Mihkel Martna

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Mihkel Martna (17 September 1860 Veltsa parish, Paimpere – 23 May 1934 Tallinn) was an Estonian politician and journalist.

Veltsa is a village in Lääneranna Parish, Pärnu County in southwestern Estonia.

Tallinn City in Harju, Estonia

Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in Harju County. From the 13th century until 1918, the city was known as Reval. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 440,776.

Estonia Republic in Northern Europe

Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the third most spoken Finno-Ugric language.

Martna was born in Kreis Wiek in the Governorate of Estonia (in present-day Pärnu County) and studied in a local village school. Thereafter, he worked as country labourer before going to Tallinn in order to become house painter. At this period, he became acquainted with the European workers' movement, socialism and Marxism. As he was one of the first Estonians to be active in this field, he became to be called "the father of Estonian social democracy". As a young man, he was also active in Estonian national movement, publishing articles in Postimees and Sakala and collecting folklore material.

Governorate of Estonia governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia

The Governorate of Estonia or Duchy of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia. It bordered the Livonian Governorate to the south.

Pärnu County County of Estonia

Pärnu County, or Pärnumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. It is situated in south-western part of the country, on the coast of Gulf of Riga, and borders Lääne and Rapla counties to the north, Järva and Viljandi counties to the east, and Latvia to the south. In January 2013 Pärnu County had a population of 81,428 – constituting 6.3% of the total population of Estonia.

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be public, collective or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms.

Mihkel Martna disseminated socialist ideas in Tallinn, at the end 1880s he lived in Tartu and tried to influence students there. He later came into conflict with Peeter Speek and other Tartu socialists and moved back to Tallinn. Martna took part in the 1905 Russian revolution and had to live in exile from 1906 to 1917 (mostly in Switzerland, Germany, Finland).

Tartu City in Tartu County, Estonia

Tartu is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.

Student learner, or someone who attends an educational institution

A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor and who devotes time outside class to do whatever activities the instructor assigns that are necessary either for class preparation or to submit evidence of progress towards that mastery. In the broader sense, a student is anyone who applies themselves to the intensive intellectual engagement with some matter necessary to master it as part of some practical affair in which such mastery is basic or decisive.

Switzerland federal republic in Central Europe

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western, central, and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million people is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva.

At the beginning of 1918, Martna, having become familiar with the life in independent Finland, decided to support and promote Estonia's independence. He soon formed together with fellow thinkers the Estonian Socialist Workers' Party (Eesti Sotsiaaldemokraatiline Töölistepartei) and became later the leader of the party's left wing.

he Estonian Social Democratic Workers' Party was a political party in Estonia between 1917 and 1925. The party, founded on the platforms of patriotism, Estonian independence, and social justice, wrote the first Estonian constitution.

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy. It typically involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others (prioritarianism) as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished. The term left-wing can also refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system".

Martna also belonged to Estonia's foreign delegations. Together with Jaan Tõnisson and Karl Menning, Martna formed the board of the foreign delegation and he was the first representative of Estonia in Germany (1919).

Jaan Tõnisson Prime minister of Estonia

Jaan Tõnisson was an Estonian statesman, serving as the Prime Minister of Estonia twice during 1919 to 1920, as State Elder from 1927 to 1928 and in 1933, and as Foreign Minister of Estonia from 1931 to 1932.

Martna was member of the Estonian Provincial Assembly, the Estonian Constituent Assembly and Riigikogu (I to IV). 1929–1934 Martna was a vice-chairman of Riigikogu. Martna was one of the central figures in determining the political life of the Republic of Estonia, he was also a leading theoretician of the Estonian Socialist Workers' Party. In 1919 he gained Socialist Workers' International's recognition of Estonia's independence.

Riigikogu parliament of Estonia

The Riigikogu is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. All important state-related questions pass through the Riigikogu. In addition to approving legislation, the Riigikogu appoints high officials, including the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and elects the President. The Riigikogu also ratifies significant foreign treaties that impose military and proprietary obligations, bring about changes in law, etc.; approves the budget presented by the government as law and monitors the executive power.

The Second International (1889–1916), was an organisation of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on 14 July 1889. At the Paris meeting, delegations from twenty countries participated. The International continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the still-powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and unions and by 1922 April 2 at a major post-World War I conference it began to reorganise into the Labor and Socialist International.

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