Mid-size car

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The mid-size Honda Accord 2018 Honda Accord 12.17.17.jpg
The mid-size Honda Accord

Mid-size—also known as intermediate—is a vehicle size class which originated in the United States and is used for cars that are larger than compact cars, but smaller than full-size cars. [1] The equivalent European category is D-segment, which is also called "large family car". Mid-size cars are manufactured in a variety of body styles, including sedans, coupes, station wagons, hatchbacks, and convertibles. Compact executive cars can also fall under the mid-size category.

Contents

History

Rambler Six "compact" car later reclassified as an "intermediate" 1957 Rambler Custom Cross-Country wagon AnnMD-b.jpg
Rambler Six "compact" car later reclassified as an "intermediate"
1986-1989 Ford Taurus Ford Taurus GL 3.0 1986 (17776854394).jpg
1986–1989 Ford Taurus

The automobile that defined this size in the United States was the Rambler Six that was introduced in 1956, although it was called a "compact" car at that time. [2] Much smaller than any standard contemporary full-size cars, it was called a compact to distinguish it from the small imported cars that were being introduced into the marketplace. [3]

By the early 1960s, the car was renamed the Rambler Classic and while it retained its basic dimensions, it was now competing with an array of new "intermediate" models from General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler. [4] The introduction of the 1962 Ford Fairlane was viewed by consumers as too close to the compact Falcon in size and performance as well as too close to the full-sized Ford models in price. [5] It was the introduction of General Motors "senior compacts" that grew the mid-size market segment as the line of cars themselves kept increasing in size. [5] By 1965, these GM "A platform" mid-size models matched the size of 1955 full-size cars. [5]

During the 1970s, the intermediate class in the U.S. was generally defined as vehicles with wheelbases between 112 inches (2,845 mm) and 118 inches (2,997 mm). Once again, the cars grew and by 1974 they were "about as large as the full-size cars of a decade or so ago ... best sellers include Ford Torino, Chevrolet Chevelle, AMC Matador, Plymouth Satellite ..." [6] The domestic manufacturers began changing the definition of "medium" as they developed new models for an evolving market place. [7]

A turning point occurred in the late 1970s, when rising fuel costs and government fuel economy regulations caused all car classes to shrink, and in many cases to blur. Automakers moved previously "full-size" nameplates to smaller platforms such as the Ford LTD II and the Plymouth Fury. [8] A comparison test by Popular Science of four intermediate sedans (the 1976 AMC Matador, Chevrolet Malibu, Ford Torino, and Dodge Coronet) predicted that these will be the "big cars of the future." [9] By 1978, General Motors made its intermediate models smaller. [10]

1994-1999 Vauxhall/Opel Omega: a British/European executive car, marketed in the U.S. as a mid-size car (Cadillac Catera) Opel Omega front 20080118.jpg
1994-1999 Vauxhall/Opel Omega: a British/European executive car, marketed in the U.S. as a mid-size car (Cadillac Catera)

New "official" size designations in the U.S. were introduced by the EPA, which defined market segments by passenger and cargo space. [12] Formerly mid-sized cars that were built on the same platform, like the AMC Matador sedan, had a combined passenger and cargo volume of 130 cubic feet (3.68 m3), and were now considered "full-size" automobiles. [13] [14]

Cars that defined the mid-size market in the 1980s and 1990s included the Chrysler K-Cars (Dodge Aries and Plymouth Reliant), the Ford Taurus, and the Toyota Camry, which was upsized into the midsize class in 1991. The Taurus and Camry came to define the mid-size market for decades.

Mid-size cars were the most popular category of cars sold in the United States, with 27.4 percent during the first half of 2012, ahead of crossovers at 19 percent. [15]

Current definition

Chevrolet Malibu 2017 Chevrolet Malibu (E2XX) front 3.25.18.jpg
Chevrolet Malibu

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year (dated July 1996) includes definitions for classes of automobiles. [16] Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, mid-size cars are defined as having an interior volume index of 110–119 cu ft (3.1–3.4 m3). [17]

See also

Related Research Articles

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American Motors Corporation American automobile company

American Motors Corporation was an American automobile manufacturing company formed by the merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company on May 1, 1954. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.

Rambler (automobile)

Rambler is an automobile brand name that was first used by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company between 1900 and 1914.

Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation, description, and categorization of cars.

Compact car Cars that are larger than a subcompact car but smaller than a mid-size car

Compact car is a vehicle size class — predominantly used in North America — that sits between subcompact cars and mid-size cars. The present-day definition is equivalent to the European C-segment or the British term "small family car". However, prior to the downsizing of the United States car industry in the 1970s and 1980s, larger vehicles with wheelbases up to 110 in (2.79 m) were considered "compact cars" in the United States.

Pony car American car classification

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AMC Ambassador Large-sized cars produced by American Motors Corporation

The Ambassador is an automobile manufactured and marketed by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1957-1974 over eight generations, in two- and four-door sedan, two-door hardtop, station wagon and convertible body styles. It was full-size from 1957 to 1961 and 1967 to 1974, and mid-size from 1962 to 1966.

Subcompact car American definition to indicate an automobile with a class size smaller than that of a compact car

Subcompact car is an American classification for cars which is broadly equivalent to the B-segment (Europe) or supermini classifications, and smaller than a compact car.

Full-size car

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AMC Hornet Compact sized cars produced by American Motors Corporation

The AMC Hornet is a compact automobile, manufactured and marketed by American Motors Corporation (AMC) in a single generation from model years 1970 through 1977 — in two- and four-door sedan, station wagon, and hatchback coupe configurations. The Hornet replaced the compact Rambler American line, marking the end of the Rambler marque in the American and Canadian markets.

AMC Matador Large-sized car model produced by American Motors Corporation

The AMC Matador is a car model line that was manufactured and marketed by American Motors Corporation (AMC) across two generations, 1971–1973 (mid-size) and 1974–1978 (full-size), in two-door hardtop and coupe versions as well as in four-door sedan and station wagon body styles.

Eagle Medallion Car model produced Renault and marketed by American Motors Corporation

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AMC Rebel Motor vehicle

The AMC Rebel is a midsized car produced by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1967 to 1970. It replaced the Rambler Classic. The Rebel was replaced by the similar AMC Matador for the 1971 model year. The Rebel was positioned as the high-volume seller in the independent automaker's line of models.

Rambler Classic Car model produced by American Motors Corporation

The Rambler Classic is an intermediate sized automobile that was built and sold by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from the 1961 to 1966 model years. The Classic took the place of the Rambler Six and Rambler Rebel V-8 names, which were retired at the end of the 1960 model year.

Nash Rambler Compact-sized cars produced by Nash Motors

The Nash Rambler is a North American automobile that was produced by the Nash Motors division of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation from 1950 to 1954 in sedan, wagon, and fixed-profile convertible body styles.

Rambler Rebel Motor vehicle

The Rambler Rebel is an automobile that was produced by the American Motors Corporation (AMC) of Kenosha, Wisconsin for the 1957–1960 model years, as well as again for 1966 and 1967.

Rambler Marlin Two-door car featuring a fastback by American Motors

The Rambler Marlin is a two-door fastback automobile produced in the United States by American Motors Corporation from 1965 to 1967. A halo car for the company, it was marketed as a personal luxury car.

Rambler Six and V8 Motor vehicle

The Rambler Six and the Rambler V8 are intermediate sized automobiles that were built and marketed by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1956 to 1960.

In the context of the automobile industry, downsizing is a practice used to transition vehicles from one size segment to another. Often done in response for consumer and government demands to increase fuel economy, vehicle downsizing has been achieved through several methods. As product lines complete model cycles, during a redesign, automobile manufacturers reduce the exterior footprint of a vehicle to allow for weight reduction, shortening wheelbase and body length.

References

  1. "'Mid-size' car definition by Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary". K Dictionaries. 2005. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  2. Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (5 September 2007). "1956-1957 Rambler". Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  3. Corporate Strategies of the Automotive Manufacturers: An historical perspective on the automobile industry. U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 1978. p. 153.
  4. Severson, Aaron (25 December 2009). "What's a Matador? The AMC Matador, Rebel, and Classic". Ate Up With Motor.
  5. 1 2 3 Flory , Jr., J. "Kelly" (2004). "Introduction". American Cars, 1960-1972: Every Model, Year by Year. McFarland. p. 8. ISBN   9780786452002 . Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  6. Shafer, Ronald. D. (1974). "What Women Should Know About Cars". Harper's Bazaar. 107: 36. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  7. Lund, Robert (March 1976). "Detroit Listening Post". Popular Mechanics. 145 (3): 14.
  8. Dunne, Jim (September 1975). "Detroit Report: an intermediate step". Popular Science. 207 (3): 40. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  9. Dunne, Jim; Hill, Ray (February 1976). "Intermediate sedans - big cars of the future". Popular Science. 208 (2): 36, 38, 44, 46.
  10. Dunne, Jim (October 1977). "GM for '78: the intermediates are smaller". Popular Science. 211 (4): 92–95.
  11. Appel, Tom (25 October 2017). "Review Flashback! 1997 Cadillac Catera". The Daily Drive: Consumer Guide.
  12. "How are vehicle size classes defined?". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  13. "1978 49-state Fuel Economy Guide". fueleconomy.gov. 10 November 1978. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  14. Dunne, Jim (June 1977). "A Sneak Preview of the '78 cars". Popular Science. 210 (6): 78. Retrieved 27 January 2019. AMC plans to offer a more luxurious Matador model to compete in the full-size market
  15. St. Antoine, Arthur (December 2012). "Comparison: 2012-2013 Midsize Sedan Comparison: Battle of the Best-Sellers". Motor Trend. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  16. "Code of Federal Regulations Sec. 600.315 - 82 Classes of comparable automobiles". U.S. Government Publishing Office. 1 July 1996. p. 733.
  17. "FAQ - How are vehicle size classes defined?". www.fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 5 January 2019.