Miguel, Duke of Braganza

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Miguel
Miguel, Duke of Braganza.jpg
Duke of Braganza
Miguelist
Pretence14 November 1866 – 31 July 1920
Predecessor Miguel
Successor Duarte Nuno
Born(1853-09-19)19 September 1853
Kleinheubach, Bavaria
Died11 October 1927(1927-10-11) (aged 74)
Seebenstein, Austria
Spouse Princess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis
Princess Maria Theresa of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
Issue Miguel, Duke of Viseu
Prince Francisco José
Maria Teresa, Princess Karl Ludwig of Thurn and Taxis
Isabel Maria, Princess of Thurn and Taxis
Infanta Maria Benedita
Infanta Mafalda
Maria Ana, Princess Karl August of Thurn and Taxis
Infanta Maria Antónia
Infanta Filipa
Infante Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza
Infanta Maria Adelaide
House Braganza
Father Miguel I of Portugal
Mother Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Assinatura Miguel II de Braganca.svg

Miguel of Braganza (Portuguese pronunciation:  [miˈɣɛɫ] ; full name Miguel Maria Carlos Egídio Constantino Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga Francisco de Paula e de Assis Januário de Bragança; 19 September 1853 – 11 October 1927) was the Miguelist claimant to the throne of Portugal from 1866 to 1920. He used the title Duke of Braganza .

Miguelist

In the history of Portugal, a Miguelist was a supporter of the legitimacy of the king Miguel I of Portugal. The name is also given to those who supported absolutism as form of government, in opposition to the liberals who intended the establishment of a constitutional regime in Portugal.

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Duke of Braganza

The title Duke of Braganza in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal. Starting in 1640, when the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal, the male heir of the Portuguese Crown were known as Duke of Braganza, along with their style Prince of Beira or Prince of Brazil. The tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders after the establishment of the Portuguese Republic on 5 October 1910 to signify their claims to the throne.

Contents

Early life

Miguel with his first wife Princess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis, late 1870s Miguel with his wife Elisabeth.jpg
Miguel with his first wife Princess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis, late 1870s

Miguel was born in Kleinheubach Castle near Miltenberg, Kingdom of Bavaria, on 19 September 1853 during the exile in Germany of his father, former King Miguel I of Portugal and the Algarves. His mother was Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg. He was a grandson of King John VI of Portugal and the Algarves and his wife, Queen Carlota Joaquina. [1]

Miltenberg Place in Bavaria, Germany

Miltenberg is a town in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany. It is the seat of the like-named district and has a population of over 9,000.

Kingdom of Bavaria kingdom in Central Europe between 1806–1918, from January 1871 part of the German Empire

The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federal state of the new Empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1918, Bavaria became a republic, and the kingdom was thus succeeded by the current Free State of Bavaria.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

By the Portuguese law of banishment of 1834 and the constitution of 1838, King Miguel was forbidden to enter Portugal. Therefore, he was educated in Germany and Austria. [1]

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

Career

He was a member of the staff of Kaiser Franz Joseph of Austria and took part in the occupation of Bosnia. It is said that the Emperor Franz Joseph liked Miguel immensely and granted him the privilege of extraterritoriality that allowed him to remain Portuguese, despite the rejection of Portugal. His second son, Prince Francisco José of Braganza, was named after the Austrian Emperor, who was his godfather. [2]

<i>Kaiser</i> title of authority

Kaiser is the German word for "emperor". Like the Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian word Tsar, it is directly derived from the Roman emperors' title of Caesar, which in turn is derived from the personal name of a branch of the gens (clan) Julia, to which Gaius Julius Caesar, the forebear of the first imperial family, belonged. In general the german title was only used for rulers over kings (König). Although the British monarchs styled "Emperor of India" were also called Kaisar-i-Hind in Hindi and Urdu, this word, although ultimately sharing the same Latin origin, is derived from the Greek: Καῖσαρ (kaisar), not the German Kaiser.

Bosnia and Herzegovina republic in Southeast Europe

Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city.

Emperor of Austria

The Emperor of Austria was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A hereditary imperial title and office proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Charles I relinquished power in 1918.

Miguel held the rank of a colonel in the 7th Austrian Regiment of Hussars. During World War I, he held the rank of Lieutenant General (Feldmarschalleutnant) in the Austrian army. He resigned in 1917 when Portugal entered the conflict on the opposite side, and spent the rest of the war as a civilian in the Order of Malta. After the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Miguel and his family were thrown into relative poverty. [2]

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Knights Hospitaller Western Christian military order

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and St Petersburg.

On 31 July 1920, after quarrels with his eldest son (who contracted a controversial marriage to an American heiress), Miguel renounced his claims as King of Portugal in favour of his third son, Duarte Nuno, who was 13 years old at the time. [3]

Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza Portuguese prince

DomDuarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza was the claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as both the Miguelist successor of his father, Miguel, Duke of Braganza, and later as the head of the only Brigantine house, after the death of the last Legitimist Braganza, King Manuel II of Portugal. In 1952, when the Portuguese Laws of Banishment were repealed, the Duke moved his family to Portugal, thus returning the Miguelist Braganzas to their homeland and becoming the first of the former Portuguese royal dynasty to live in Portugal since the deposition of the monarchy, in 1910.

Marriages and children

Miguel was first married to Princess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis (May 28, 1860 – February 7, 1881), the niece of Empress Elisabeth of Austria, on 17 October, 1877 in Regensburg. They had three children:

After the death of his first wife, he married for a second time to his first cousin Princess Maria Theresa of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg (1870–1935), on 8 November 1893 at Kleinheubach. They had eight children:

Miguel died in Seebenstein, on October 11, 1927. He is buried at Kloster Maria Himmelfahrt in Bronnbach.

Honours

See also

Related Research Articles

House of Braganza dynasty

The Most Serene House of Braganza, or the Brigantine Dynasty, also known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza, is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin, a cadet branch of the House of Aviz.

Brazilian imperial family

The Brazilian Imperial Family is a branch of the Portuguese Royal House of Braganza that ruled the Empire of Brazil from 1822 to 1889, after the proclamation of independence by Prince Pedro of Braganza who was later acclaimed as Pedro I, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil. The members of the family are dynastic descendants of Emperor Pedro I. Claimants to headship of the post-monarchic Brazilian Imperial legacy descend from Emperor Pedro II, including the senior agnates of two branches of the House of Orléans-Braganza; the so-called Petrópolis and Vassouras lines. Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza heads the Petrópolis line, while the Vassouras branch is led by his second cousin, Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza.

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Albert, 8th Prince of Thurn and Taxis Prince of Thurn and Taxis

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Prince Miguel, Duke of Viseu Portuguese infante

Prince Miguel of Braganza, Duke of Viseu was a member of the exiled branch of the House of Braganza. The eldest son of the Miguelist pretender to the throne of Portugal he married an American heiress in 1909 and in 1920 renounced his rights to the throne. His full given names were Miguel Maria Sebastião Maximiliano Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Francisco D'Assis e de Paula Eustachio Carlos Afonso José Henrique Alberto Clemente lgnacio Martinho Antonio Gerardo Jorge Emmeric Mauricio.

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Maria Teresa of Bragança, Infanta of Portugal was a member of the House of Braganza and Infanta of Portugal by birth. Through her marriage to Prince Karl Ludwig of Thurn and Taxis, Maria Theresa was also a member of the House of Thurn and Taxis.

Infanta Maria das Neves of Portugal Portuguese Infanta

Infanta Maria das Neves of Portugal was the eldest child and daughter of exiled Miguel of Portugal and his wife Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg.

Princess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis Portuguese infanta

Princess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis

Anita de Braganza American socialite and heiress

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Archduchess Margarethe Klementine of Austria archduchess of Austria

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Isabel Maria of Bragança, Infanta of Portugal was a member of the House of Braganza and Infanta of Portugal by birth. Through her marriage to Franz Joseph, 9th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Isabel Maria was also a member of the House of Thurn and Taxis and Princess consort of Thurn and Taxis.

Maria Ana Rafaela Micaela Gabriela Lourença of Braganza, Infanta of Portugal, full Portuguese name: Maria Ana Rafaela Micaela Gabriela Lourença de Bragança, Infanta de Portugal was a member of the House of Braganza and an Infanta of Portugal by birth and the wife of Karl August, 10th Prince of Thurn and Taxis.

Princess Maria Theresa of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg Portuguese infanta

Princess Maria Theresa of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg was a Princess of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg and a member of the House of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg by birth and an Infanta of Portugal, Duchess consort of Braganza, and titular Queen consort of Portugal through her marriage to Miguel, Duke of Braganza, Miguelist claimant to the throne of Portugal from 1866 to 1920.

Princess Maria Elisabeth of Bavaria Titular pretender Empress consort of Brazil

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References

  1. 1 2 Jenks, George C. (1911). The Bookman | Monarchs in Exile. Dodd, Mead and Company. p. 273. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  2. 1 2 Hastings, Derek (2018). Nationalism in Modern Europe: Politics, Identity, and Belonging since the French Revolution. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 164. ISBN   9781474213417 . Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  3. The American Almanac, Year-book, Cyclopedia and Atlas. New York American and journal. 1902. p. 412. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  4. "MISS STEWART WEDS; HOLDS TO HER FAITH; Becomes Bride of Prince Miguel, but Has Not Entered the Catholic Church. PRINCE RETAINS RIGHTS Has Not Yielded His Place in Line of Succession to the Throne -- Royalty at the Wedding". The New York Times. 16 September 1909. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  5. The Times ( 19 June 1919), p. 11.
  6. Melville Amadeus Henry Douglas Heddle de La Caillemotte de Massue de Ruvigny Ruvigny and Raineval (9th marquis of) (1914). The Titled Nobility of Europe: An International Peerage, Or "Who's Who", of the Sovereigns, Princes and Nobles of Europe. Harrison & Sons. p. 50. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  7. Longo, James McMurtry (2007). Isabel Orleans-Bragança: The Brazilian Princess Who Freed the Slaves. McFarland. p. 287. ISBN   9780786432011 . Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  8. Limited, Europa Publications (1990). The International Who's who: 1990-91. Europa Publications Limited. p. 1585. ISBN   9780946653584 . Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  9. "MARIA DE BRAGANCA MARRIED IN AUSTRIA; Princess Becomes the Bride of Ashley Chanler, a Son of Late Explorer and Represengatlve" (PDF). The New York Times . June 15, 1934. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  10. "Duke of Braganza, Claimant to Throne, Is Dead in Portugal". The New York Times . 25 December 1976. Retrieved 1 March 2019.

Ancestry

Miguel, Duke of Braganza
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 19 September 1853 Died: 11 October 1927
Portuguese nobility
Vacant
Title last held by
John VI of Portugal
Duke of Braganza
1866–1920
Succeeded by
Duarte Nuno
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Miguel I of Portugal
 TITULAR 
King of Portugal
Miguelist line

1866–1920
Succeeded by
Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza