Miguel Miramón y Tarelo
|Substitute 29th President of Mexico |
by the Plan of Tacubaya
2 February 1859 –13 August 1860
|Preceded by||José Mariano Salas|
|Succeeded by||José Ignacio Pavón|
|Provisional President of Mexico |
by the Plan of Tacubaya
15 August 1860 –24 December 1860
|Preceded by||José Ignacio Pavón|
|Born||29 September 1832|
|Died||19 June 1867 34) (aged|
Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro Arteaga
|Cause of death||Execution (by firing squad)|
|Resting place||Panteón de San Fernando Mexico city|
|Alma mater||Heroic Military Academy (Mexico)|
Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo, known as Miguel Miramón, (29 September 1832– 19 June 1867) was a Mexican conservative general and politician. He opposed the liberal Constitution of 1857 and served as President of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president, Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party. He was one the youngest rulers and the first not born during Spanish colonial rule. He served in the imperial army during the French Intervention in Mexico and was executed with Emperor Maximilian and General Tomás Mejía by a republican army firing squad. He remains a controversial figure in Mexico, combining "military skill with political miscalculation."
Miramón was born in Mexico City into a family of partial French heritage. At the age of 15, he was taken prisoner while a cadet by the U.S. Army in the September 1847 defending on Chapultepec Castle in the Mexican–American War.
He was a staunch conservative, typical of most Mexican army officers, and a supporter of aristocracy and religious privileges ( fueros ) for the Catholic Church and the army. In 1854-55, he fought with conservative General Antonio López de Santa Anna, then President of Mexico, against liberals who overthrew him in the Revolution of Ayutla that brought liberals to power. During the administration of President Ignacio Comonfort, he played a role in the city of Puebla's resistance to the liberals in 1856, and was imprisoned in 1857 after the promulgation of the new liberal Constitution of 1857.
During the War of Reform (1858-1861), he was the principal general of the conservative army. He fought in the north and the central lowlands on the side of the conservatives, which had ousted the liberal regime of Benito Juárez, who had succeeded to the presidency of Mexico after the resignation of Comonfort. He was victorious in some early battles at Salamanca, Atentique, Ahualulco, but twice failed to take the liberal stronghold of Veracruz. He left the country after the conservative defeat, but played no part in the subsequent conservative efforts that brought Maximilian Hapsburg in the French Intervention in Mexico.Several presidents were appointed by different conservative factions. Miramón's faction eventually prevailed, and on February 2nd 1860, not yet 30 years old, he assumed the presidency in the zone controlled by the conservatives.
On 11 April 1859, Miramón ordered the execution of not only captured liberal officers but also the doctors who had treated their wounds, as well as numerous civilians deemed sympathetic to the liberal forces. Liberals had just suffered a defeat in attempting to retake the capital from the junta now headed by Miramón.As a result of this massacre, liberal General Santos Degollado ordered officers of the conservative armies shot upon capture.
Between 12 August and 15 August 1860, he left the presidency to an interim, José Ignacio Pavón. According to some sources, he also used the Mexico City police to raid the residence of the British consul (who was actively supporting the liberals) and steal 600,000 pesos to finance a conservative levy.[ citation needed ] He maintained hostilities against the liberals until he was defeated by the troops of Gen. Jesús González Ortega in San Juan del Río, Querétaro, on 22 December. Two days later, Miramón resigned and left for exile in Havana, Cuba.
While in France, he did not take part in the negotiations between the Mexican monarchists, Napoleon III and the Archduke Maximilian of Austria. [ citation needed ]When he returned to Mexico on July 28, 1863, the archduke, now crowned as Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, appointed him as Great Marshal of the Imperial Army and sent him to Berlin to study military tactics. He returned in 1866 and organized the imperial defenses against the Republicans.
On 19 February 1867, Miramón arrived at Querétaro to break the siege military against the emperor. He took charge of the infantry and sent General Tomás Mejía to take charge of the cavalry. Almost three months later, the emperor decided to capitulate against the advice of Miramón, who had been seriously wounded in action. On 19 June all three were shot for treason on the order of President Benito Juárez, the republican leader. The execution took place at the Cerro de las Campanas, in the outskirts of Querétaro.
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Events in the year 1867 in Mexico.
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The Emperor Maximilian Memorial Chapel is located on the Cerro de las Campanas in Querétaro City. It is located on the spot where Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico was executed 19 June 1867, and dedicated to his memory.
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