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|Born||6 November 1910|
São Bento do Sapucaí, Brazil
|Died||14 April 2006 95) (aged|
São Paulo, Brazil
|School||University of São Paulo|
|Law, politics, philosophy, poetry, education|
|The Three Dimensions of Law (Social Fact, Value and Legal Norm)|
Miguel Reale (6 November 1910 – 14 April 2006) was a Brazilian jurist, philosopher, academic, politician and poet known as one of the most important jurists of Brazil. He was one of the leaders of Integralism in Brazil and an ideologue of the Brazilian Integralist Action.
Reale served as Secretary of Justice for the state of São Paulo in 1947. He founded the Brazilian Institute of Philosophy in 1949 and the São Paulo-based Inter-American Society of Philosophy in 1954. He was a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Reale graduated from the Law Faculty of the University of São Paulo (1934), where he was professor (1941) and rector (1949-1950, 1969-1973). In addition, he received the title of professor emeritus of the University of São Paulo.
As a scholar, he became well known in Latin America and in Continental Europe for his works on law and philosophy.
Was a prolific writer in the legal field, having written several classic works of Brazilian philosophical and legal thought. Among his works: Philosophy of Law and Preliminary Lessons of Law.
Received notoriety when formulating the three-dimensional theory of law on which the law has three dimensions: social fact, value and legal norm. Briefly, his theory can be understood as follows: "The social fact (sociological aspect) is valued (axiological aspect) and, due to this, it produces a legal standard." Thus, the three dimensions of law come into connection through a peculiar cultural dialectic called "dialectic of polarity and implication."
In 1969 he was appointed by President Arthur da Costa e Silva for "High Level Commission" set up to review the 1967 Constitution. Resulted this work part of the text of Constitutional Amendment No. 1, dated 17 October 1969, which consolidated the military regime in Brazil.
In 2002 Reale, Ada Pellegrini Grinover, Maria Helena Diniz and Gofredo da Silva Teles Júnior actively participated in the important drafting of the Brazilian Civil Code.The project was sanctioned by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, becoming the Law 10.406/2002. He is considered the chief architect of Brazil's current Civil Code.
Miguel Reale had prominent role in the field of philosophy, occupying the following positions: Co-founder of the Brazilian Institute of Philosophy of Lisbon, Portugal. Organizing seven Brazilian Congresses of Philosophy (1950-2002) and the VIII Inter-American Congress of Philosophy (Brasilia, 1972). Special Rapporteur on the XII, XIII and XIV World Congress of Philosophy (Venice, 1958, and Mexico City, 1963, and Vienna, 1968). Lecturer specially invited by the International Federation of Philosophical Societies for the XVI and XVIII World Congress (Düsseldorf, Germany, 1978, and Brighton, UK, 1988). Organizer and president of the II Brazilian Congress of Legal and Social Philosophy (São Paulo, 1986) and the third and fourth Congresses (João Pessoa, Paraíba, 1988/1990).
The politics of Brazil take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The political and administrative organization of Brazil comprises the federal government, the 26 states and a federal district, and the municipalities.
José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva was a Brazilian statesman, naturalist, mineralist, professor and poet, born in Santos, São Paulo, then part of the Portuguese Empire. He was one of the most important mentors of Brazilian independence, and his actions were decisive for the success of Emperor Pedro I. He supported public education, was an abolitionist and suggested that a new national capital be created in Brazil's underdeveloped interior. His career as naturalist was marked by the discovery of four new minerals.
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Walter Moraes, was a Brazilian jurist, Catholic thinker, professor of the University of São Paulo Faculty of Law, judge at the High Court of São Paulo. Studied in the minor seminary of the Divine Word Missionaries. He married Sonia dos Santos Moraes in 1959, with whom he had two children. Graduated in Law and Philosophy by the University of São Paulo. He began his career as Judge in municipalities of Casa Branca, Quatá and Campos do Jordão. Pioneered many fields of juridical science in Brazil including copyright, inheritance and family law. Reformer of the Brazilian Children's code together with Prof. Antonio Chaves. Important supporter and theorist of the Brazilian pro-life movement. Spoke against legal abortion in his famous conference "The Farce of Legal Abortion", given in the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil on 24 September 1997, less than two months before his death.
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Miguel Reale Júnior is a Brazilian jurist, politician, professor and lawyer. He was professor of Criminal Law at University of São Paulo (USP) and Minister of Justice in the government of Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Reale is son of the also jurist Miguel Reale and gained notoriety in 2015 when he proposed, along with jurists Hélio Bicudo and Janaína Paschoal, an impeachment request against president Dilma Rousseff.
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Arno Wehling was born in 1947 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, son of Eugen Horst Theodor Wehling and Helena Wehling, born in Düsseldorf and Florianópolis, respectively. He is married to professor and historian Maria José Cavalleiro de Macedo Wehling, born in Belém do Pará, with whom he has published works and conducted research.
Cândido Mota Filho
| 3rd Academic of the 2nd Chair|
of the São Paulo Academy of Letters
5 October 1977–April 14, 2006
Miguel Reale Júnior