Mikhail Lomonosov

Last updated

Mikhail Lomonosov
M.V. Lomonosov by L.Miropolskiy after G.C.Prenner (1787, RAN).jpg
Portrait by G. Prenner, 1787
Native name
Михайло Васильевич Ломоносов
Mikhaylo Vasilyevich Lomonosov

(1711-11-19)19 November 1711
Died15 April 1765(1765-04-15) (aged 53)
Nationality Russian
Alma mater Slavic Greek Latin Academy
St. Petersburg Academy
University of Marburg
Spouse(s)Elizabeth Christine Zilch
Scientific career
Fields Natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, philology, poetry, optics
Institutions St. Petersburg Academy
Academic advisors Christian Wolff

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov ( /ˌlɒməˈnɒsɒf/ ; [1] Russian :Михаи́л (Михáйло) Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов,IPA:  [mʲɪxɐˈil vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ləmɐˈnosəf]( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); November 19 [ O.S. November 8] 1711April 15 [ O.S. April 4] 1765) was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries were the atmosphere of Venus and the law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet and influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

Polymath person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas

A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of subject areas, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.


Early life and family

Lomonosov was born in the village of Mishaninskaya (later renamed Lomonosovo in his honor) in Archangelgorod Governorate, on an island not far from Kholmogory, in the far north of Russia. [2] His father, Vasily Dorofeyevich Lomonosov, was a prosperous peasant fisherman turned ship owner, who amassed a small fortune transporting goods from Arkhangelsk to Pustozyorsk, Solovki, Kola, and Lapland. [2] Lomonosov's mother was Vasily's first wife, a deacon's daughter, Elena Ivanovna Sivkova. [3]

Kholmogorsky District District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Kholmogorsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Kholmogorsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the oblast and borders with Pinezhsky District in the east, Vinogradovsky District in the southeast, the territory of the town of oblast significance of Mirny in the south, Plesetsky District in the southwest, and with Primorsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 16,827 square kilometers (6,497 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kholmogory. District's population: 25,061 (2010 Census); 30,797 (2002 Census); 35,891 (1989 Census). The population of Kholmogory accounts for 16.6% of the district's total population.

Lomonosovo, Arkhangelsk Oblast Selo in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Lomonosovo is a rural locality in Kholmogorskoye Rural Settlement of Kholmogorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. The population is 163 as of 2010.

Archangelgorod Governorate governorate of the Russian Empire

Archangelgorod Governorate, or the Government of Archangelgorod, was an administrative division of the Tsardom of Russia and then the Russian Empire, which existed from 1708 until 1780. Its seat was in Archangel. The governorate was located in the north of the Russian Empire and bordered Siberia Governorate in the east, Kazan Governorate in the southeast, Moscow and Ingermanland Governorates in the southwest, Sweden in the west, and Norway in north-west. In the north, the governorate was limited by the White and Barents Seas.

He remained at Denisovka until he was ten, when his father decided that he was old enough to participate in his business ventures, and Lomonosov began accompanying Vasily on trading missions. [3]

Learning was young Lomonosov's passion, however, not business. The boy's thirst for knowledge was insatiable. Lomonosov had been taught to read as a boy by his neighbor Ivan Shubny, and he spent every spare moment with his books. [3] He continued his studies with the village deacon, S.N. Sabelnikov, but for many years the only books he had access to were religious texts. When he was fourteen, Lomonosov was given copies of Meletius Smotrytsky's Modern Church Slavonic (a grammar book) and Leonty Magnitsky's Arithmetic. [4] Lomonosov was a Russian orthodox all his life, but had close encounters with Old Believers schism in early youth and later in life he became a deist. [5] [6]

Meletius Smotrytsky archbishop and writer from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Meletius Smotrytsky, né Maksym Herasymovytch Smotrytsky, Archbishop of Polotsk, was a writer, a religious and pedagogical activist of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a Ruthenian linguist whose works influenced the development of the Eastern Slavic languages. His book "Slavonic Grammar with Correct Syntax" (1619) systematized the study of Church Slavonic and, according to Vinokur, "became the standard grammar book in Russia right up till the end of the 18th century." He believed in the revival of the Orthodox religion in traditionally Slavic lands centered in the Tsardom of Russia.

Leonty Magnitsky Russian mathematician

Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky, born Telyatin, was a Russian mathematician and educator.

Old Believers

In Eastern Orthodox church history especially within Russian Orthodox Church, the Old Believers or Old Ritualists are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666. Resisting the accommodation of Russian piety to the contemporary forms of Greek Orthodox worship, these Christians were anathematized, together with their ritual, in a Synod of 1666–1667, producing a division in Eastern Europe between the Old Believers and those who followed the state church in its condemnation of the Old Rite.

In 1724, his father married for the third and final time. Lomonosov and his stepmother Irina had an acrimonious relationship. Unhappy at home and intent on obtaining a higher education, which Lomonosov could not receive in Mishaninskaya, he was determined to leave the village. [7]

Education in Moscow and Kiev

The Lomonosov house in Marburg, Germany. Lomonosov-house marburg1.jpg
The Lomonosov house in Marburg, Germany.

In 1730, at nineteen, Lomonosov went to Moscow on foot, because he was determined to "study sciences". [7] Shortly after arrival, he admitted into the Slavic Greek Latin Academy by falsely claiming to be a son of a Kholmogory nobleman. [8] In 1734 that initial falsehood as well as another lie for him to be son of a priest nearly got him expelled from the academy but the investigation ended without severe consequences. [9]

Moscow Capital city of Russia

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.

Slavic Greek Latin Academy historical academic institution

The Slavic Greek Latin Academy was the first higher education establishment in Moscow.

Lomonosov lived on three kopecks a day, eating only black bread and kvass, but he made rapid progress scholastically. [10] It is believed that in 1735, after three years in Moscow he was sent to Kiev to study for short period at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. He quickly became dissatisfied with the education he was receiving there, and returned to Moscow to resume his studies there. [10] In five years Lomonosov completed a twelve-year study course and in 1736, among 12 best graduates, was awarded a scholarship at the St. Petersburg Academy. [11] He plunged into his studies and was rewarded with a four-year grant to study abroad, in Germany, first at the University of Marburg and then in Freiberg. [12]

Education abroad

The University of Marburg was among Europe's most important universities in the mid-18th century due to the presence of the philosopher Christian Wolff, a prominent figure of the German Enlightenment. Lomonosov became one of Wolff's students while at Marburg from November 1736 to July 1739. Both philosophically and as a science administrator, this connection would be the most influential of Lomonosov's life. In 1739–1740 he studied mineralogy, metallurgy, and mining at Bergrat Johann Friedrich Henckel's  [ de ] laboratory in Freiberg, Saxony; there he intensified his studies of German literature. [13]

The most grandiose of Lomonosov's mosaics depicts the Battle of Poltava. Lomonosov Poltava 1762 1764.jpg
The most grandiose of Lomonosov's mosaics depicts the Battle of Poltava.

Lomonosov quickly mastered the German language, and in addition to philosophy, seriously studied chemistry, discovered the works of 17th century Irish theologian and natural philosopher, Robert Boyle, and even began writing poetry. He also developed an interest in German literature. He is said to have especially admired Günther. His Ode on the Taking of Khotin from the Turks, composed in 1739, attracted a great deal of attention in Saint Petersburg. [13] Contrary to his adoration for Wolff, Lomonosov went into fierce disputes with Henckel over the training and education courses he and his two compatriot students were getting in Freiberg as well as over very limited financial support which Henckel was instructed to provide to the Russians after numerous debts they made in Marburg. As the result, Lomonosov left Freiberg without permission and wandered for quite a while over Germany and Holland unsuccessfully trying to get a permission from Russian envoys to return to the St.Petersburg Academy.[ citation needed ]

During his residence in Marburg, Lomonosov boarded with Catharina Zilch, a brewer's widow. [14] He fell in love with Catharina’s daughter Elizabeth Christine Zilch. They were married in June 1740. [15] Lomonosov found it extremely difficult to maintain his growing family on the scanty and irregular allowance granted him by the Russian Academy of Sciences. As his circumstances became desperate, he resolved and got permission to return to Saint Petersburg. [13]

Return to Russia

Lomonosov returned to Russia in June 1741, after being abroad 4 years and 8 months. A year later he was named an Adjunct of the Russian Academy of Science in the physics department. [13] In May 1743, Lomonosov was accused, arrested, and held under house arrest for eight months, after he supposedly insulted various people associated with the Academy. He was released and pardoned in January 1744 after apologising to all involved. [13]

Lomonosov was made a full member of the Academy, and named Professor of chemistry, in 1745. [13] He established the Academy's first chemistry laboratory. [16] Eager to improve Russia’s educational system, in 1755, Lomonosov joined his patron Count Ivan Shuvalov in founding Moscow University. [16]

In 1760, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1764, he was elected Foreign Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna [17] In 1764, Lomonosov was appointed to the position of the State Councillor which was of Rank V in the Russian Empire's Table of Ranks. He died on 4 April (o.s.), 1765 in Saint Petersburg. He is widely and deservingly regarded as the "Father of Russian Science", [18] though many of his scientific accomplishments were relatively unknown outside Russia until long after his death and gained proper appreciation only in late 19th and, especially, in 20th centuries.


Catherine II of Russia visits Mikhail Lomonosov in 1764. 1884 painting by Ivan Feodorov. Ekaterina II and Lomonosov.jpg
Catherine II of Russia visits Mikhail Lomonosov in 1764. 1884 painting by Ivan Feodorov.

In 1756, Lomonosov tried to replicate Robert Boyle's experiment of 1673. [19] He concluded that the commonly accepted phlogiston theory was false. Anticipating the discoveries of Antoine Lavoisier, he wrote in his diary: "Today I made an experiment in hermetic glass vessels in order to determine whether the mass of metals increases from the action of pure heat. The experiments – of which I append the record in 13 pages – demonstrated that the famous Robert Boyle was deluded, for without access of air from outside the mass of the burnt metal remains the same".

That is the Law of Mass Conservation in chemical reaction, which was well-known today as "in a chemical reaction, the mass of reactants is equal to the mass of the products." Lomonosov, together with Lavoisier, is regarded as the one who discovered the law of mass conservation. [20]

He stated that all matter is composed of corpuscles – molecules that are "collections" of elements – atoms. In his dissertation "Elements of Mathematical Chemistry" (1741, unfinished), the scientist gives the following definition: "An element is a part of a body that does not consist of any other smaller and different bodies ... corpuscle is a collection of elements forming one small mass." [21] In a later study (1748), he uses term "atom" instead of "element", and "particula" (particle) or "molecule" instead of "corpuscle".

He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, contributed to the formulation of the kinetic theory of gases, and stated the idea of conservation of matter in the following words: "All changes in nature are such that inasmuch is taken from one object insomuch is added to another. So, if the amount of matter decreases in one place, it increases elsewhere. This universal law of nature embraces laws of motion as well, for an object moving others by its own force in fact imparts to another object the force it loses" (first articulated in a letter to Leonhard Euler dated 5 July 1748, rephrased and published in Lomonosov's dissertation "Reflexion on the solidity and fluidity of bodies", 1760).


Scheme of the Lomonosov-Effect during a transit of Venus. LomonossowEffekt.svg
Scheme of the Lomonosov-Effect during a transit of Venus.

Lomonosov was the first to discover and appreciate the atmosphere of Venus during his observation of the transit of Venus of 1761 in a small observatory near his house in St Petersburg. [13] [22]

In June 2012 a group of astronomers carried out experimental reconstruction of Lomonosov's discovery of Venusian atmosphere with antique refractors during the transit of Venus (5–6 June 2012). [23] They concluded that Lomonosov's telescope was fully adequate to the task of detecting the arc of light around Venus off the Sun's disc during ingress or egress if proper experimental techniques as described by Lomonosov in his 1761 paper [24] are employed. [25]

Diagrams from Mikhail Lomonosov's "The Appearance of Venus on the Sun, Observed at the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences on 26 May 1761" Lomonosov 1761German Fig.jpg
Diagrams from Mikhail Lomonosov's "The Appearance of Venus on the Sun, Observed at the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences on 26 May 1761"

In 1762, Lomonosov presented an improved design of a reflecting telescope to the Russian Academy of Sciences forum. His telescope had its primary mirror adjusted at an angle of four degrees to the telescope's axis. This made the image focus at the side of the telescope tube, where the observer could view the image with an eyepiece without blocking the image. However, this invention was not published until 1827, so this type of telescope has become associated with a similar design by William Herschel, the Herschelian telescope. [26]

Chemist and geologist

In 1759, with his collaborator, academician Joseph Adam Braun, Lomonosov was the first person to record the freezing of mercury and to carry out initial experiments with it. [27] Believing that nature is subject to regular and continuous evolution, he demonstrated the organic origin of soil, peat, coal, petroleum and amber. In 1745, he published a catalogue of over 3,000 minerals, and in 1760, he explained the formation of icebergs. [13]

In 1763, he published On The Strata of the Earth – his most significant geological work. [28]


Lomonosov's observation of iceberg formation led into his pioneering work in geography. Lomonosov got close to the theory of continental drift, [29] theoretically predicted the existence of Antarctica (he argued that icebergs of the South Ocean could be formed only on a dry land covered with ice), [30] and invented sea tools which made writing and calculating directions and distances easier. In 1764, he organized an expedition (led by Admiral Vasili Chichagov) to find the Northeast Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by sailing along the northern coast of Siberia. [13]


Grave of Lomonosov in Lazarevskoe Cemetery, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Saint Petersburg Lomonosov Grave.jpg
Grave of Lomonosov in Lazarevskoe Cemetery, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Saint Petersburg

Lomonosov was proud to restore the ancient art of mosaics. In 1754, in his letter to Leonhard Euler, he wrote that his three years of experiments on the effects of chemistry of minerals on their colour led to his deep involvement in the mosaic art. In 1763, he set up a glass factory that produced the first stained glass mosaics outside of Italy. There were forty mosaics attributed to Lomonosov, with only twenty-four surviving to the present day. Among the best is the portrait of Peter the Great and the Battle of Poltava, measuring 4.8 by 6.4 metres (16 ft × 21 ft). [31] [32] [33]

Grammarian, poet, historian

In 1755 Lomonosov wrote a grammar that reformed the Russian literary language by combining Old Church Slavonic with the vernacular tongue. To further his literary theories, he wrote more than 20 solemn ceremonial odes, notably the Evening Meditation on the God's Grandeur. He applied an idiosyncratic theory to his later poems – tender subjects needed words containing the front vowel sounds E, I, Y and U, whereas things that may cause fear (like "anger", "envy", "pain" and "sorrow") needed words with back vowel sounds O, U and Y. That was a version of what is now called sound symbolism.

In 1760 Lomonosov published a History of Russia. [34] [35] In addition, he attempted to write a grand epic about Peter the Great, to be based on the Aeneid by Vergil, but he died before he could finish it. [36]


1992 Russian gold coin 5217-0001-reverse.png
1992 Russian gold coin

His granddaughter Sophia Konstantinova (1769–1844) married Russian military hero and statesman General Nikolay Raevsky. His great-granddaughter was Princess Maria (Raevskaya) Volkonskaya, the wife of the Decembrist Prince Sergei Volkonsky. [37]

The city of Lomonosov, Russia (former Oranienbaum, Russia from 1710–1948), and a lunar crater bear his name, as does a crater on Mars and the asteroid 1379 Lomonosowa. The Imperial Porcelain Factory, Saint Petersburg was renamed after him from 1925 to 2005. In 1948, the underwater Lomonosov Ridge in the Arctic Ocean was named in his honor.  Moscow State University was renamed '’M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University'’ in his honor in 1940.[ citation needed ]

The Lomonosov Gold Medal was established in 1959 and is awarded annually by the Russian Academy of Sciences to a Russian and a foreign scientist.[ citation needed ]

Lomonosovskaya Station on the Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro is named after him. It was opened in 1970.

The street "Lomonosova iela" in the Maskavas Forštate district of Riga is named in honor of Lomonosov. During the Soviet era a main street in Tallinn, Estonia, was named in his honor as "Lomonossovi M.", but from 1991 it was renamed Gonsiori after Jakob Johann Gonsior, a 19th-century alderman and lawyer. [38]

The Akademik Lomonosov , the first of a series of Russian floating nuclear power stations, is named for him. It is expected to be operational at Pevek, Chukotka in September 2019. [39] [40]


English translations
German translations

See also

Related Research Articles

Lomonosov Gold Medal award

The Lomonosov Gold Medal, named after Russian scientist and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov, is awarded each year since 1959 for outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities by the USSR Academy of Sciences and later the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). Since 1967, two medals are awarded annually: one to a Russian and one to a foreign scientist. It is the Academy's highest accolade.

Alexander Prokhorov Soviet and Russian physicist

Alexander Mikhailovich Prokhorov was an Australian-born Russian physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.

Moscow State University university in Moscow, Russia

Moscow State University is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia. It was founded on 23 January [O.S. 12 January] 1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov. MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was then known as Lomonosov University. It also houses the tallest educational building in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy. According to the 2018 QS World University Rankings, it is the highest-ranking Russian educational institution and is widely considered the most prestigious university in the former Soviet Union.

Lomonosov may refer to:

Transit of Venus astronomical transit of Venus across the Sun

A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against the solar disk. During a transit, Venus can be seen from Earth as a small black dot moving across the face of the Sun. The duration of such transits is usually several hours. A transit is similar to a solar eclipse by the Moon. While the diameter of Venus is more than three times that of the Moon, Venus appears smaller, and travels more slowly across the face of the Sun, because it is much farther away from Earth.

2012 transit of Venus transit of Venus across the Sun visible from Earth on 5-6 June 2012

The 2012 transit of Venus, when the planet Venus appeared as a small, dark spot passing across the face of the Sun, began at 22:09 UTC on 5 June 2012, and finished at 04:49 UTC on 6 June. Depending on the position of the observer, the exact times varied by up to ±7 minutes. Transits of Venus are among the rarest of predictable celestial phenomena and occur in pairs. Consecutive transits per pair are spaced 8 years apart, and consecutive pairs occur more than a century apart: The previous transit of Venus took place on 8 June 2004 ; the next pair of transits will occur on 10–11 December 2117 and in December 2125.

Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov Russian physicist

Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov (Russian: Серге́й Ива́нович Вави́лов was a Soviet physicist, the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences from July 1945 until his death. His elder brother Nikolai Vavilov was a famous Russian geneticist.

Georg Wilhelm Richmann Russian physicist

Georg Wilhelm Richmann, was a Baltic German physicist. He proved that thunder clouds contain electric charge.

Dmitry Ivanovich Vinogradov Russian inventor

Dmitry Ivanovich Vinogradov was a Russian chemist who developed Russian hard-paste porcelain; he was the founder of the Imperial Porcelain Factory.

<i>Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti</i>

The Vedomosti was the first newspaper printed in Russia. It was established by Peter the Great's ukase dated 16 December 1702. The first issue appeared on 2 January 1703.

Georgy Golitsyn Russian physicist

Georgy Sergeyevich Golitsyn is a prominent Russian scientist in the field of Atmospheric Physics, full member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR since 1987, Editor-in-Chief of Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, ISSN 0001-4338, member of the Academia Europaea since 2000. 1990-2009 - Director of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS, Moscow, Russia. He is a member of the princely house of Golitsyn. His father is the Russian writer Sergei Mikhailovich Golitsyn.

Gury Marchuk Russian mathematician

Gury Ivanovich Marchuk was a prominent Soviet and Russian scientist in the fields of computational mathematics, and physics of atmosphere. Academician ; the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1986–1991. Among his notable prizes are the USSR State Prize (1979), Demidov Prize (2004), Lomonosov Gold Medal (2004).

Vladimir Chekalov Russian artist

Vladimir Fedorovich Chekalov was a Russian Soviet realist painter and art teacher, who lived and worked in Leningrad. He was a member of the Leningrad Union of Artists, and regarded as a representative of the Leningrad school of painting, most famous for his battle and genre paintings.

The year 1952 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.

The year 1951 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.

The year 1968 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.

The year 1939 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian fine arts.

Stepan Rumovsky Russian mathematician

Stepan Yakovlevich Rumovsky was a Russian astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the first Russian astronomer of renown.

Mikhailo Lomonosov (satellite) Russian artificial satellite launched in 2016

Mikhailo Lomonosov is an astronomical satellite of Moscow State University (MSU) named after Mikhail Lomonosov.

Vladimir M. Lipunov

Vladimir M. Lipunov is a Soviet and Russian astrophysicist, Professor of the Moscow State University, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (1991), a member of the International Astronomical Union (1993) and the European Astronomical Society (1993). He is also a science fiction writer under the pseudonym Vladimir Khlumov and a member of the Union of Russian Writers.



  1. "Lomonosov". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  2. 1 2 Menshutkin 1952, p. 11.
  3. 1 2 3 Menshutkin 1952, p. 12.
  4. Menshutkin 1952, p. 13.
  5. Galina Evgenʹevna Pavlova; Aleksandr Sergeevich Fedorov (1980). Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov: his life and work. Mir. p. 161. The atheistic direction of Lomonosov's scientific and artistic creativity was not always consistent. His world outlook, just as that of many other representatives of the age of enlightenment, possessed elements of deism according to which God, having created the universe, assumed no control over its development which was governed by the laws of nature. Lomonosov's deism was no chance factor. As Karl Marx aptly put it, deism was the most convenient and easiest way for many materialists of the 17th-18th centuries to abandon religion.
  6. Andrew Kahn (2008). Pushkin's Lyric Intelligence. Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN   9780191552939. No atheistic conclusions spring from 'The Orb of Day has Set' to reverse Lomonosov's deism, but the poem still intrudes a painful gap between man and nature.
  7. 1 2 Menshutkin 1952, p. 15.
  8. Menshutkin 1952, p. 16.
  9. Menshutkin 1952, p. 20.
  10. 1 2 Menshutkin 1952, p. 17.
  11. Menshutkin 1952, p. 23.
  12. Menshutkin 1952, p. 24.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Menshutkin 1952.
  14. Pavlova, Galina E., and Fedorov, Aleksandr S. Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov: His Life and Work (English Translation). Mir: Moscow, 1980.
  15. Pavlova, Galina E., and Fedorov, Aleksandr S. Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov: His Life and Work (English Translation). Mir: Moscow, 1980. ISBN   0-8285-2895-0, ISBN   978-0-8285-2895-5
  16. 1 2 Cornwell, Neil and Christian, Nicole. Reference Guide to Russian Literature, p. 514. Taylor & Francis: London, 1998
  17. R. Crease and V. Shiltsev, "Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765): Scientist in Politically Turbulent Times" in Il Nuovo Saggiatore, vol. 33, issue 5–6 (2017), pp. 43–56 https://www.ilnuovosaggiatore.sif.it/issue/54 Archived 30 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  18. V. Shiltsev, "Mikhail Lomonosov and the dawn of Russian science", Physics Today (February 2012), vol. 65, http://physicstoday.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/PT.3.1438
  19. Menshutkin 1952, p. 120.
  20. Pomper, Philip (October 1962). "Lomonosov and the Discovery of the Law of the Conservation of Matter in Chemical Transformations". Ambix. 10 (3): 119–127. doi:10.1179/amb.1962.10.3.119.
  21. Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasil'evich (1959). Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov on the Corpuscular Theory. Translated by Leicester, Henry M. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 56–57.
  22. Shiltsev, Vladimir (March 2014). "The 1761 Discovery of Venus' Atmosphere: Lomonosov and Others". Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage . 17 (1): 85–112. Bibcode:2014JAHH...17...85S.
  23. A.Koukarine, et al., "Experimental Reconstruction of Lomonosov's Discovery of Venus's Atmosphere with Antique Refractors During the 2012 Transit of Venus" (2012)
  24. V. Shiltsev, "Lomonosov's Discovery of Venus Atmosphere in 1761: English Translation of Original Publication with Commentaries" (2012)
  25. V. Shiltsev, I. Nesterenko, and R. Rosenfeld, "Replicating the discovery of Venus's atmosphere", Physics Today, Feb. 2013 / Volume 66, Issue 2, p. 64 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 July 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  26. "On an optic pipe improvement" – Lomonosov M.V. Selected works in two volumes. Volume I: Natural sciences and philosophy. Moscow: Nauka (Science) publishing house, 1986 (in Russian). Name in Russian: «Об усовершенствовании зрительных труб» – М.В. Ломоносов. Избранные произведения. В двух томах. Т. 1. Естественные науки и философия. М.: Наука. 1986
  27. Lomonosov M.V. Meditations on Solidity and Fluidity of Bodies (1760) / translation and commentary by Vladimir Shiltsev (2018); https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.00909
  28. Lomonosov M.V. On the strata of the Earth: a translation of "O sloiakh zemnykh" / translated by S.M. Rowland, S. Korolev. Boulder: Geological Soc. of America, 2012. 41 p. (Special paper; 485)
  29. Life and Death of Alfred Wegener Archived 11 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine by Alexey Fedorchuk (in Russian)
  30. Eduard Belcher Prediction of Antarctica by Lomonosov [ permanent dead link ]  (in Russian)
  31. Elena Lavrenova. "Lomonosov biography". Foxdesign.ru. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  32. "М.В. Ломоносов: к 300-летию со дня рождения". narfu.ru. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  33. "М.А. Безбородое М.В. Ломоносов. Фабрика В Усть-Рудицах". Grokhovs1.chat.ru. 5 December 2001. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  34. A Chronological Abridgement of the Russian History, by Michail Lomonosov
  35. hist.msu.ru
  36. Alex Preminger, Terry V.F. Brogan. The New Princeton encyclopedia of poetry and poetics. MJF Books, 1993. (originally from the Pennsylvania State University), p. 1104
  37. Sutherland, Christine (1984). The Princess of Siberia: The Story of Maria Volkonsky and the Decembrist Exiles. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN   978-0-374-23727-1.
  38. Hamilton, Simon. "A Rambling Dictionary of Tallinn Street Names". Archived from the original on 26 June 2011.
  39. Russian floating nuclear power station undergoes mooring tests, NuclearPowerDaily.com, 7 July 2016, accessed 25 July 2016.
  40. "Work starts on on-shore infrastructure for Russian floating plant". World Nuclear News. Retrieved 4 January 2019.


Further reading