. Christianity in its Global Context, 1970–2020 Society, Religion, and Mission, Center for the Study of Global Christianity
  29. Kiste, Robert C.; Marshall, Mac (1999). American Anthropology in Micronesia: An Assessment. p. 1. ISBN   9780824820176.
  30. Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga. Del español al chamorro: Lenguas en contacto en el Pacífico. Madrid, 2009, Ediciones Gondo, www.edicionesgondo.com
  31. C.D. Bay-Hansen (2006). FutureFish 2001: FutureFish in Century 21: The North Pacific Fisheries Tackle Asian Markets, the Can-Am Salmon Treaty, and Micronesian Seas. Trafford Publishing. p. 277. ISBN   1-55369-293-4.
  32. Crocombe, R. G. (1 January 2007). "Asia in the Pacific Islands: Replacing the West". editorips@usp.ac.fj via Google Books.
  33. "Guam Ethnic groups - Demographics". indexmundi.com.
  34. "Northern Mariana Islands Demographics Profile 2016". indexmundi.com.
  35. "Federated States of Micronesia Ethnic groups - Demographics". indexmundi.com.
  36. "Nauru Ethnic groups - Demographics". indexmundi.com.
  37. "Palau Ethnic groups - Demographics". indexmundi.com.
  38. Morgan, William N. (1988). Prehistoric Architecture in Micronesia. p. 3. ISBN   9780292786219.
  39. Morgan, William N. (1988). Prehistoric Architecture in Micronesia. p. 2. ISBN   9780292786219.
  40. "Micronesia, 1800–1900 a.d". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2000. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.
  41. "Oceanic art", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006.
  42. "Micronesia, 1900 a.d.–present". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2000. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009.
  43. "Education Profile of Micronesia, Micronesia Education, Education in Micronesia, Universities in Micronesia, Schools in Micronesia, Micronesia Education Profile". micronesiaeducation.info. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  44. Dunford, Betty; Ridgell, Reilly (1996). Pacific neighbors : the islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bess Press. ISBN   1-57306-023-2.
  45. "UNESCO Institute for Statistics". UNESCO. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  46. "Fisheries and Maritime Institute". COM-FSM website.
  47. "Outline of the Fisheries Training Project in the Federated States of Micronesia". Japan International Cooperation Agency . Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Partner Country's Implementing Organization: Fisheries and Maritime Institute (FMI), College of Micronesia (COM)
  48. Gladwin, Thomas (1970). East Is a Big Bird. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 200. ISBN   0-674-22425-6.
  49. Woodward, David (1998). History of Cartography. University of Chicago Press. p. 470. ISBN   0-226-90728-7 . Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  50. Tamanaha, Brian Z. (1993). Understanding Law in Micronesia: An Interpretive Approach to Transplanted Law. pp. 1–2. ISBN   9004097686.
  51. Tamanaha, Brian Z. (1993). Understanding Law in Micronesia: An Interpretive Approach to Transplanted Law. p. 2. ISBN   9004097686.
  52. Regional journalists form Micronesian media group Archived 16 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Saipan Tribune, 26 September 2007
  53. 1 2 Garland Encyclopedia of World Music (2013). The Concise Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 1. Routledge. pp. 697–706. ISBN   1136095705.
  54. Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  55. "Micronesian Games begin in Palau". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1 August 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  56. "Pacific Sporting Needs Assessment" (PDF). ausport.gov.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2007.
  57. "AFL International Census 2007" (PDF). afl.com.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2011.

Bibliography

Further reading