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मध्य-पश्चिमाञ्चल विकास क्षेत्र
|Region||Mid-Western Development Region|
|Headquarters||Birendranagar, Surkhet District, Bheri Zone|
|• Total||42,378 km2 (16,362 sq mi)|
|• Density||84/km2 (220/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:45 (NPT)|
The Mid-Western Development Region (Nepali: मध्य-पश्चिमाञ्चल विकास क्षेत्र, Madhya-Pashchimānchal Bikās Kshetra) was one of the largest and formerly one of Nepal's five development regions. Westward from the Central region surrounding Kathmandu were the Western, Mid-Western and finally Far-Western regions. Counter-intuitively, Mid-Western lay west of Western.
It comprised three zones:
There were 15 districts in this region. The main rivers of this region were Karnali, Bheri, West Rapti River and Babai. Mt. Kanjiroba, Mt. Sisne and Mt. Patarasi were the main mountains of the Mid-Western Development Region. Banke National Park, Bardiya National Park, Shey Phoksundo National Park and Rara National Parks were some of the conservation areas of Mid-Western Development Region which were helping to attract more number of tourists. It occupied 29.2% of the total land of Nepal. It occupied an area of 42,378 km2
Bhutias, Brahmin, Chhetri, Magar, Tharu, Awadhi and Thakuri were the main ethnicities. They were involved in different occupations like farming, animal husbandry, tourism, and service. Ghorahi, Nepalgunj, Birendranagar were the major trade centres of Mid-Western Development Region. There were various types of industries such as steel manufacturing and a garment industry. Different types of cultural sites such as Swargadwari lied in this development region. Peoples of this development region celebrated numbers of festivals like Dashain, Tihar, Lhosar etc. They grew different types of food such as rice, maize, pulse, wheat, and paddy. Banke and Bardiya National Park, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Rara National Park, Rara Lake, Swargadwari and other sacred places were in this development region. In addition, the Gorkh , Kanti and Mukti Himal were also located in this region.
Rapti Zone was one of the fourteen zones, located in the Mid-Western Development Region of Nepal. It was named after the West Rapti River which drains Rolpa, Pyuthan and part of Dang districts. The remainder of Dang and part of Salyan district are drained by the Babai. The remainder of Salyan and all of Rukum districts are drained by the Bheri.
Ghaghara, also called Karnali is a perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar. It cuts through the Himalayas in Nepal and joins the Sharda River at Brahmaghat in India. Together they form the Ghaghara River, a major left bank tributary of the Ganges. With a length of 507 kilometres (315 mi) it is the longest river in Nepal. The total length of Ghaghara River up to its confluence with the Ganges at Revelganj in Bihar is 1,080 kilometres (670 mi). It is the largest tributary of the Ganges by volume and the second longest tributary of the Ganges by length after Yamuna.
The Terai or Tarai is a lowland region in northern India and southern Nepal that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Sivalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This lowland belt is characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, sal forests and clay rich swamps. In northern India, the Terai spreads from the Yamuna River eastward across Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. The Terai is part the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. The corresponding lowland region West Bengal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Assam in the Brahmaputra River basin is called 'Dooars'. In Nepal, the Terai stretches over 33,998.8 km2 (13,127.0 sq mi), about 23.1% of Nepal's land area, and lies at an altitude of between 67 and 300 m. The region comprises more than 50 wetlands. North of the Terai rises the Bhabar, a narrow but continuous belt of forest about 8–12 km (5.0–7.5 mi) wide.
Bheri Zone was one of the fourteen zones located in the Mid-Western Development Region of Nepal. Nepalgunj were the administrative headquarters.
Banke District (Nepali: बाँके जिल्ला
Bardiya District, one of the seventy-seven Districts of Nepal, is part of Province No. 5 of Nepal. The district, with Gulariya as its headquarters, covers an area of 2,025 km2 (782 sq mi) and according to the 2001 census the population was 382,649 in 2011 it has 426,576.
Dang District is located in Inner Terai in Province No. 5 in midwestern Nepal. The district, with Ghorahi as its headquarters, covers 2,955 km² and has a population (2011) of 548,141. Tulsipur, the second biggest city of Dang, is a transportation hub. There are numerous temples and gumbas in Dang Deukhuri district. Ghorahi is a proposed capital of Rapti Lumbini Province based on the Constitution of Nepal 2015.
Surkhet District a part of Karnali province, is one of the ten districts of Karnali located about 600 kilometres (373 mi) west of the national capital Kathmandu. The district's area is 2,488.64 square kilometres (960.87 sq mi)which is longest in Nepal. It had 288,527 population in 2001 and 350,804 in 2011 which male comprised 169,461 and female 181,381. It is the district headquarters of surkhet and commercial hub of the Karnali state of the new federal republic.
Western magar are descriptive terms invented by academic linguists and anthropologists for a nationality in the Middle Hills of mid-western Nepal inhabiting highlands extending through eastern Rukum and northern Salyan, Rolpa and Pyuthan Districts in RaptiZone as well as Dhaulagiri and Bheri Zones. They speak a complex of Tibeto-Burman distinct language called kham agar language, locally called as Kham kura.
Karnali Zone was one of the fourteen zones located in the Mid-Western Development Region of Nepal. The headquarters of Karnali Zone was Jumla.
The administrative divisions of Nepal are subnational administrative units of Nepal. The first level of country subdivisions of Nepal are the Provinces. Each province is further subdivided into districts, and each district into municipalities and rural municipalities. Before 2015, instead of provinces, Nepal was divided into developmental regions and administrative zones.
Bardiya National Park is a protected area in Nepal that was established in 1988 as Royal Bardia National Park. Covering an area of 968 km2 (374 sq mi) it is the largest and most undisturbed national park in Nepal's Terai, adjoining the eastern bank of the Karnali River and bisected by the Babai River in the Bardiya District. Its northern limits are demarcated by the crest of the Siwalik Hills. The Nepalgunj-Surkhet highway partly forms the southern boundary, but seriously disrupts the protected area. Natural boundaries to human settlements are formed in the west by the Geruwa, a branch of the Karnali River, and in the southeast by the Babai River.
Ghorahi is the seventh largest city and largest sub-metropolitan city of Nepal. The city lies in Province No. 5 in the mid-Western part of Nepal. It is the largest city of Dang Deukhuri District of southwest Nepal. Located in the Inner Terai region, it lies 413 kilometres (257 mi) south-west of Nepal's capital Kathmandu and is one of the Counter Magnets being developed as an alternative centre of growth to help ease the migration and population explosion in the Kathmandu metropolitan area. It is the largest city of the Rapti Zone and is surrounded by the Sivalik Hills to the south and Mahabharata Range to the north.
Manpur Tapara is a town and marketplace in Rajapur Municipality in Bardiya District in the Bheri Zone of south-western Nepal. The former village development committee (VDC) was merged with Daulatpur, Naya Gaun, Badalpur, Bhimapur and Rajapur VDCs to form the new municipality on 18 May 2014. It is almost at the centre of river island called Bhawara Tappu of Karnali River.
West Rapti drains Rapti Zone in Mid-Western Region, Nepal, then Awadh and Purvanchal regions of Uttar Pradesh state, India before joining the Ghaghara—a major left bank tributary of the Ganges known as the Karnali inside Nepal.
The Babai River originates in and completely drains Inner Terai Dang Valley of Mid-Western Nepal. Dang is an oval valley between the Mahabharat Range and Siwalik Hills in its eponymous district. Dang was anciently home to indigenous Tharu people and came to be ruled from India by the House of Tulsipur who also counted as one of the Baise Rajya —a confederation of 22 petty kingdoms in the Karnali (Ghagra) region. About 1760 AD all these kingdoms were annexed by the Shah Dynasty during the unification of Nepal, except Tulsipur lands south of the Siwalik Hills were not taken. Since Dang Valley was somewhat higher, cooler, better-drained and therefore less malarial than most of the country's Inner Terai, it was settled to some extent by Shah and Rana courtiers and other Paharis long before DDT was introduced to control the disease-bearing Anopheles mosquito.
Karnali Bridge, the asymmetric, single-tower, cable-stayed bridge is the second longest of its type in Nepal and was built by international collaboration. The bridge spans the Karnali River between the Kailali District and Bardiya District of western Nepal. The bridge was constructed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries of Japan and inaugurated after six years of its construction date by the late Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala.
Karnali Pradesh is one of the seven federal provinces of Nepal formed by the new constitution which was adopted on 20 September 2015. The total area of the province is 27,984 square kilometres (10,805 sq mi), making it the largest province in Nepal. According to the 2011 Nepal census, the population of the province was 1,570,418, making it the least populous province in Nepal. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Gandaki Pradesh to the east, Sudurpashchim Pradesh to the west, and Province No. 5 to the south. Birendranagar with a population of 47,914 is both the province's capital and largest city.
Former administrative units of Nepal are administrative divisions during Kingdom of Nepal. In 2008 Nepal was proclaimed a federal republic and old administrative units restricted after adoption of new constitution on 20 September 2015.
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