Photograph of Mieczysław Ludwik Boruta-Spiechowicz, before 1939
|Born||20 February 1894|
|Died||13 October 1985 91) (aged|
|Years of service||1914|
|Rank||'Generał brygady' (Brigadier general)|
|Commands held||CO of Boruta Operational Group |
CO of the 1st Armoured Corps
|Battles/wars||Great War, Polish-Ukrainian War, Polish-Bolshevik War, Invasion of Poland, World War II|
|Other work||farmer, social worker|
Mieczysław Ludwik Boruta-Spiechowicz (20 February 1894, in Rzeszów – 13 October 1985, in Zakopane) was a Polish military officer, a general of the Polish Army and a notable member of the post-war anti-communist opposition in Poland.
He joined the army in 1914 and served at various posts within the Polish Legions. After Poland regained her independence in 1918 he remained in active service and took part in both the Polish-Ukrainian War and the Battle of Lwów, in which he commanded a separate defence line, and later a Lwów Infantry Regiment formed out of local volunteers. Dispatched to France, he became the commander of two regiments of the Blue Army, with which he returned to Poland in 1919. During the Polish-Bolshevik War he distinguished himself as a skilled commander of the Polish mountain infantry units, of which he formed a regiment and commanded it on various fronts of the conflict.
After the war he was sent to the Higher War School in Warsaw and received professional military training. He served at various commanding posts in a number of Polish infantry units, both standard and mountain. He was also a notable military theorist and writer of several books on the history and practice of warfare. During the Invasion of Poland he served as the commanding officer of the Boruta Operational Group , a part of the Kraków Army. Taken prisoner by the USSR, he was held in various Gulags and NKVD prisons until set free by the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement of 1941. He then joined the Anders' Polish Army in the East and became the commanding officer of the newly formed Polish 5th Infantry Division. He spent the rest of World War II as the commander of the Polish 1st Armoured Corps, combining the Polish 1st Armoured Division and the Polish Independent Parachute Brigade.
As one of the very few Polish pre-war generals to return to Communist-held Poland in 1945, he was initially accepted into the Polish Army. However, following a conflict with Karol Świerczewski he was demobilized and retired. He settled in Zakopane, where he became a farmer. He also remained an active member of the anti-communist opposition in Poland and in 1977 became one of the founding members of the ROPCiO movement.
Wilhelm Orlik-Rückemann (1894–1986) was a Polish general, military commander and one of the pioneers of armoured warfare in Poland.
General Michał Tadeusz Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski, Coat of arms of Trąby pseudonym Doktor, Stolarski, Torwid was a Polish general, founder of the resistance movement "Polish Victory Service".
The Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski took place from 18 September to 20 September 1939 near the town of Tomaszów Lubelski. It was the second largest battle of the Invasion of Poland and also the largest tank battle of the campaign. It resulted in the surrender of Army Krakow on 20 Sept. 1939.
Juliusz Zulauf was a Polish Army brigadier general. A recipient of the Virtuti Militari, he fought with distinction during World War I, the Polish-Ukrainian War, the Polish-Soviet War, and the 1939 invasion of Poland.
Brigadier General Mieczysław Makary Smorawiński (1893–1940), was a Polish military commander and officer of the Polish Army. He was one of the Polish generals identified by forensic scientists of the Katyn Commission as the victim of the Soviet Katyn massacre of 1940.
Władysław Bortnowski was a Polish historian, military commander and one of the highest ranking generals of the Polish Army. He is most famous for commanding the Pomorze Army in the Battle of Bzura during the invasion of Poland in 1939. Also notable for serving as president of the Józef Piłsudski Institute of America between 1961 and 1962.
Gen. Antoni Chruściel was a Polish military officer and a general of the Polish Army. He is best known as the de facto commander of all the armed forces of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, as well as Home Army's chief of staff.
Władysław Filipkowski was a Polish military commander and a professional officer of the Polish Army. During World War II he was the commanding officer of the Armia Krajowa units in the inspectorate of Lwów and the commander of the Lwów Uprising. For his merits he was promoted to the titular rank of generał brygady.
The 8th Infantry Division was a tactical unit of the Polish Army. It was active in the Polish-Bolshevik War, as well as during the Invasion of Poland in 1939. During World War II, the division was reformed twice as part of two distinct armed forces: once as part of the Home Army during the Warsaw Uprising and again as part of the Polish Army in the East.
Count Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski was a Polish military commander, diplomat, and politician, a general of the Austro-Hungarian Army and then the Polish Army.
Antoni Wereszczyński was a Colonel in the Polish Army.
Robert Lamezan de Salins (1869–1930), also known as Robert Graf von Lamezan-Salins, was a Polish military officer and diplomat of aristocratic descent.
Bruno Olbrycht was a soldier of the Austro-Hungarian Army and officer of the Polish Army both in the Second Polish Republic and postwar Poland. Born on 6 October 1895 in Sanok, Austrian Galicia, Olbrycht fought in Polish Legions in World War I, Polish–Ukrainian War, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland. He died on 23 March 1951 in Kraków.
Adam Jozef Aleksander Epler was a Colonel of Artillery of the Polish Army, posthumously promoted to Generał brygady. Epler had a wife Zofia and son Zbigniew.
Leopold Endel-Ragis (1894–1943) was soldier of the Polish Legions in World War I and the Austro-Hungarian Army, and colonel of infantry of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. He fought in World War I, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland, and was a member of the Home Army.
Jan Berek was a soldier of the Austro-Hungarian Army and Generał brygady of the Polish Army, who fought in World War One, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland.
Operational Group Bielsko, named after southern Polish city of Bielsko-Biała, was an Operational Group of the Polish Army which fought in the 1939 Invasion of Poland. Officially created on 23 March 1939, it belonged to Kraków Army, concentrated in southwestern corner of the Second Polish Republic. In the night of 2/3 September 1939, it was renamed into Operational Group Boruta, after General Mieczysław Boruta-Spiechowicz.
Gustaw Paszkiewicz was a soldier of the Imperial Russian Army, and officer of the Polish Army. He entered the military service in 1914, at the age of 22, fighting as Russian soldier in World War One. Paszkiewicz was a soldier until 1952.
Wladyslaw Jedrzejewski was a General of the Polish Army, who was probably murdered by the NKVD in Lwow, in March 1940. He fought in several conflicts, including World War I and the Invasion of Poland.
Tadeusz Stefan Aleksander Münnich was a soldier of the Polish Legions in World War I, and Colonel of Infantry of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. Born on August 18, 1893 in Lemberg, Austrian Galicia, he died on October 12, 1959 in London.